The Anonymous Widower

Sizewell C: Nuclear Power Station Plans For Suffolk Submitted

The title of this post, is the same as that as this article on the BBC.

A few points from the article.

  • It will provide enough electricity for six million homes.
  • It will create 25,000 jobs during construction.
  • Sizewell C will be a near replica to Hinckley Point C.
  • It will generate 3.2 GW of electricity.
  • It will be low-carbon electricity.

As a well-read and experienced engineer, I am not against the technologies of nuclear power.

But I do think, by the time it is completed , other technologies like wind and energy storage will be much better value. They will also be more flexible and easier to expand, should we get our energy forecasts wrong.

  • We will see higher power and more efficient wind farms, further out in the North Sea.
  • Massive energy storage systems, based on improved pumped storage technology and using new technology from companies like Highview Power, Zinc8 and others will be built.
  • Wind and solar power an energy storage are much easier to fund and financial institutions like L & G, Aberdeen Standard and Aviva have invested in the past for our future pensions.
  • If you want to go nuclear, small modular reactors, look to be much better value in the longer term.
  • I also don’t like the involvement of the Chinese in the project. History tells me, that all pandemics seem to start in the country!

It is my view that the biggest mistake we made in this country over energy was not to built the Severn Barrage.

My preferred design would be based on the ideas of Sir Frederick Snow.

There would have been a high and a low lake, either side of a central spine, behind an outer barrage.

  • Reversible turbines and pumps between the lakes would both generate and store electricity.
  • When proposed in the 1970s, it would have generated ten percent of the UK’s electricity.
  • A new road and rail crossing of the Severn, could have been built into the outer barrage.
  • A lock would have provided access for shipping.
  • It would have controlled the periodic, regular and often devastating flooding of the River Severn.

Some versions of the original design, even incorporated an international airport.

  • The runways would be in the right direction for the prevailing wind, with regard to take-off and landing.
  • Take-off would be over open sea.
  • High speed trains could speed travellers to and from London on an updated Great Western Railway.

I believe a modern design could be even better.

  • The central spine and the outer barrage would be the foundations for a large wind farm.
  • There would also be a large number of powerful floating wind turbines to the West of the outer barrage in the Severn Estuary.
  • A giant electrolyser on the central spine would produce hydrogen, that could be used to decarbonise the UK’s gas network.
  • A power interconnector could be built into the outer barrage to connect Wales to the nuclear power stations at Hinckley :Point.
  • A cluster of small nuclear reactors could be built on the central spine.
  • In the intervening fifty years, we have probably learned how to build a barrage like this, so that it can benefit birds and other wildlife.

I believe, it will never be too late to build a Severn Barrage.

 

May 27, 2020 Posted by | Transport, World | , , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

‘World First’: SGN Launches Bid For 300 Green Hydrogen Homes Project In Fife

This title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Business Green.

This is the introductory paragraph.

Around 300 homes in Scotland could soon have their heating and cooking powered by green hydrogen produced from renewable electricity under proposals for “the world’s first green hydrogen-to-homes network” unveiled today by SGN.

A few points from the article.

  • Construction could start in the winter of 2020/21.
  • The project will take two or three years.
  • The modified houses appear to be in Levenmouth.
  • The project has been dubbed H100 Fife.
  • The hydrogen will be produced by electrolysis using electricity generated by offshore wind.

The article also gives a round-up of the state of hydrogen in the UK.

Could This Have Other Implications For Levenmouth?

In Scottish Government Approve £75m Levenmouth Rail Link, I discussed the rebuilding of the Levenmouth Rail Link.

I suggested that the route could be run by Hitachi Class 385 trains with batteries, which Hitachi have stated are being developed. I covered the trains in more detail in Hitachi Plans To Run ScotRail Class 385 EMUs Beyond The Wires.

If there were to be a source of hydrogen at Levenmouth, could hydrogen-powered trains be used on the route?

The Levenmouth Rail link could be a prototype for other short rail links in Scotland.

 

In

 

 

May 21, 2020 Posted by | Transport, World | , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Vietnam Has Potential For ‘160GW Of Offshore Wind’

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on renews.biz.

This is the introductory paragraph.

The Danish Energy Agency (DEA) and the Vietnamese Electricity and Renewable Energy Authority are working together on input for a roadmap for offshore wind development in the south-east Asian country that has estimated potential for 160GW.

The report illustrates that windpower, is for all nations.

May 19, 2020 Posted by | World | , | Leave a comment

Floating Wind Swells, Hydrogen On A High And Here Comes The 150-Hour ‘Aqueous Air’ Battery

The title of this post is the same as that of this weekly summary on Recharge.

There are three major stories.

Floating Wind Turbines

A lot more floating wind turbines are under development, by the French, Swedes, South Africans and Japanese.

I do wonder, if these structures have borrowed the work done in Cambridge by Balaena Structures, for which I did the calculations, as I wrote about in The Balaena Lives.

From what I remember of my calculations fifty years ago, I suspect these floating turbines can be massive and places, in areas, where the winds are really strong.

I also believe that some could have built-in hydrogen generators and could be placed over depleted gas fields and connected to the existing gas pipes.

Hydrogen

The article describes how oil giants; BP and Shell are moving towards hydrogen.

Battery Storage

They also talk about Form Energy and their mysterious ‘aqueous air battery, which Recharge covered earlier. I discussed that article in The Mysterious 150-hour Battery That Can Guarantee Renewables Output During Extreme Weather.

Conclusion

This article is a must-read.

Recharge is also a site to follow, if you are interested in the developments in renewable energy.

May 18, 2020 Posted by | World | , , , , , | Leave a comment

Majority Of Ready-to-Build UK Battery Storage Projects Are Bigger Than 30MW

The title of this post is the same as that on this article on Energy Storage News.

This is the introductory paragraph.

There are 1.3GW of read-to-build battery storage projects in the UK, with the majority between 30MW and 49.9MW power output per project, according to new analysis from Solar Media Market Research.

There is certainly a lot of energy storage being developed in the UK.

But then Wind Power In The UK is set to rise substantially to at least 40GW, in the next few years.

May 6, 2020 Posted by | World | , | Leave a comment

Funding Award to Supply An 8MW Electrolyser

The title of this post, is the same as that of this Press Release from ITM Power.

This is the main body of the Press Release.

ITM Power, the energy storage and clean fuel company, is pleased to announce it has signed an agreement to supply an 8MW electrolyser in the UK.  The agreement, including associated project costs, has a total value of £10m and funding will fall across FY2021 and FY2022.  Further details will be announced in due course.

I bet they’re pleased!

To get a hold on what 8 MW looks like, these Class 90 locomotive each have a power output of just under 4 MW and are capable of hauling an eight-coach express train at 110 mph.

Working at full rate, the electrolyser will be able in a year to convert 70 GWh of electricity into hydrogen.

Why Would You Want An 8MW Electrolyser?

These are a few ideas.

Green Hydrogen For Humberside

This is a project described in this ITM Power Press Release.

This is the first three paragraphs.

ITM Power, the energy storage and clean fuel company, is pleased to announce that it has won, with partner Element Energy, a first stage deployment project in the UK Government’s Industrial Strategy Challenge Fund competition “Decarbonisation of Industrial Clusters” to assess the feasibility and scope of deploying green hydrogen with some major industrial partners in Humberside.

“Green Hydrogen for Humberside” will lead to the production of renewable hydrogen at the Gigawatt (GW) scale distributed to a mix of industrial energy users in Immingham, Humberside. Decarbonisation of this cluster is critical in reaching the UK’s legally binding 2050 net zero emission targets. Humberside, the UK’s largest cluster by industrial emissions, (12.4Mt of CO2 per year), contributes £18bn to the national economy each year and has access to a large renewable resource from offshore wind in the North Sea.

The project will work with customers in the region to establish the feasibility of switching to renewable hydrogen and justify a number of 100MW deployments of electrolysers. The project will cost the supply of hydrogen to these end users. This includes the electricity supply to the electrolyser, the hydrogen production facility, hydrogen distribution across the Humber and conversion of existing processes to use renewable hydrogen.

The study talks about a number of 100 MW deployments of electrolysers.

Will the 8MW electrolyser be a demonstrator for this project?

To Convert Surplus Renewable Energy Into Hydrogen Which Is Injected Into The Gas Grid

The Wikipedia entry for ITM Power has a section entitled Energy Storage Power To Gas. This is the first paragraph.

Power-to-Gas is a methodology of introducing such hydrogen to the natural gas network, essentially converting renewable electrical power to a clean gas that can be more conveniently stored using existing assets. There are two main Power-to-Gas mechanisms. The first involves metering pressurised hydrogen into the gas network directly. The second involves combining hydrogen with carbon dioxide via a methanation process to produce synthetic natural gas prior to introduction to the grid.

The electrolyser could be used to convert a lot of electricity into zero-carbon hydrogen for use in the UK gas network.

Improving The Resilience Of The UK Gas Network

This article on the BBC is entitled Major Power Failure Affects Homes And Transport and it describes a major power failure, when two generators failed in August 2019.

Could the 8MW electrolyser be part of the solution to make the UK power network more robust, if parts of the network fail?

To Create Feedstock For An Oil Refinery Or Petro-Chemical Plant

Hydrogen can be used as a feedstock for an oil refinery or petro-chemical plant.

This ITM Power Press Release, describes such a project, where wind power from the North Sea is used to create hydrogen for Phillips 66 Limited’s Humber Refinery.

As Part Of An Experimental Steel-Making Plant

This is pure speculation on my part, but steel-making creates lot of carbon-dioxide.

I do believe that using hydrogen to make steel is possible and ITM Power are based in the steel-city of Sheffield.

On the other hand look at the HYBRIT web site.

This is the introductory paragraph.

In 2016, SSAB, LKAB and Vattenfall joined forces to create HYBRIT – an initiative that endeavors to revolutionize steel-making. HYBRIT aims to replace coking coal, traditionally needed for ore-based steel making, with hydrogen. The result will be the world’s first fossil-free steel-making technology, with virtually no carbon footprint.

During 2018, work started on the construction of a pilot plant for fossil-free steel production in Luleå, Sweden. The goal is to have a solution for fossil-free steel by 2035. If successful, HYBRIT means that together we can reduce Sweden’s CO2 emissions by 10% and Finland’s by 7%.

This page on their web site is entitled Steel Making Today And Tomorrow. This image compares traditional blast furnace steelmaking with HYBRIT.

Note that at the heart of the process is the production of hydrogen from renewable electricity. This process will need a large electrolyser.

 

Could someone be doing something similar in Sheffield or more likely, Scunthorpe?

  • British Steel may be owned by the Chinese, but it has a record of innovation.
  • We will need a lot of long steel products, like railway rails and girders, in which British Steel specialise.
  • In a few years, Humberside will have enough renewable electricity from North Sea wind to create an electro-magnetic gun to fire space capsules at Mars.

I will be watching out for hydrogen steelmaking.

Is Jim Ratcliffe Up To Something?

Jim Ratcliffe is a very rich man and the chairman and CEO  of INEOS, which has a turnover of $83billion.

Consider.

  • INEOS must know about hydrogen.
  • I read some years ago, how they were using waste hydrogen to generate electricity on Teesside.
  • I have a feeling that they have backed a hydrogen fuel-cell company.
  • They own the hydrogen factory in Runcorn, where I worked in 1970.
  • They have extensive interests in the North West, North East and Scotland.
  • The company probably has an enormous carbon-footprint, that they’d probably like to reduce, by perhaps using hydrogen instead of natural gas as a feedstock for some processes, like production of ammonia.

But above all the cost of an 8MW electrolyser would be small change and probably cost a lot less, than running the cycling team.

The Fallback

It could of course be used to produce a large amount of hydrogen to power buses, cars and trains.

May 3, 2020 Posted by | Uncategorized, World | , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Highview Power And Railway Electrification

In Encore Joins Highview To Co-Develop Liquid Air Energy Storage System In Vermont, I gave brief notes about a proposed Highview Power CRYOBattery in Vermont.

  • The system will supply 50 MW for eight hours.
  • The total capacity will be 400 MWh.

Other articles have suggested, that the system could be built on the site of a demolished coal-fired power station, which still has a good connection to the electricity grid.

In other words, I believe that a CRYOBattery can be considered to be a small 50 MW power station.

  • It could be charged by local excess renewable energy during the day.
  • It could be charged by excess renewal energy from the electricity grid during the night, when there can be large amounts of wind energy, that needs a home.
  • Intelligent control systems, would balance the output of the CRYOBattery to the needs of the electricity grid.

It would be used in very much the same way as gas-turbine power-stations are used in electricity grids all over the world.

The Braybrooke Feeder Station

The National Grid is providing a feeder station at Braybrooke to support the Midland Main Line electrification.

This page on the Harbough Rail Users site is entitled Electrification Substation Plan for Braybrooke.

It gives this description of the sub-station.

Electrification of part of the Midland Main Line has moved a tentative step closer with the plans being prepared by National Grid for a feeder substation at Braybrooke, just outside Market Harborough.  The location is where a high-voltage National Grid power-line crosses over the railway and the plan is for a substation and associated equipment plus an access road from the A6. The substation is due to be completed by October 2020 and is intended to feed the power supply for the Corby line pending electrification of the main line through Market Harborough.

This Google Map shows the rough area, where it will be located.

Note.

  1. The A6 crossing the Midland Main Line.
  2. The solar farm in the South-facing field, which has a 3MW capacity, according to the Eckland Lodge Business Park web site.
  3. Various planning documents say the transformers on the substation will be 400/25 kV units.
  4. This means that the power-line in the area must be a 400 kV.

Unfortunately, I can’t pick out the line of 400 kV pylons marching across the countryside. But they are rather large.

The pictures show a group of 400 kV pylons near Barking.

  • The Midland Main Line at Braybrooke certainly seems to be getting a solid supply of electricity.
  • It was originally planned, that the electrification would go all the way, but it was cut back to Kettering and Corby a couple of years ago.
  • But to power, the electrification to Corby, it is being extended all the way to Braybrooke, so that the electrification can act as a giant extension lead for the Corby Branch Line.

The page on the Harborough Rail Users Site says this.

The Braybrooke substation is still planned, however, and the DfT has advised that the bi-mode trains will be able to switch power mode at speed.  They would therefore be able to continue running electrically north from Kettering as far as Braybrooke before ‘pan down’

It would appear, that the end of the electrification will be at Braybrooke, but the sub-station seems to have enough power to extend the electrification further North if that is ever planned.

I also think, that is rather an efficient and affordable solution, with very little modification required to the existing electricity network.

But not all electricity feeds to railway electrification have a convenient 400 kV line at a handy site for installing all the needed transformers and other electrical gubbins.

How Much Power Will Needed To Be Supplied At Braybrooke?

This can probably be dismissed as the roughest or rough calculations, but the answer shows the order of magnitude of the power involved.

Consider.

  • Braybrooke must be sized for full electrification of the Midland Main Line.
  • Braybrooke will have to power trains North of Bedford.
  • If there is full electrification of the Midland Main Line, it will probably have to power trains as far North as East Midlands Parkway station, where there is a massive power station.
  • Trains between Bedford and Market Harborough take thirty minutes.
  • Trains between Bedford and Corby take around thirty minutes.
  • Four trains per hour (tph) run between Bedford and Market Harborough in both directions.
  • The system must be sized to handle two tph between Bedford and Corby in both directions.
  • The power output of each Class 360 train, that will be used on the Corby route is 1,550 kW, so a twelve-car set will need 4.65 MW.
  • I can’t find the power output of a Class 810 train, but an InterCity 125 with similar performance has 3.4 MW.
  • A Class 88 bi-mode locomotive has a power output of 4 MW when using the electrification.

I estimate that Braybrooke could have to support at least a dozen trains at busy times, each of which could need 4 MW.

Until someone gives me the correct figure, I reckon that Braybrooke has a capacity to supply 50 MW for trains on the Midland Main Line.

A Highview Power system as proposed for Vermont, would have enough power, but would need a lot more storage or perhaps local wind or solar farms, to give it a regular charging.

Riding Sunbeams

Riding Sunbeams are a company, who use solar power to provide the electricity for railway electrification.

I’ll let their video explain what they do.

It’s a company with an idea, that ticks a lot of boxes, but would it be able to provide enough power for a busy electrified main line? And what happens on a series of rainy or just plain dull days?

Highview Power

Could a Highview Power energy storage system be used?

  • To store electricity from local or grid electrical sources.
  • To power the local electrification.

If required, it could be topped up by affordable overnight electricity, that is generated by wind power.

The Highview Power system could also be sized to support the local electricity grid and local solar and wind farms.

Conclusion

I think that Riding Sunbeams and Highview Power should be talking to each other.

 

 

May 2, 2020 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Highview Power Keeping Up Momentum

The title of this post is the same as that of this article on Gas World.

This is the introductory paragraph.

It’s full steam ahead for Highview Power as the energy storage provider’s CEO and President today updated on operations.

It does look thatHighview are optimistic since their partnership with Sumitomo Heavy Industries was announced, that I wrote about in Japanese Giant Sumitomo Heavy Invests In Liquid-Air Energy Storage Pioneer.

I am optimistic too!

  • Highview’s system uses no difficult technology or rare materials.
  • The system can provide large amounts of storage, which we are going to need with all the wind farms we are developing.
  • From my Control Engineering and mathematical modelling experience, I believe, these systems can be used to boost power, where it is needed, in the same way gas-fired power stations do.

But above all, Highview Power has created a standalone energy storage system for the Twenty-First Century, that catches the needs and moods of the Age!

Our energy system is changing and it not expressed any better, than in this article on Physics World, which is entitled Does The UK Need 40 GW Of Firm Capacity?

This is the opening sentence.

Whether it comes from nuclear plants or fossil fuel-fired power stations with carbon capture and storage (CCS), the UK will need 30-40 GW of new “firm” low-carbon baseload generation by 2050 to meet the net-zero emissions target, Greg Clark reportedly said.

I don’t think that the country will allow any Government of the UK to build that much nuclear capacity and I have my doubts about the feasibility of large scale CCS. I also don’t think, the public will allow the building of large coal-fired power stations, even with CCS. And they don’t like nuclear either!

On Wikipedia, Wind Power in the UK, says this about the current Round 3 of proposals for wind farms.

Following on from the Offshore wind SEA announced by the Government in December 2007, the Crown Estate launched a third round of site allocations in June 2008. Following the success of Rounds 1 and 2, and important lessons were learnt – Round 3 was on a much bigger scale than either of its predecessors combined (Rounds 1 and 2 allocated 8 GW of sites, while Round 3 alone could identify up to 25 GW).

If you think UK politics is a lot of wind and bluster, that is pussy-cat’s behaviour compared to the roaring lions around our shores.

Wikipedia then lists nine fields, with a total power of 26.7 GW, but some are not being built because of planning.

But we ain’t seen noting yet!

Wikipedia says this about Round 4.

Round 4 was announced in 2019 and represented the first large scale new leasing round in a decade. This offers the opportunity for up to 7GW of new offshore capacity to be developed in the waters around England and Wales.

The Agreements for Lease will be announced in 2021.

Wikipedia then makes these points.

  • Nuclear power stations have funding and technical problems.
  • Since the Fukushima nuclear disaster public support for new nuclear has fallen
  • The UK government increased its previous commitment for 40 GW of Offshore wind capacity by 2030, in the Queen’s Speech in December 2019.
  • In 2020, this represents a 355% increase in ten years.
  • It is expected the Crown Estate will announce multiple new leasing Rounds and increases to existing bidding areas throughout the 2020-2030 period to achieve the governments aim of 40 GW.
  • The Scottish Government has plans to chip in 6 GW.

I will add these feelings of my own

  • I have ignored the contribution, that better wind-power technology will make to get more GW for each billion pounds of investment.
  • I can see a day, in the not too distant future, when on a day in the summer, no electricity in the UK comes from fossil fuel.
  • There will be a merging between wind power and hydrogen generation, as I described in ITM Power and Ørsted: Wind Turbine Electrolyser Integration.
  • Traditional nuclear is dead, although there may be applications for small nuclear reactors in the future.
  • In parallel to the growth of wind power, there will be a massive growth of solar power.

But we will need to store some of this energy for times when the wind isn’t blowing and the sun isn’t shining.

  • Pumped storage hydroelectric schemes, as at Electric Mountain in Snowdonia may have a part to play as I described in The New Generation Of Pumped Storage Systems. But sadly, the UK doesn’t have the terrain for another 9.1 GWh scheme.
  • A lot of electricity will be converted to hydrogen to power industrial processes and augment and possibly replace natural gas in the UK’s gas network.
  • Some electricity will be stored in batteries in houses and vehicles, when it is most affordable and used, when it is more expensive.
  • Companies and funds, like Gresham House Energy Storage Fund will fund and build storage facilities around the UK.
  • Traditional lithium-ion batteries require a lot of expensive raw materials controlled by the Chinese!
  • But if we develop all these options, and generate tens of GWs using renewables, the UK will still need a substantial amount of GW-scale affordable energy storage systems.

It is my belief, that Highview Power is the only practical GW-scale affordable energy storage system.

My only worry about their system, is that the idea could be ripped off, by an unscrupulous country with a solid process plant industry!

 

 

 

May 2, 2020 Posted by | World | , , , , , , | 1 Comment

To Revive Economy, Think Infrastructure

The title of this post is the same as that of this article on CommonWealth.

This is the sub-title.

It worked in the Great Recession and it can work now.

The author is talking about Massachusetts in 2008, but I’m sure it would work in the UK and other countries in 2020.

Projects I would bring forward in the UK.

  • Build lots of wind farms, both onshore and offshore.
  • Build energy storage. I would go for Highview Power.
  • Use wind energy to generate hydrogen for industrial processes. ITM Power in Rotherham, have the technology.
  • Build a refuelling network for hydrogen-powered cars, buses, trucks and other vehicles.
  • Add new rail stations to the network, where needed.
  • Update all possible rail, tram, light rail and Underground stations so they are step-free.
  • Build the electrified Huddersfield and Leeds upgrade to the TransPennine Route.
  • Expand the Blackpool Tram, the Edinburgh Tram, the Manchester Metrolink, Merseyrail, the Nottingham Express Transit, the Sheffield Supertram, the Tyne and Wear Metro and the West Midlands Metro.
  • Extend the Docklands Light Railway West to Charing Cross, Euston, St. Pancras and Victoria.

I would setup a construction pipeline, so all areas of the country got a share of the new infrastructure.

We must be bold.

 

 

May 1, 2020 Posted by | Health, Transport, World | , , , , , , | 13 Comments

Hydrogen Islands

I found this concept on the ITM Power web site.

This was the sub-title.

Islands tend to have abundant renewable resources yet they rely heavily upon importing fossil fuels, often at relatively high cost.

And this was the body of the page.

The integration of renewables into an island’s power grid soon creates substantial balancing and curtailment problems. These can be overcome by deploying controllable rapid response electrolysers to produce green hydrogen for the island’s transport, heat and power sectors. Projects such as BigHit are demonstrating how this may be achieved.

It would create a zero-carbon island for an Internet tycoon or a Bond villain.

I’m certain that the concept would work for somewhere like a farm or even a small village, which is effectively a landlocked island, with perhaps wind turbines or solar panels.

April 8, 2020 Posted by | Transport, World | , , , , , | Leave a comment