The Anonymous Widower

By Class 345 Train To Shenfield

This morning, I took one of Crossrail’s Class 345 train between Liverpool Street and Shenfield.

Even these initial trains, which are a couple of cars short of a full train, are a long walk from end-to-end.

I actually followed the driver, who was changing ends, by walking along the platform.

Two school parties of young children had arrived on the train, and she took time out from her walk, to chat to a couple of teachers and some of the children.

If you look at the second and last pictures, you’ll notice a door on the side of the cab. But the driver left and entered the train through the passenger compartment. In the last picture another driver is entering the train.He was perhaps taking over the train.

So it does seem, that drivers are happy to enter and leave the train, via the passenger compartment, which it appears they will be doing in the New Tube for London.

July 9, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , | Leave a comment

A Detailed Layout Drawing For A Class 345 Train

Someone has requested this using a Freedom of Information request.

Click to access the detailed layout drawing for a Class 345 train.

The formation of a Class 345 train is as follows.

DMS+PMS+MS1+MS3+TS(W)+MS3+MS2+PMS+DMS

Note.

  1. Eight cars have motors and only one doesn’t.
  2. The train is composed of two identical half-trains, which are separated by the TS(W) car.
  3. There are four wheelchair spaces in the TS(W) car.

There is also other information on the drawing.

  • 454 seated passengers.
  • 1046 standing passengers calculated using a density of 4.025/m² of available floor standing area.
  • 4 wheelchair spaces.
  • 1500 passengers total
  • 51 priority spaces compliant with PRM-TSI
  • Trailer car length is 22,500 mm.
  • Driver car length is 23,615 mm.
  • Train length is 203,380 over mm. body ends.

There’s more information, based on what I read off the end of a train in Weight And Dimensions Of A Class 345 Train.

I estimated the weight of a nine car train to be 328.40 tonnes.

Kinetic Energy Of A Full Class 345 Train

I will assume the following

Train weight is 328.4 tonnes.

It is jam-packed with 1,500 passengers, with an average weight of 90 Kg. with their baggage.

Passenger weight is 13.50 tonnes

This gives a total train weight of 341.9

Calculating the kinetic energy for various speeds gives.

30 mph – 8.5 kWh

50 mph – 23.7 kWh

75 mph – 53.4 kWh

90 mph – 76.9 kWh

I used Omni’s Kinetic Energy Calculator.

Currently, the cost of a kWh of electricity is about fifteen pence to domestic customers, so accelerate a full Class 345 train to 90 mph, costs at that rate around £11.50.

The Deep Resource web site gives various conversion factors.

  • A kilogram of coal can be converted into 8.1 kWh.
  • A litre of diesel can be converted into 10 kWh.
  • A kilogram of hydrogen can be converted into 33.6 kWh.

It’s so easy to do these calculations today, as you can find little calculators and information all over the Internet.

 

 

July 1, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , | Leave a comment

A First Ride In A Nine-Car Class 345 Train

This morning, I had a first ride in a nine-car or full length Class 345 train.

I just took it between Paddington and Hayes & Harlington stations and back again.

The overall impression, is how much longer they seem, than the seven-car version currently working between Liverpool Street and Shenfield.

May 22, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , , | Leave a comment

Transport for London’s New Rail Line

Today, Transport for London have taken over Heathrow Connect, in preparation for the full Crossrail.

The service is now run by TfL Rail, just like the Liverpool Street to Shenfield service in the East of London.

It’s even shown on some of the new Underground maps.

I photographed this map at Kings Cross St. Pancras.

Note the double blue line, which indicates the new route of the former Heathrow Connect, running from Paddington in the top-right corner of the map to Heathrow Terminal 4 towards the bottom-left.

The intermediate stations shown are.

Note that TfL use Heathrow Terminal 2 & 3 for the main railway station at Heathrow and Wikipedia uses Heathrow Central.

A Trip To Heathrow From Paddington

This morning, I checked into the new TfL Rail service at Paddington, using my Freedom Pass and took the 09:11 service to Heathrow Airport.

I got out at Heathrow Terminal 2 & 3 station before returning later on another TfL Rail service to Paddington.

I took these pictures on the route.

Note that the Class 360 trains are still running on the route, as there are operational issues with Crossrail’s new Class 345 trains in the tunnel to Heathrow.

Contactless Card/Oyster To Heathrow

TfL Rail also accepts contactless card or Oyster on this route.

According to TfL’s Single Fare Finder, the single fare is £10.20 in the Peak and £10.10 in the Off-Peak.

But,I’m not sure about railcards, the affect of capping or the price if you buy the ticket on line.

Freedom Passes To Heathrow

As I’d used my Freedom Pass, the two journeys cost me a big fat nothing!

It won’t be long before the many Freedom Pass holders, will realise, that Heathrow will be in their free travel area by a comfortable train and they will possibly use it more often, than the Piccadilly Line.

TfL Rail Service Frequency

Currently, the frequency between Paddington and Heathrow is two trains per hour (tph).

Provisional service details are shown under Services in the Wikipedia entry for Crossrail, when the line opens fully in December 2019.

  • Four tph between Abbey Wood and Heathrow Terminal 4 stations
  • Two tph between Abbey Wood and Heathrow Terminal 5 stations

All services will call at the following stations.

  • All stations between Abbey Wood and Paddington stations.
  • Ealing Broadway station
  • Heathrow Terminal 2 & 3 station.

Plans for stopping at Acton Main Line, West Ealing, Hanwell, Southall and Hayes & Harlington stations are yet to be decided.

I suspect that TfL would like all Heathrow trains to stop at all intermediate stations, just as services do between Liverpool Street and Shenfield, in the East of London.

But Great Western Railway may have other ideas!

Speaking for myself, I’d like to see four tph on the TfL Rail route between Paddington and Heathrow, as soon as possible.

The Future Of The Class 360 Trains

When Crossrail sort out the Class 345 trains, the five sets of five-car Class 360 trains will be surplus to requirements.

They will also be joined in the sidings in a couple of years, by twenty-one similar four car trains, that are being replaced with new Class 720 trains, by Greater Anglia.

As they are modern 100 mph trains, they should find a home somewhere!

They could even be exported to Thailand, where a similar fleet operates.

 

 

 

May 20, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Calculating Kinetic And Potential Energies

I used to be able to do this and convert the units, manually and easily, but now I use web calculators.

Kinetic Energy Calculation

I use this kinetic energy calculator from omni.

Suppose you have a nine-car Crossrail Class 345 train.

  • It will weigh 328.40 tonnes, according to my detective work in Weight And Dimensions Of A Class 345 Train.
  • There will be 1,500 passengers at 90 Kg. each or 135 tonnes.
  • So there is a total weight of  463.4 yonnes.
  • The train has a maximum speed of 90 mph.

Put this in the calculator and a full train going at maximum speed has a kinetic energy of 104.184 kWh.

The lithium-ion battery in a typical hybrid bus, like a New Routemaster has a capacity of 75 kWh.

So if a full Class 345 train, were to brake from maximum speed using regenerative braking, the energy generated by the traction motors could be stored in just two bus-sized batteries.

This stored energy can then be used to restart the train or power it iin an emergency.

Out of curiosity, these figures apply to an Inter City 125.

  • Locomotive weight – 2 x 70.25 tonnes
  • Carriage weight – 8 x 34 tonnes.
  • Train weight – 412.5 tonnes
  • Passengers – appromiximately 700 = 63 tonnes
  • Speed – 125 mph

This gives a kinetic energy of 206.22 kWh

And then there’s Eurostar’s original Class 373 trains.

  • Weight- 752 tonnes
  • Speed 300 kph

This gives a kinetic energy of 725 kWh.

If a 75 kWh battery were to be put in each of the twenty cars, this would be more than adequate to handle all the regenerative braking energy for the train.

There would probably be enough stored energy in the batteries for a train to extricate itself from the Channel Tunnel in the case of a complete power failure.

Potential Energy Calculation

I use this potential energy calcultor from omni.

Suppose you have the typical cartoon scene, where a ten tonne weight is dropped on a poor mouse from perhaps five metres.

The energy of the weight is just 0.136 kWh.

I’ve used kWhs for the answers as these are easily visualised. One kWh is the energy used by a one-bar electric fire in an hour.

February 9, 2018 Posted by | World | , , , | Leave a comment

Weight And Dimensions Of A Class 345 Train

If you look at the Wikipedia entry for a Class 345 train, dimensions and weight are rather sketchy.

  • Train length is given as 205 metres.
  • Train width is given as 2780 milli-metres, with a note saying a citation is needed.
  • Train weight is given as less than 350 tonnes.

These would be for a full nine-car train.

This picture shows the identification plate on the end of an MS1 car in the current seven-car train.

These figures can be read.

  • MS1 car weight is given as 36.47 tonnes
  • MS1 car length is given as 22.50 metres
  • MS1 car with is given as 2.78 metres.
  • MS1 car seats are given as 52
  • Train maximum speed is given as 90 mph
  • Train weight is given as 255.46 tonnes.
  • Train length is given as 159.74 metres.
  • Train width is given as 2.78 metres.
  • Train seats are given as 350.

Note.

  1. It’s all clearly there in white-on-black.
  2. The Wikipedia figure for car width is correct.
  3. The Wikipedia figure for maximum speed is correct.
  4. I was also able to read the plate on a PMS car, which gave a weight of 37.12 tonnes.

So can I deduce the figures for a full nine-car train, which have two extra cars.

I did find this snippet on the Internet which gives the formation of the nine-car trains.

When operating as nine-car trains, the Class 345 trains will have two Driving Motor Standard Opens (DMSO), two Pantograph Motor Standard Opens (PMSO), four Motor Standard Opens (MSO) and one Trailer Standard Open (TSO). They will be formed as DMSO+PMSO+MSO+MSO+TSO+MSO+MSO+PMSO+DMSO.

The snippet has a date of August 13th, 2016, so it could be out of date.

But is compares well with the current seven-car trains which appear to have a formation something like.

  • Driver-motor car
  • Pantograph car
  • Motor car
  • Trailer car
  • Motor car
  • Pantograph car
  • Driver-motor car

So to convert from a seven to a nine-car train two motor cars are added.

Nine-Car Train Length

This would appear to be 159.74 + 22.50 +22.50 = 204.74 metres.

That would agree with Wikipedia’s figure of 205 metres.

Nine-Car Train Weight

This would appear to be 255.46 +36.47 + 36.47 = 328.40 tonnes.

That would agree with Wikipedia’s figure of less than 350 tonnes.

Details Of The Driver Motor Car

Once I have these details, I’ll have everything I need.

 

 

 

 

 

January 28, 2018 Posted by | Travel | | 3 Comments

Underneath A Class 345 Train

I was at Shenfield station on Friday waiting for a train to Rayleigh.

Opposite was a Class 345 train waiting to return to London.

As the lighting was just right, I took a few pictures.

There’s some complicated gear underneath.

January 28, 2018 Posted by | Travel | | Leave a comment

Big On The Inside And The Same Size On The Outside

This morning, I took a ride in one of London Overground’s Class 378 trains to Shoreditch High Street station, so that I could have Leon’s version of a Full English Breakfast and a real mug of tea, in their restaurant in Spitalfields. And all for £5.25!

Afterwards, I walked the short distance to Liverpool Street station and took one of Crossrail’s new Class 345 trains to Stratford station.

As the Class 345 train was more or less empty, I was able to take these pictures of the inside.

Several design features are noticeable.

  • The wide flat floor
  • The walk-through design of the train.
  • The wide aisle in the centre.
  • The seats cantilevered from the side of the train.
  • The heating under the seats.
  • The spacious lobbies.
  • The large windows.
  • The way the body sides bulge outwards to create more width at just below shoulder height.

The design seems to create more room for passengers and because of the wide aisle and large windows, the room might even look more spacious than it actually is.

It is certainly a more pleasing train to ride in, than the Class 378 train, I rode ealier, which is very much one of the better trains from the previous generation.

Later I rode on one of Thameslink’s Class 700 trains.

  • The lobbies are wide.
  • Seats obscure the view, as they are not aligned with the windows.
  • The heating takes up space along the side of the train.

But as the sides of the train don’t seem to be so curved, the aisle between the seats seems to be narrower. A lady wheeling a case between the seats would have hit people, if anybody had been sitting in the seats.

I should ride in a full Aventra in the Peak and see if my everybody appears to have more space. I did later!

On the 19th of December, I rode from Romford to Liverpool Street in an Aventra during the morning Peak.

  • The train was perhaps three-quarters full.
  • For some parts of the journey, all seats were taken, but the standees didn’t seem to have too much trouble standing in the smooth-riding train.
  • Only a few were strap-hanging and several were using the backs of seats for support.

It did seem to be a better experuience than other commuter trains.

Others ideas and consequences have emerged in recent months.

Aventras Have Underfloor Heating

The Greater Anglia Class 720 trains have underfloor heating as I detailed in Aventras Have Underfloor Heating.

Underfloor heating would appear to release space for passengers. Especially when it is coupled with seats cantilevered from the sides of the train.

Aventras Have No Doors Between Cars

Tthis article on Global Rail News, which is entitled First look around Greater Anglia’s Bombardier Aventra mock-up, says this.

There will be no doors separating vehicles.

There is just a wide lobby, where the cars are joined together.

This shows the join in a Class 345 train.

Regularly in busy times on London Overground’s Class 378 trains or London Underground’s S Stock, similar areas are full with people.hanging on to the vertical handles or wheelie cases.

It’s a design that seems to work well and again it makes more space available for passengers.

Aventras Can Have 2+3 Seating

This picture shows the inside of Greater Anglia’s Aventra mockup.

Could the 2+3 seating be wider and more comfortable, as Aventras seem to be wider inside at shoulder height, due to the innovative body design?

Note the power sockets in the front of the seats.

Aventra Car Length And Number of Cars Is Flexible

The first two fleets of Aventras ordered had different length cars and different number of cars.

Orders have now been placed for trains with twenty and twenty-two metre length cars and three, four, five, seven, nine and ten cars.

It also seems that it is very simple to change train length by adding and removing cars as required.

Greater Anglia

Greater Anglia have stated that they are ordering ten-car Aventras with similar train lengths to twelve-car sets of their current rolling stock.

Lengths and passenger capacity are given as follows in Wikipedia.

  • Ten-car Class 720 – 243 metres – 1,145 seats
  • Twelve-car Class 321 – 239.4 metres – 927 seats
  • Twelve-car Class 360 – 244.08 metres – 840 seats

This looks like an over thirty percent increase in seats in a train around the same length, with the following advantages

  • Little if any expensive platform extensions. Especially at Liverpool Street station.
  • Trains will fit existing depots and sidings.
  • Nearly all trains will be fixed formations.

The only disadvantage is that Greater Anglia won’t be providing any First Class seats. Judging by the lack of complaints, few seem to be bothered.

But being less complicated, it would probably be a more affordable train to run and maintain.

In this Greater Anglia example, another factor helps.

The Aventra will only have two cabs, whereas three Class 321 or Class 360 trains will have six.So the length released by four cabs is available for passengers.

c2c

It would appear that the c2c order, where ten-car Aventras replace twelve-car Electrostars, is another application of the same philosophy, that was used by Greater Anglia.

This is an extract from c2c’s Press Release.

The Aventra is one of the fastest-selling trains in the UK rail industry, and these new trains will be manufactured at Bombardier’s factory in Derby. Each new train, which will operate in a fixed set of 10-carriages, will include over 900 seats, plus air-conditioning, wifi, plug sockets and three toilets onboard. Each new carriage is larger and contains more seats than on c2c’s current trains, so each 10-carriage new train provides capacity for 15% more passengers onboard compared to a current 12-carriage c2c train.

So three x four-car trains working as a twelve-car train are replaced by one ten-car train, just as with Greater Anglia. Note the claimed fifteen percent capacity increase!

West Midlands Trains

West Midlands Trains have ordered three sets of Aventras.

  1. 16 x five-car 110 mph trains for long-distance services.
  2. 29 x five-car 110 mph trains for electrified suburban services.
  3. 36 x three car 90 mph trains for Redditch to Lichfield Trent Valley.

Consider.

  • Fleet 1 will probably be used to augment the Class 350 trains in pairs on long distance services.
  • Could these work in pairs that split and join en route to save paths into Euston?
  • Fleet 3 will be direct replacements for the Class 323 trains and will probably work in pairs.
  • Would a five-car train have a similar capacity to two three-car trains working as a pair?
  • Would some of the five-car trains in Fleet 2 be fitted with diesel powere-packs or batteries, so they could run services on lines without electrification?

West Midlands Trains must have a plan, or there will be a large number of trains sitting in sidings.

Conclusion

It looks to me like Bombardier have designed a train, where more passengers can be accommodated, without sacrificing passenger comfort.

December 18, 2017 Posted by | Travel | , , , , | 2 Comments

How Much Energy Does A Crossrail Class 345 Train Use?

I will start with the Crossrail Rolling Stock Technical Fact Sheet, which dates from 2012.

The Class 345 trains were built to this specification.

This is said about the power required.

Energy efficiency of 24 KWh per train kilometre (equivalent of 55g CO2 per passenger kilometre)

So what does this mean now that trains are running and trains will have been designed and probably accepted to this specification.

Assuming, that trains will be nine-car when completed, 24 KWh per train per kiometre translates into 2.67 KWh per car per kiometre or 3.29 KWh per car per mile.

Ian Walmsley’s Train Energy Usage Figure

In an article in the October 2017 Edition of Modern Railways, which is entitled Celling England By The Pound, Ian Walmsley says this in relation to trains running on the Uckfield Branch.

A modern EMU needs between 3 and 5 kWh per vehicle mile for this sort of service.

My calculated value is in line with this figure, as the Uckfield Branch is not that different to some of the Crossrail branches.

What Is The Kinetic Energy Of A Crossrail Train?

I ask this question to show the energy values involved.

If I take a nine-car Class 345 train, this has a mass of less than 350 tonnes and a maximum speed of 145 kph.

1500 passengers at 80 kg each works out at another 120 tonnes.

So for this crude estimate I’ll use 450 tonnes for the mass of a loaded train.

This gives the train an energy of 365 megajoules or 101 KWh.

This amount of energy is only a couple of KWh larger than the largest battery size of a Tessla Model S car.

It leads to the conclusion, that batteries could be large enough to store the regenerative energy generated by the train, when it stops.

How Far Could A Crossrail Train Run On Batteries?

If the batteries were sized for the regenerative braking, then a battery of 100 KWh would probably be sufficient in most circumstances.

Using Crossrail’s figure of 24 KWh per train per kiometres, gives a convenient range of four kiometres, which is probably in excess of the largest distance between stations.

But Crossrail trains are effectively two half-trains with two pantographs.

So perhaps they will be fitted with two batteries!

The battery capacity would be arranged to give the desired amount of emergency power.

Conclusion

There’s a lot more to learn about these Crossrail trains.

 

November 16, 2017 Posted by | Travel | , , | 1 Comment

Will Crossrail Go Up The West Coast Main Line?

This report on the BBC from August 2014, is entitled Crossrail Extension To Hertfordshire Being Considered.

This is the opening paragraph.

Proposals to extend Crossrail to Hertfordshire are being considered by the government, Transport Secretary Patrick McLoughlin has announced.

But then in August 2016, the proposal was cancelled as being poor value for money.

The Wikipedia entry for Crossrail has a section called To the West Coast Main Line, under Extensions.

This is said.

Network Rail’s July 2011 London & South East Route Utilisation Strategy (RUS) recommended diverting West Coast Main Line (WCML) services from stations between London and Milton Keynes Central away from Euston, to Crossrail via Old Oak Common, to free up capacity at Euston for High Speed 2. This would provide a direct service from the WCML to the Shenfield, Canary Wharf and Abbey Wood, release London Underground capacity at Euston, make better use of Crossrail’s capacity west of Paddington, and improve access to Heathrow Airport from the north. Under this scheme, all Crossrail trains would continue west of Paddington, instead of some of them terminating there. They would serve Heathrow Airport (10 tph), stations to Maidenhead and Reading (6 tph), and stations to Milton Keynes Central (8 tph)

That sounds all very sensible. So why was the scheme cancelled?

I will look at various factors to see if I can get an idea!

Current Local Services To Milton Keynes

London Midland currently runs five trains per hour (tph) between Euston and Milton Keynes Central stations using Class 350 trains capable of 110 mph.

The new operator; West Midlands Trains will replace these trains with 110 mph Aventras.

Note that both these trains have to be capable of running at 110 mph, as this is necessary for efficient operation of the West Coast Main Line.

Crossrail Local Services To Milton Keynes

Crossrail’s Class 345 trains are only capable of 90 mph running, but then again, West Midlans Trains will have Aventras capable of 110 mph.

So for a start, the current Crossrail trains would be unable to work services to Milton Keynes in an efficient manner.

I would estimate around twenty trains  would have to be updated for 110 mph running to provide eight tph.

An Upgrade Of Milton Keynes Central Station

With a fast eight tph running to and from Central London, the nature of the train services at Milton Keynes would change dramatically.

How many of Virgin’s passengers to and from the North would prefer to change to a local train at Milton Keynes, rather than lug heavy baggage on the Underground?

HS2 would have an unexpected competitor.

ERTMS On The West Coast Main Line

Would ERTMS need to be installed on the West Coast Main Line to accommodate al these trains?

This will probably happen soon anyway, but Crossrail to Milton Keynes could bring it forward.

Connecting Crossrail To The West Coast Main Line

Look at this map from carto.map.free.fr, which shows the lines in the Old Oak Common area.

Note.

  • The West Coast Main Line is the multi-track railway towards the top of the map.
  • The Great Western Main Line is the multi-track railway towards the bottom of the map.
  • The Slow Lines on both main lines are on the Northern side of the tracks.
  • The Old Oak Common station will be on the Great Western Main Line, just to the West of the North Pole Depot.

This all means that a flyover or a tunnel must be built to connect the two pairs of Slow Lines. It’s not simple!

This Google Map of the area illustrates the problem.

Note.

  • The Great Western Main Line going across the bottom of the map.
  • The North Pole Depot alongside the Great Western Main Line.
  • The Dudding Hill Line and the West London Line at the Western side of the map.
  • Crossrail’s newly-built depot is the large grey rectangular building.
  • There’s also some housing to the North-West of Crossrail’s Depot

I doubt that a flyover could pass over all that.

But a tunnel starting at the surely soon-to-be-redundant Heathrow Express Depot , that turned North-West would be a possibility.

A tunnel could emerge to the North-West of Harlesden station.

This Google Map shows that area.

Note.

  • The silver building in the top-left corner is the Princess Royal Distribution Centre.
  • The West Coast Main Line runs diagonally across the map.
  • The Dudding Hill Line runs up the Eastern side of the map.

I suspect that space for a tunnel portal can be found.

  • Twin tunnels would probably be bored.
  • I estimate that they, would need to be just over two kilometres long.
  • I suspect too, that they could be build without an additional ventilation shaft in the middle.

Looking at these maps, I’m very much of the opinion, that boring a tunnelled solution, would be possible, but what would be the cost?

The Lee Tunnel in East London is about twice as long and larger in diameter. From the cost of that tunnel, which was opened in 2016, I feel that the two tunnels could be built for just under a billion pounds.

A Tunnel-Free Solution

This Google Map shows Old Oak Common between the Great Western Main Line and the West Coast Main Line.

The Crossrail station would be at the bottom just above the North Pole Depot.

I wonder if a line could go through or behind the Heathrow Express site and then follow the North London Line behind the Crossrail Depot to Willesden High Level Junction.

This Google Map shows Willesden High Level Junction and the tracks of the London Overground as they pass over the West Coast Main Line.

I suspect modern three-dimensional design and structural analysis can create a connecting viaduct.

I doubt the track will be much more than a kilometre long and I suspect with the right signallinmg and a degree of Sutomatic Train Control, eight tph each way could be handled on a single track.

Conclusion

It looks like updating the Class 345 trains, ERTMS and building a tunnel under Old Oak Common could be a sizeable bill.

Have cost estimates been such, that the project was not deemed to be value for money?

October 23, 2017 Posted by | Travel | , , , , , | 3 Comments