The Anonymous Widower

Crossrail Extension To Gravesend

A possible Crossrail Extension to Gravesend has been safeguarded, although  because Crossrail doesn’t call at St. Pancras for Eurostar, I feel that extending Crossrail to Ebbsfleet International station to catch Continental trains there, would be part of any extension to Gravesend.

This Google Map shows both Ebbsfleet International and Gravesend stations.

Ebbsfleet International And Gravesend Stations

Ebbsfleet International And Gravesend Stations

Ebbsfleet International is to the West and Gravesend is to the East.

There would have to be some major construction work, but it would probably be feasible.

However this Google Map of Gravesend Station shows a serious problem.

Gravesend Station

Gravesend Station

As can be seen, it is a very cramped site. These pictures show the station.

I doubt any extension to Gravesend will terminate at Gravesend station.

There is a page on the Crossrail web site, which is entitled Safeguarding. This is said.

An additional extension from Abbey Wood to Gravesend and Hoo Junction, has been safeguarded however there are no current plans to extend the railway beyond the route currently identified.

This is a Google Map of the Hoo Junction area to the East of Gravesend.

Hoo Junction

Hoo Junction

Currently, it is occupied by a freight yard. It certainly could be used as the terminus, but it is about ten kilometres East of Ebbsfleet International station.

So could a train on the North Kent Line that runs from the current Crossrail terminus at Abbey Wood to Gravesend, do a detour to Ebbsfleet International?

This Google Map shows the lines in the Ebbsfleet International area.

Lines Around Ebbsfleet

Lines Around Ebbsfleet

The North Kent Line starts in the top left at Swanscombe station passes and to the bottom right through Northfleet station.

On a quick look, I think it would be possible to create a station at Ebbsfleet Interchange with good interchange between Crossrail and Continental services.

One problem to sort out would be the level of services through Abbey Wood, that continue on to Ebbsfleet International and Gravesend.



December 1, 2015 Posted by | Travel | , , , | Leave a comment

Changing At New Cross

If you get an East London Line Class 378 train and want to continue your journey South from New Cross station, you often just walk across the platform to catch your next train.

The pictures show how I changed at New Cross for St. John’s station.

There is no problem going South but coming North, you have to climb over the bridge from platforms A or B to get to platform D. The walk is step free, but modern station layouts would be designed, so that you walk across between trains or wait on the platform for a few minutes, until your train arrives.

In an ideal world Northbound East London Line services would start from Platform A, with Platform B being reserved for services to Cannon Street.

New Cross Gate station uses a layout with the East London Line trains calling at the outermost platforms.

This would not be possible at present with the trains terminating at New Cross in Platform D, as they have no means to get to Platform A, without reversing out and crossing the busy lines through the station.

But if the East London Line trains terminated South of New Cross, this would not be a problem.

The service frequency from New Cross to Dalston Junction would still be the same as now, but there would be differences.

  • Passengers joining the railway at New Cross wanting to use the East London Line to go North would have to cross the step-free footbridge, just as passengers for Cannon Street do now.
  • Usually, because the Northbound East London Line train is waiting, you can sit and wait in a warm train, rather than on a draughty platform.
  • Passengers from St. John’s, Lewisham and other stations in the South might avoid at least one change of train, by using East London Line trains.

Remember too, that from 2019, Crossrail will run through Whitechapel, giving better access to the West End, Paddington. Heathrow and East London. Charing Cross and Cannon Street aren’t exactly connected well to Crossrail. This will surely see a lot of passengers going between New Cross and Whitechapel.

November 27, 2015 Posted by | Travel | , , , , | 1 Comment

Whitechapel Station – Steelwork Against The Sky

I took these pictures of the structures above the East London Line at Whitechapel station, as it is being rebuilt for Crossrail.

I do hope that when the station is completed, that a lot of the roof is clear to let in the natural light.

This image from the Crossrail page for Witechapel station gives hope.


I once wrote Is Whitechapel Station Going To Be The Jewel In The East?

We’ll see in a couple of years!

November 21, 2015 Posted by | Travel | , , , | Leave a comment

Crossrail Works Around Pudding Mill Lane Station

I took these pictures as I went through the area on a TfL Rail train to Shenfield and then later, when I took a DLR train!

The Crossrail tunnel portal is now recognisable as two holes leading into the ground.

They appear to be building something over the top of the tunnel just before it goes under the water and on into London. Could this be a ventilation shaft?

November 18, 2015 Posted by | Travel | , , , , | Leave a comment

Crossrail 2 October 2015 – Shoreditch Park Area

This is Crossrail 2’s map of their possible worksites in the Shoreditch Park area. It comes from this Crossrail 2 document entitled Crossrail 2 Shafts.

Crossrail 2 Shoreditch Park

Crossrail 2 Shoreditch Park


Note that the Worksites are labelled A to E.

To show them in more detail, this is a Google Map of the same area.

A Google Map Of The Area

A Google Map Of The Area

Crossrail 2 have said this about the choice of work site.

A single worksite would be required to build and equip the shaft and the junction.

We are currently considering a number of options for the shaft in the area. Our current options have been selected because they would allow us to position the possible ‘Eastern Branch’ junction under the open space of Shoreditch Park.

Bear in mind that Crossrail 2 tunnels will be twenty or so metres down, so positioning the junction, which could be noisy, as trains rattle over the points, under a park some fifty metres and more from any dwellings, could be a good idea. Crossrail 2 wouldn’t want a repeat of the Victoria Line noise problems at Walthamstow

If we assume that one work site is what they’d like to do, I don’t feel that they would use more than two. The sites are as follows.

  • Sites A and B to the West are commercial storage.
  • Site C is the North-West corner of the Park
  • Sites D and E are in the Britannia Leisure Centre.

The sites D and E are on the Hackney branch of the line, so unless that line is built in Phase 1, I doubt that they will be used.

If they are, knocking down and rebuilding leisure centres or commercial premises is a lot less costly and inconvenient, than demolishing houses or flats.

I don’t know what Crossrail 2 will do, but I visited the Crossrail site at Stepney City Farm, which is over a massive junction on Crossrail, so is very similar to Shoreditch Park.

I found a very good relationship existing between all parties. There certainly hasn’t been any bad reports about the Stepney City Farm site on the web.

This report is from the East London Advertiser.

Crossrail 2 will cause themselves a lot of problems, if they don’t do as well as Crossrail!

I took these pictures as I walked from the Britannia Leisure Centre through Shoreditch Park to Eagle Wharf Road. At the end of Eagle Wharf Road, I crossed the Regent’s Canal and looked at the building in Eagle Wharf Road from the towpath.

I can’t see any obvious reason, why the Leisure Centre would be used for Crossrail 2, as neither of the commercial buildings in Eagle Wharf Road are of the finest quality and given Crossrail’s treatment of Mile End Park, there would appear no reason the corner of the Park can’t be used.

One of the great advantages of the Park, would be that if you need to bring in some really heavy equipment, you’d just remove the iron railings and roll it through the gap.

Under current plans, there would appear to be no reason to extract or insert a tunnel boring machine in the Shoreditch area.

But choosing the Park would allow this to be done if required.

There is also the problem of a head-house.

It might be difficult to provide one in the Park, but evacuating into a large park from a problem in the tunel might be very safe.

Head houses on the sites in Eagle Wharf Road could even be built into any new buildings on the site.

Architecture and engineering design is moving on apace and who knows what will be possible when Crossrail 2 is built?

October 28, 2015 Posted by | Travel | , , , | 1 Comment

Whitechapel Station – 26th October 2015

The floors are going in at Whitechapel station.

It does seem that progress is being made.

October 26, 2015 Posted by | Travel | , | Leave a comment

Why I’ll Be Voting For Zac For London Mayor!

Zac Goldsmith is standing for London Mayor next year, as is reported in this article on the BBC.

He has the same catchy type of name as the previous two London Borkens and he’s certainly of the independent breed that Borken had.

He certainly would not be a party hack doing their leader in Westminster’s bidding.

People will say he’s another rich Tory toff from Eton and Cambridge and use it as a term of abuse. At least he was expelled from Eton for smoking cannabis, so there’s no troubles on that score.

But how many Prime Ministers or Party Leaders in the last few years haven’t been to the top public schools?

I do have this feeling that if I knew him, we would agree on many policies.

I like to think, I’m scientifically green, which means that on many environmental issues, I’m totally in disagreement with the Green Party, as I take an independent line.  We could start with the Severn Barrage, fracking and onshore wind power!

Zac used to edit The Ecologist.

These are my views on some of the big issues of the election.


I feel very strongly as does Zac and Sadiq Khan, that housing is an important issue in this election, if not the most important one.

Landlord, Properties and Tenant Registers

I think there  should be a London-wide landlord and properties register, that should be available to Councils, letting agencies and prospective tenants. Obviously, the register would have to be properly managed, but if I was renting, I’d like to know who was the ultimate owner of my property.

I think that most landlords, knowing that their tenants, would know who they were, would ensure that they obeyed the law and kept the property to the agreed standards.

I also think that a lot of rogue landlords would either give up renting properties or mend their ways.

Wales has introduced  a scheme, so I suspect London wouldn’t have to start from scratch.

What has annoyed me about the rental market in recent years, has been the number of tenants, who used to rent my house from the previous owner, who left owing money to utility companies and others. One bailiff told me, he had seven judgements against one tenant.

If landlords have to be registered, surely the same should apply to tenants!

I’m sure that London could draw on the best practice from other major cities and countries in the world, to find a nice balance between landlords and tenants.


I very much object to people, be they UK-residents or overseas investors, buying property and leaving it empty, whilst the property goes up in value.

Houses and flats are for living in!

Surely we can find some taxation or other method, that means the highest proportion of housing is used to provide shelter.

Under-Occupied Houses

I’m probably in that category, as I have a three-bedroom house with a garage, that can’t be worth far off seven figures.

I think though if we had adequate housing stock at all levels, I might be persuaded to move.

It is probably wrong that those who live in houses like mine get a discount on Council Tax.

I doubt any politician will encourage those living in large houses to move into something more appropriate.

But I’ve believed for many years, that by getting Inheritance and other taxes right, that a lot of housin stock could be freed up for either rebuilding or refurbishment.

More Housing

I don’t believe that we’re being as creative as we might be, in building more housing, which must be part of the solution to London’s housing problems.

Railway Land And Stations

Politicians talk about using surplus land around the many railways of the capital. They are probably right, but how many of the current stations, sit on large plots, where no attempt has been made to use the space above.

My three nearest stations show the extremes.

  • Dalston Junction was rebuilt a few years ago to be a modern four platform station, with flats, a plaza and a bus interchange above the platforms.
  • Dalston Kingsland is a cramped station that was opened in the 1980s and has two platforms either side of the cutting, where the tracks pass. No-one would be sad if the station was rebuilt, where the station was larger and housing or some other useful building was built on top, so effectively putting the railway in a tunnel.
  • Highbury and Islington is a 1960s monstrosity created out of the mess that the Second World War left of an iconic station. At present the bridge outside the station is being revuilt and I hope they rebuild the station to one of which the whole area can be proud.

A few months ago, I met a property developer on the train. He was actively looking at station sites for residential developments, that would also include a rebuilt modern station. He said that flats over a station were easy to sell! Especially, as these days many properties in London are built without car parking.

Shopping Centres, Hospitals And Other Public Buildings

Often we build these on sites that would be ideal for housing.

Surely, the housing should have priority.

As I get older, I worry more about my health and visiting hospitals. I’m lucky here, in that the three nearest hospitals are easily accessed from my house by public transport.

But so many hospitals all over the country have poor access by public transport. Not all have access as good as Nottingham’s Queen’s Medical Centre, where the tram stop is built into the hospital at first floor level.

If Islington needed a new hospital, which it doesn’t, why shouldn’t it be built in a tower over Highbury and Islington station? It would have the superb transport links, I believe a hospital needs.

Incidentally, I think hospitals should be in towers with good views, as that certainly made my stay in hospital in Hong Kong more enjoyable, as I could look out on the cityscape.

Planning Rules

The planning rules and the building regulations need a good sorting out.

Things that have annoyed me over the years have included.

  • The time it has taken to get planning permission for something quite simple.
  •  Building regulations being different in two parts of Suffolk.
  • Over-zealous council planning officers being more restrictive than wildlife and historic building experts.
  • People getting buildings passed by the council because of the right connections.
  • Some councils objecting to building methods, that are approved by other councils.

Matters might be eased if the same rules and regulations applied in all London boroughs.

As a simple example of that, a builder told me that the terrace houses he builds with a traditional appearance to blend in with existing Victorian houses, but a revolutionary construction method as they are partly built in a factory, are accepted by Hackney, but not all the other boroughs.

Air Pollution And Traffic Congestion

These linked issues will be a major issue in the Mayoral election, especially after the Jokeswagen scandal.

But I feel that all candidates will offer a vaguely similar set of policies.

I suspect that Zak will go for a very strong set of regulations, that will bring in the controversial Ultra Low Emissions Zone and possibly methods to reduce the number of vehicles entering the city centre.

This will bring a lot of protest from the haulage industry and other drivers, but many of the older vehicles that cross the city are a disgrace in other ways as well. I’d love to see a full analysis of all the vehicles and their owners involved in accidents and stopped by the authorities.

Buses, taxis, mini-cabs and delivery vehicles and cars registered in the city, must have a schedule to go further towards zero-emission, especially in the centre.

I would add the following.

  • The banning of all rail  locomotives like Class 66 locomotives from all rail lines inside the M25. This would probably be possible, once the Gospel Oak to Barking, the Dudding Hill and a few other lines are electrified.
  • Although not specifically connected to pollution, I would pedestrianise Oxford Street, once Crossrail opens.
  • Other schemes like this would mean that pedestrians could avoid the worst pollution.
  • Restriction of tourist buses in the centre.

It is going to be very tricky to get pollution and traffic congestion down and some of the measures that must be taken will be controversial and unpopular.

Buses In The Centre

I use buses in the centre a lot, but sometimes I think there are too many in places like in Oxford Street and around St.Paul’s, which add significantly to the congestion.

London’s bus system also tends to duplicate itself in the centre.

As an example, I have two bus routes within a hundred metres that go to Victoria through the centre.

There would be protests, but surely some bus routes shouldn’t go across the centre and should be cut back.

Once Crossrail opens, I think there should be a major review to see if the numbers of buses in the centre could be reduced.

Taxis And Mini-cabs In The Centre

I rarely use taxis and I only ever use two booked mini-cabs at Christmas.

Boris has tried to get powers for the Mayor, so that mini-cabs could be limited.

In some ways, this will happen, as if the roads get more congested, passengers who know the city well, will walk or use the Underground and Crossrail.

So taxis and mini-cabs will be restricted by the laws of supply and demand.

Deliveries In The Centre

This is a particular irritant that bugs me in one place, where every day about eleven a Tesco truck blocks the bus lane, whilst it delivers goods. Once it took my bus thirty minutes to pass.

I appreciate the problems of deliveries at night, but there are some shops and supermarkets in the city centre that do not have a proper delivery bay, so are constantly blocking the traffic.

Those that don’t have a reserved delivery bay should pay for the privilege to hold up traffic.

Intelligent Congestion Charging

This would be very controversial, but I believe it will be introduced some time in the near future, not in just London, but all over the UK.

Every vehicle that travels in the city, would need to be fitted with a device that records and transmits position. Journeys would then be charged automatically, according to the time and congestion.

It could even be a smart phone app, linked to a particular vehicle.

Money raised would be used to fund public transport projects like Crossrail 2.

The trouble is that any politician not against this type of device, wouldn’t win the election.

Crossrail 2

Crossrail and Thameslink will have a tremendous effects on London.

  • Many important and popular journeys will be much easier and quicker.
  • Traffic congestion in the centre should be eased.
  • The taxi and mini-cab drivers will see a lot of their lucrative trips to Heathrow disappear.
  • Increased pedestrianisation and more cycling and walking will happen between Marble Arch and Holborn.
  • Bus routes will be simplified to take account of new journey patterns.

I don’t think many realise the changes Crossrail and Thameslink will make in London.

But the biggest change will be an increased call from Londoners for the building of Crossrail 2.

So I would not vote for any politician, who was against Crossrail 2.

I doubt any of the Mayoral candidates, except joke ones, will be against the second Crossrail line.

Heathrow Expansion

Zac is against it, as are most other candidates and Boris.

  • I am not specifically against it, but feel that other developments will in the end will make major expansion of runway capacity in the South East unnecessary.
  • Crossrail and Thameslink will make London one massive transport interchange, with better links between all London airports and high speed rail.
  • Manchester and to a certain extent Birmingham airports will increasingly remove the need for passengers going to and from North of London, to travel to Heathrow and Gatwick.
  • As Cross-Channel rail services develop into more of Europe, travellers will rediscover the advantages of trains.

It will be interesting to see how air travel in the South East develops. But in the end, I feel that we’ll see a privately-funded offshore airport somewhere in the Thames Estuary, built in co-operation with the French, Belgians and the Dutch. Everybody in this part of the world has problems with airports.

New Stations, Transport Interchanges And Electrification

Life is so much easier, if you can get easily to a good transport interchange like Canning Town, Canada Water or Moorgate, where buses and the Underground meet.

We need more stations with good interchange to other modes of transport.

I know that Transport for London has a list of stations, they’d like to develop and these should not just become modern multi-mod  transport interchanges but housing and other developments in their own right.

We must apply solutions to London’s problems that improve more than one area.

London only has three major rail lines that cross the centre that are not electrified.

All should be electrified.

The Gospel Oak to Barking was a forgotten route for years, but extending it to Barking Riverside and electrification will improve its profile and generate traffic.

The Dudding Hill Line is an interesting line, as it is a mainly freight route that goes through some of the poorer and more troubled parts of the capital.

Chiltern is a relatively-undeveloped commuter route close to London and would undoubtedly benefit from electrification as this would increase speed and capacity.

I do wonder if these lines should not be physically electrified, but given electric trains using battery technology like the Aventra IPEMU.

These trains could run on the Gospel Oak to Barking and Dudding Hill Lines tomorrow, if the trains were available.

So why not spend the money on the stations and the trains now, and do the full electrification gradually in the next decade or so?

I think it is true to say, that most candidates support this type of transport policy.







October 4, 2015 Posted by | Travel, Uncategorized | , , , , | Leave a comment

A Walk From Plumstead To Abbey Wood

I went to look at the Crossrail program at the short length of surface line, that connects London’s new railway to Abbey Wood.

I was able to cross the railway three times and it will soon be four, when the new footbridge close to the station is completed. This Google Map shows the are of the walk.

Plumstead Abbey Wood

Plumstead Abbey Wood

Plumstead station is to the left (West) and Abbey Wood is to the right (East)

October 2, 2015 Posted by | Travel | , | Leave a comment

Crossrail Are Uphill Excavating Again

In Coal Mining In Whitechapel, I described how the Crossrail contractors were using a technique called uphill excavation to connect the Crossrail tunnels to the existing Whitechapel station above.

In this document on the Crossrail web site, the company describes how the technique is being used again to connect the running tunnels to the Broadgate ticket hall above. This is said about the methods used.

This excavation will be carried out using an innovative method of uphill excavation. Traditional uphill excavation is considered unsafe due to the risk of excavated material falling onto the excavator and operatives, however the BBMV team realised that the ability to excavate upwards from existing tunnels at the base of the escalator shaft would generate significant time and cost savings. In response BBMV introduced a bespoke uphill excavator that is suspended from the ceiling of the construction tunnel and advances in line with the tunnel progression. A walkway along the side of the excavator provides the engineer with a safe working area and emergency egress for the operator. Once this excavation of this escalator shaft is complete we will begin to construct an access passage that will lead passengers from the Ticket Hall into the station tunnels, in early 2016.

There is also the first published picture I’ve found of an uphill excavator.

BBMV's Uphill Excavator

BBMV’s Uphill Excavator

I think we’ll find in the coming years that uphill excavation will be increasingly used in the construction of railways and other tunnels underneath towns and cities.

I’m sure, Crossrail 2 will use the technique to create stations at Angel, Chelsea and Tottenham Court Road. The biggest advantage is that it will silence the Militant Wing of the heritage lobby and all the luvvies, who are against London getting a better public transport system.

I also think, that we could build underground stations for HS2 at Euston, Birmingham, Manchester and Leeds, and use the technique to provide link tunnels to the existing stations above.

October 2, 2015 Posted by | Travel | , , , | Leave a comment

Platforms 11 and 12 At Stratford

In December this year, an service hourly service called STAR will be started between Stratford and Angel Road along the Temple Mills Branch of the Lea Valley Lines via Lea Bridge, Tottenham Hale and Northumberland Park stations. Wikipedia says this about services to and from the Angel Road station.

Angel Road is only served by a number of trains every weekday to and from Stratford. No services operate at the station on weekends or public holidays. However, from December 2015 Angel Road will receive an hourly service to Stratford that will start here and vice versa, the service will be known as (STAR).

STAR services will obviously call at the new Lea Bridge station, when it opens next year.

I shall probably use the service occasionally, when I need to get home from Stratford, as Lea Bridge station is on the 56 bus route that passes by my house.

At Stratford, there are two platforms that have been positioned to give easy access to the Temple Mills Branch through Lea Bridge and Tottenham Hale and onwards to Stansted Airport. I took these pictures of the platforms.

They sit at the end of the two London Overground platforms, which are the Eastern terminus of the North London Line. You can see two Class 378 trains peeking out from underneath the rusty bridge. (Not my name, but an East London nickname, I’ve heard from locals and station staff!) This Google Map shows the layout of the platforms.

Stratford Platforms 11 And 12

Stratford Platforms 11 And 12

In the map, platforms 11 and 12 curve away to the North from underneath the rusty bridge, which connects Eastfield to Stratford town centre.

Platform 11 is the Easternmost platform and is used as the terminus of the Stratford to Bishops Stortford service, which has been rumoured many would like extended to Stansted.

Platforms 1 and 2 for the North London Line are connected to the unused Platform 12, by a simple walkway, so in the future if Platform 12 is used for the STAR services, passengers going from anywhere on the North London Line to Tottenham Hale or Angel Road would just have an easy interchange.

As the STAR service will initially be an hourly service and the Bishops Stortford service is half-hourly and they run from platforms connected by a subway, I can’t help feeling that this will be an arrangement that won’t last long, before it is improved.

Suppose you arrive at Stratford wanting to get home to your house near Lea Bridge station and just miss the hourly train. Do you wait an hour for another train or catch the Bishops Stortford train, that will probably stop at Lea Bridge, after the new station opens?

It would be so much easier, if the two local services started from an shared island platform or at lest two platforms with a level walk between them.

This is going to get very complicated, if some of the plans for Stratford services up the Lea Valley are implemented.

  • I’ve read several times, that reinstatement of the link to Stansted Airport is an aspiration of many, especially as Stratford is close to the Olympic Park and it is an important rail interchange and a terminus for two branches of the DLR and the Jubilee and North London Lines.
  • There are also aspirations to start a direct service between the Chingford branch and Stratford using the reinstated Hall Farm Curve.
  • With all of the housing, business and leisure developments along the lower Lea Valley, it will not be long before an hourly STAR service is inadequate.
  • If the Hall Farm Curve is reinstated, would there be a need to run services between the Chingford branch and the North London Line?
  • There is also the Crossrail effect, which in the Lea Valley’s case could not be just Crossrail, but Crossrail 2 if that ever gets built.
  • Perhaps unlikely now, but I feel that at some point the Dalston Eastern Curve will be reopened, so enabling services between say Walthamstow to South London.
  • Is there a need to better connect Stratford International station to the main regional complex?

I can’t help feeling that the layout of Platforms 11 and 12 will at some time not be able to handle all the Lea Valley services.

I suspect though there may be an innovative solution.

Look at the Google Map and you see that the Temple Mills Branch passes over the deep hole of the International station. I wrote Is This The Most Unwelcoming Station In The UK? about that dreadful station.

So could two or three bay platforms to serve the Lea Valley and Stansted Airport, be built alongside the Temple Mills Branch, as it passes over the International station?

This Google Map shows Stratford International station.

Stratford International Station

Stratford International Station

The building at the bottom right is also shown on the previous map that shows Platforms 11 and 12.

If the extra platforms were built over the Eastern end of the International station, it would enable the following.

  • A new Eastern entrance to the International station could be created to give better connections between International and High Speed services from Stratford International and all the other services at Stratford Regional station.
  • Crossrail would have a step-free interchange to Eurostar and other International services, if those services stopped at the International station.
  • Interchange between Lea Valley and North London Line services, would be via a double Clapham Kiss, where passengers would just walk on the level to the other set of platforms.
  • There might be opportunities to extend or improve the connectivity of the DLR. The current DLR station is at the top left of the map.
  • Any direct services between the Temple Mills Branch and the North London Line would use the existing Platforms 11 and 12.

To get the connection right, the pedestrian links would have to be well-designed, but surely there is space to put a travelator effectively between the Regional and International stations.

Stratford International station would end up as what it should be, the International section of Stratford station.





September 21, 2015 Posted by | Travel | , , , , , , , | 1 Comment


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