The Anonymous Widower

Discontinuous Electrification Using IPEMUs

In Basingstoke To Exeter By Electric Train, I started to work through, how short lengths of third-rail electrification could be used to power an electric train with an IPEMU-capability.

Third-Rail Electrification

This picture shows typical third-rail electrification at Kidbrooke station in South East London.

Electrification At Kidbrooke Station

 

Note the following about the station and the electrification.

  • The two tracks are between two platforms connected by a footbridge, which is a typical layout for hundreds of stations. Some stations might use a subway for connection.
  • The two 750 VDC conductor rails are placed together in the middle of the track, well away from the passengers.
  • There is a gap in the third rail, which I assume is for staff or emergency services personnel to cross the track in an emergency.

It is a simple and very safe layout.

With many years of installing third-rail systems in stations, Network Rail has the expertise to create safe systems in stations with island or just a single platform.

A Typical Electrical Multiple Unit

The Class 377 train is a typical modern electrical multiple unit common on third-rail routes.

  • There are a total of 239 trainsets in service with lengths of three, four and five cars.
  • The trains can work in combinations of two and three trainsets.
  • The trains are a member of Bombardier’s Electrostar family.
  • The slightly older Class 375 trains can be converted into Class 377 trains.
  • The first trains entered service in 2003, so they still have many years of life.
  • Some of the trains are dual-voltage and all could be equipped to use 25 kVAC overhead line equipment.
  • They have a top speed of 90 mph.
  • Bombardier have stated that these trains can be given an IPEMU-capability.

In addition everything said about the Class 377, can also be said about the later Class 379 and Class 387 trains, although these trains are faster.

The traction current supply to the trains has a very comprehensive design, that ensures trains get the electricity they need. Wikipedia says this.

All units can receive power via third-rail pick-up which provides 750 V DC. There are eight pick-up shoes per unit (twice the number of previous generation 4-car Electric multiple units), and this enables them to ride smoothly over most third-rail gaps. The units in the 377/2, 377/5 and 377/7 sub-classes are dual-voltage, and are fitted with a pantograph to pick up 25 kV AC from overhead lines. On these units the shoe mechanism is air-operated so that when powered down, or working on AC overhead lines, they are raised out of the way. 

You don’t hear many reports of trains being gapped these days, when they are unable to pick-up electricity at somewhere like a level crossing.

So there could be a large number of electrical multiple units available with an IPEMU capability, which could be ostensibly 25 kVAC units, but could also pick up electricity from a 750 VDC third-rail.

A Charging Station At Oxted

I feel that Network Rail has the expertise to fit short lengths of third-rail electrification into stations, so that IPEMUs could pick up power, when they are stopped in the station.

These pictures show the recent installation of third-rail in the bay Platform 3 at Oxted station.

Note how the conductor rail is enclosed in a yellow shield.

Could this installation at Oxted, have been done, so that IPEMUs can run a shuttle to Uckfield?

Staff at the station didn’t know, but said the platform is used to terminate or park the occasional train from East Grinstea

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IPEMUs To Lowestoft

Imagine such an installation at a station like Lowestoft, which has been suggested as a destination for trains with an IPEMU-capability.

Two Class 156 At Lowestoft

The picture shows two Class 156 trains at Lowestoft station.

Surely, two lengths of 750 VDC third-rail can be fitted between the tracks.

  • The electrified lines would be no closer to passengers, than the third-rail installation at Oxted.
  • The power supply would only be needed to supply electricity to charge the batteries.
  • When no train was in the platform, the electricity supply to that platform would be switched off.
  • The waiting time in the station would need to be sufficient to make sure the battery had enough charge to get to the overhead wires at Ipswich or Norwich.
  • There would be little or no modification to the structure of the station.
  • There would be no electrification needed between Lowestoft and both Ipswich and Norwich.

The biggest problem would be installing the power supply, but it would only be a transformer and rectiofier to provide 750 VDC. It would not have to cope with all the problems of regenerative braking, as the IPEMU capability of the train would take care of that.

It would appear that by using trains with an IPEMU-capability and well-proven simple technology at Lowestoft, the town can be provided with direct electric train services to Ipswich, Norwich and London.

At present the only trains with sufficient speed to not be a restriction on the Great Eastern Main Line, that can be given an IPEMU-capability are Class 379 and Class 387 trains. But Bombardier told Modern Railways, that a 125 mph Aventra is possible.

It would appear that the infrastructure modifications could be very affordable too!

The major cost would be the extra trains, but hopefully an increase in passenger numbers because of the better service would create the cash flow to lease them!

Perhaps the biggest advantage of using IPEMU trains to Lowestoft, is that electrification of the tracks through a beautiful part of East Anglia will not need to be performed.

It should also be said, that what works for Lowestoft, would also work for services to Sheringham and Great Yarmouth.

The technique would also work for branch lines from an electrified main line, where the out and back distance was more than the range of an IPEMU running on batteries. Examples would include.

  • York to Scarborough
  • Doncaster to Hull
  • Edinburgh to Tweedbank
  • Peterborough to Lincoln
  • Manchester to Sheffield

But there are many more lines, where a charging station would bring much-needed electric trains to all over the UK.

Longer Lines

Some longer lines,  where both ends are electrified and the distance is less than sixty miles, like Norwich to Cambridge and Carlisle to Newcastle, could be served by an IPEMU with sufficient range, that was charged at both ends of the line.

So that leaves longer lines over sixty miles, with no electrification at either end or just one electrified end.

Many, but not all, are through beautiful countryside and would the heritage lobby accept miles of overhead line gantries, marching through the hills and valleys.

I believe that on some longer lines, by using short lengths of third-rail electrification in selected stations, services could be run by electric trains with an IPEMU-capability.

Imagine an electric train an IPEMU-capability, approaching a station on a typical fast line with perhaps a 90 mph speed limit, like say the West of England Main Line, which is not electrified past Basingstoke.

  • As the IPEMU applies its brakes, all of the energy generated by the regenerative braking would be stored in the train’s on-board energy storage, ready to be used to accelerate the train back up to line speed after the station.
  • When the train makes contact with the third rail in the station, if the battery is not full, it can start to charge the battery from the rail.
  • Once the battery is full, the charging would stop.
  • On starting away from the station, the train could use power from the third rail, until it lost contact, after which it would use the energy stored on the train.

I think it should be possible that the train would leave the station with a full battery.

I would suspect that Bombardier and Network Rail are doing all sorts of calculations to find the best strategy, so that IPEMUs can be used to avoid the problems and costs of electrification.

Lines that could be electrified in this way would be ones, where trains stop at several stations along the route. Electricity supply at the stations, is no problem these days, as it could be connected to the mains or to some form of local generation.

It could be a very green concept!

Lines that could be electrified in this way would include.

Selected stations would be fitted with charging and the trains would stop accordingly.

I’ve included the Far North Line because I believe it is possible to electrify the line in this way provided you could get a good enough electricity supply to the required number of stations. Obviously, you may decide not to do it, as you may have enough quality diesel trains.

Conclusion

If you could run electric trains on the Far North Line using charging at stations,  you could run electric trains on any line in the UK.

 

 

 

April 30, 2016 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , | 6 Comments

My Father Has Been Proved Right!

My father described himself as a left-wing Tory. Today, he would probably have approved of the views of the likes of Michael Hesseltine or Kenneth Clarke.

I’m not sure what he actually did in politics, but I do know that he once worked at the League of Nations in Geneva before the Second World War. During the war, he was for some time a Civil Servant, but apart from one or two clues, I don’t know much. I should have a look at Kew and the web site.

I also know that I never heard him say anything racist and when someone questioned why he actually printed letterheads and wedding stationery for the local black community in Wood Green, he rebuked them by saying that as long as their money had the Queen’s head on it, he’d do business with everyone.

I also know that he was firmly anti-fascist and was at the Battle of Cable Street, where as he said, all the East End stopped Mosley and his Blackshirt thugs, marching through.

Recently, I took a taxi, where the driver had had talks with his Jewish grandfather, who had also been at Cable Street. His grandfather, like my father was adamant that it was not just the communists who stopped Mosley, but a wide alliance of right-thinking people in the East End.

I use the term London Mongrel to describe myself and my father used it himself, in my presence a couple of times, which is where I picked it up. You have to remember that the Nazis referred to people who were part-Jewish as mischling, which roughly means mongrel or half-breed. My father wasn’t Jewish but his great-great-grandfather, who I refer to as the Tailor of Bexley, was probably a Prussian Jew, who had run away from Napoleon.

As the term dates from the Nuremberg Laws of 1935, it would very much have been a term of the time my father was on the fringe of politics, so it is no surprise that he used it.

Incidentally, I’m probably more of a mongrel than my father, as my mother’s father was a Huguenot engraver and her mother was a posh lady born in Dalston Junction from Devonian yeoman stock with the surname of Upcott. Cullompton Museum told me that the family were very much involved in the development of worsted serge and made a fortune from it.  This section in the Cullumpton Wikipedia entry, says more about the cloth trade and the Upcotts.

I once asked my father, if he’d ever wanted to stand as an MP and he replied that he’d been asked to put his name forward as a candidate for a by-election, but a young Duncan Sandys was chosen instead, which my father thought was probably the right choice.

Searching Wikipedia says that this was the Norwood By-election of 1935. Wikipedia says this.

The by-election was held due to the resignation of the incumbent Conservative MP, Walter Greaves-Lord. It was won by the Conservative candidate Duncan Sandys.

An Independent Conservative candidate was fielded at the by-election by Randolph Churchill, who sponsored Richard Findlay, a member of the British Union of Fascists to stand. This got no support from the press or from any Members of Parliament, despite Randolph being the son of Winston Churchill. Ironically, in September that year, Duncan Sandys became son-in-law of Winston and brother-in-law of Randolph by marrying Diana, the former’s daughter.

Knowing my father’s strong anti-fascist views, it fits with his version of the tale. The other thing that fits, is that although my father had met and liked Winston Churchill, he had no time for his son, Randolph.

Indirectly, I think I benefited from my father’s political contacts, as after the war, when he rebuilt his printing business in Wood Green, his largest customer was Enfield Rolling Mills, whose Managing Director was John Grimston, the Earl of Veralem, who was eight years younger than my father and had been MP for St. Albans a couple of times.

When in the early sixties I needed a summer job to earn money and I couldn’t have my usual one in his print works, as my father’s business was bad, my father phoned the Earl and asked if he had something that would suit.

The Earl of Veralem said yes and I had a very good job in the Electronics Laboratory for two summers, where I learned an amazing amount about life and making things.

I have no idea of the Earl’s politics except that he was a Conservative MP and very much thought to be a good boss of the company, by those with whom I worked.

One view of my father’s though, was that as he hated the likes of Hitler and Stalin equally, he said several times to me, that the extreme left are no different to the extreme right.

Reading this article on the BBC entitled Livingstone Stands By Hitler Comments, I can only conclude that the Labour Party has proved my father to be right.

April 30, 2016 Posted by | World | , , , , , | Leave a comment