The Anonymous Widower

More On Discontinuous Electrification In South Wales

In the July 2018 Edition of Modern Railways, there is an article entitled KeolisAmey Wins Welsh Franchise.

This is said about the electrification on the South Wales Metro.

KeolisAmey has opted to use continuous overhead line equipment but discontinuous power on the Core Valley Lnes (CVL), meaning isolated OLE will be installed under bridges. On reaching a permanently earthed section, trains will automatically switch from 25 KVAC overhead to on-board battery supply, but the pantograph will remain in contact with the overhead cable, ready to collect power after the section. The company believes this method of reducing costly and disruptive engineering works could revive the business cases of cancelled electrification schemes. Hopes of having money left over for other schemes rest partly on this choice of technology.

Other points made include.

  • A total of 172 km. of track will be electrified.
  • The system is used elsewhere, but not in the UK.
  • Disruptive engineering works will be avoided on fifty-five structures.
  • Between Radyr and Ninian Park stations is also proposed for electrification.

Nothing is said about only electrifying the uphill track, which surely could be a way of reducing costs.

Ystrad Mynach To Rhymney

The article also states that on the Rhymney Line, the section between Ystrad Mynach and Rhymney stations will be run on batteries.

  • The distance is about ten miles.
  • The altitude difference is is about 125 metres.
  • The station area at Rhymney station will be electrified.
  • Rhymney will be an overnight stabling point.
  • Trains will change between overhead and battery power in Ystrad Mynach station.
  • Trains could charge the batteries at Rhymney if required.

Effectively, there is a avoidance of at least fourteen miles of electrification.

  • Four miles of double track between Ystrad Mynach and Bargoed.
  • Six miles of single track between Bargoed and Rhymney.

But as Rhymney to Ystrad Mynach currently takes about fourteen minutes, there will have to be some extra double-track, so that the required frequency of four trains per hour (tph) can be achieved.

None of this extra track will need electrification.

As the trains working the Rhymney Line will be tri-mode Stadler Flirts, with the capability of running on electricity, diesel or battery, I don’t think that KeolisAmey are taking any risks.

The Merthyr Line

The Merthyr Line splits North of Abercynon station into two branches to Aberdare and Merthyr Tydfil stations.

  • South of Abercynon the branch is double-track.
  • Both branches are single track.
  • The Aberdare branch is about eight miles long.
  • Aberdare is around 40 metres higher than Abercynon.
  • Trains take 27 minutes to climb between Abercynon and Aberdare stations and 21 minutes to come down.
  • The Merthyr Tydfil branch is about ten miles long
  • Merthyr Tydfil is around 80 metres higher than Abercynon.
  • Trains take 27 minutes to climb between Abercynon and Merthyr Tydfil stations and 21 minutes to come down.

If the proposed four tph are to be run on these branches, there would need to be some double-tracking North of Abercynon.

Will both tracks be electrified, or will it be possible with just electrifying the uphill track?

The Rhondda Line

The Rhondda Line splits from the Merthyr Line to the North of Pontypridd station and goes North to Treherbert station.

  • South of Porth station, the line is double-track.
  • North of Porth station, the line is single-track with a passing loop at Ystrad Rhondda station.
  • Treherbert is 90 metres higher than Porth..
  • Trains take 28 minutes to climb between Porth and Treherbert and 20 minutes to come down.

If the proposed four tph are to be run on this branch, there may need to be some double-tracking North of Porth.

Will both tracks be electrified, or will it be possible with just electrifying the uphill track?

Conclusion

I suspect there’ll be more savings, as the engineers get to grips with the capabilities of battery trains and discontinuous electrification.

As I said, will it be necessary to electrify downhill tracks?

The tri-mode Stadler Flirts and the Stadler Citylink Metro vehicles could use regenerative braking to their batteries.

The use of gravity in this way to charge the batteries, would increase the efficiency of the South Wales Metro.

 

 

June 28, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , | 3 Comments

Caerphilly Station

Caerphilly station is an important  one on the South Wales Metro.

The current service is a four trains per hour (tph) service to Cardiff Queen Street and Cardiff Central stations. Some trains travel through to Penarth station

In 2023, the service will be upgraded.

  • Two tph between Barry Island and Rhymney stations via Cardiff Central.
  • Two tph between Bridgend and Rhymney stations via Cardiff Central and Rhoose Airport
  • Two tph between Penarth and Caerphilly stations via Cardiff Central.

In 2023, the service will be three minutes quicker to and from Cardiff.

In addition, note the following about Caerphilly station.

  • The station is on the Rhymney Line, which will be worked by Tri-Mode Stadler Flirts.
  • The station lies just to the North of the Caerphilly Tunnel, which is not being electrified and trains are expected to transit using battery power.
  • The station has a bay platform.
  • The station appears to be a hub for buses.

This Google Map shows the station.

Note.

  1. The long bay platform on the North side of the station. It may be long enough to accommodate two of the Tri-Mode Stradler Flirts, which are 65/80 metres long. This means that the bay platform could be very valuable for service recovery.
  2. The station serves as a Park-and-Ride.
  3. Three structures cross the track, which from the left are the old station buildings, the station footbridge and a footbridge independent from the station.
  4. Looking at the track layout on the Eastern approach to the station, the cross-overs are within fifty metres of the platform end.

These pictures show the station.

These are my thoughts on various issues.

Electrification Under The Bridges And The Old Buildings

I think there would be serious issues with standards for electrification at this station.

The three structures will have to be handled in the way I described in How Can Discontinuous Electrification Be Handled?

The Old Station Building

The old station building is integral with a road bridge and would be a costly and very disruptive operation to replace.

So if the structure will safely last a hundred years or so and the wires can be squeezed underneath using discontinuous methods, everybody wins.

The Easternmost Footbridge

The Easternmost bridge at the far end of the platforms looks to be a fairly recent structure and is independent of the station, as it just gives pedestrians a route across the railway. It might even have been built, when the bay platform was built a few years ago.

The Station Footbridge

So that leaves the elderly footbridge, which probably dates from 1871, when the station was moved to its present position.

It is the main way that passengers cross the line and given that Caerphilly station has nearly a million passengers a year, it would be classed by disabled activists as a disgrace.

A few stations up the line, lifts were added to the footbridge at Ystrad Mynach station, in conjunction with other works. Wikipedia says this.

In 2014, the station underwent a £1.6 million refurbishment with new ticket machines, waiting areas and ticket office, with disabled toilet being installed in addition to major work carried out on the footbridge with lifts being installed to improve accessibility.

Surely some of the money saved on electrification could be spent on improving access?

Electrification Between The Structures

25 KVAC  wires have to be several metres away from any staff and passengers.

The Northbound Platform 3 is wide and if the overhead wire can be suspended high enough, I suspect that the latest regulations can be met.

The Southbound Platform 2 is narrower and the platform has a low roof, which might mean electrification is trickier.

But if as I suspect, battery power and gravity will be used to power the trains on the downhill track, then there could be a case for leaving the downhill track without wires.

That could save half the costs on some sections of the route.

Electrification Of The Crossover

On a railway with full electrification all crossovers must be electrified..

But on the Rhymney Line, all the trains will be Swiss all-purpose trains, that can work on all power sources, probably including cuckoo-clock motors.

So imagine a Tri-Mode Stadler Flirt arriving from Penarth, which will be turning back in the bay platform at Caerphilly.

  • It would use the electrification between the unelectrified Caerphilly Tunnel to just before the crossover to come up the hill and probably add some charge to the batteries, that have been depleted in the run through the mile-long tunnel.
  • \\\the train would probably rate at a signal just before the crossover, until told to proceed by the signalling system.
  • The pantograph will be dropped and the train switched to battery or diesel power.
  • When giving the green by the signal, the train would move into the bay platform.

All done efficiently and safely without any electrification, which would not be installed on the crossover or in the bay platform.

Train Failure In The Caerphilly Tunnel

There will have to be a plan for handling train failures in the tunnel. I suspect that as Switzerland has lots of railways in the mountains, some with extensive tunnels, that the Swiss have pretty good methods for dealing with failures.

One Train Rescues Another

Trains are generally designed, so that a second train can rescue a failed train of the same class or even a similar type. This makes good sense, as a train operator generally has several trains of the same type and their Thunderbird locomotive may be working miles away.

I’m sure that the Tri-Mode Stadler Flirts will have this capability.

Rescuing A Train Going Downhill

If a train should fail in the Caerphilly tunnel on the downhill track, a second train would probably couple up and shepherd the train slowly down the hill to the depot at Canton.

Rescuing A Train Going Uphill

If a train should fail in the Caerphilly tunnel on the downhill track, a second train would probably couple up and push the stricken train into the bay platform at Caerphilly station.

Conclusion

The more I look at the South Wales Metro, it has been designed in an holistic manner with routes, tracks, electrification, stations and trains all designed to work together.

 

 

 

June 10, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , | 3 Comments

How Can Discontinuous Electrification Be Handled?

On the proposed South Wales Metro, it is proposed to use discontinuous electrification to avoid rebuilding a lot of bridges and other structures.

This document on the KeolisAmey web site details their plans for the new Wales and Borders Franchise.

The document states this about the electrification.

Discontinuous overhead line electrification to 25 KVAC with permanently earthed sections around restricted structures, saving 55 interventions e.g. rebuilding bridges/no need for wire in Caerphilly tunnel.

So how are these interventions avoided?

The Karlsruhe Solution

On the Karlsruhe Stadbahn, similar Citylink vehicles to those proposed for Cardiff need to work on both the main line 15 KVAC used in Germany and the 750 VDC used by Karlsruhe trams.

To isolate the two voltages, a ceramic rod is placed in the catenary. The vehicle’s pantograph just rides across the voltage boundary and the vehicle’s electrical system uses whatever voltage is present.

Bridges On The South Wales Metro

These pictures show some of the types of bridges on the Cardiff Valleys Lines.

They are a real assortment.

  • Some station footbridges from the Victorian era with nice castings and decoration, but no much-needed step-free access.
  • Some quality brick and stone arch bridges.
  • British Rail-era steel bridges, with no architectural merit
  • Some modern road bridges in steel and concrete.

I also saw sizeable pipelines over the railway, which would need to be raised.

The greatest number were simple steel bridges like the one at Caerphilly station, designed to get pedestrians and cyclists, who were not using the railway, from one side of the tracks to the other.

I suspect the simplest way would be to erect two standard gantries at a safe distance of a few metres either side of the structure.

Between the two gantries would be an conductor, like this one. that I photographed in the Berlin Hauphtbahnhof.

It would be earthed, so that it offered no danger to life. There could even be extra supports under the bridge.

At each end, it would be connected to the 25 KVAC using a ceramic rod or other insulating device.

The vehicle’s pantograph would then ride from one side of the bridge to the other on its own track without being lowered.

Anything electrified at 25 KVAC would be kept at a very safe distance from the bridge.

In the earthed section, when the vehicle would be receiving no power, the vehicle would automatically switch to battery power. There would be no driver action required, except to monitor it was all working as it should.

As on the South Wales Metro, it appears that all vehicles using the lines proposed to be electrified will have their own onboard batteries, there shouldn’t be any problem.

In some ways, this discontinuous operation is a bit like using your laptop connected to the mains. When say the cleaner pulls out the plug to put in the vacuum cleaner, your laptop switches automatically to the battery.

The Caerphilly Tunnel

The Caerphilly tunnel is over a mile long. This picture shows the tunnel entrance.

It would probably be possible to electrify using a rail in the roof, but why bother if the trains running through the tunnel could go from one end to the other on their own battery power?

Trains could lower the pantograph before entry and then raise it again, when under the electrification at the other end.

This could be performed automatically using a GPS-based system.

I have also had an e-mail, which said this.

As I understand Caerphilly will have a natural bar in it but be much closer to the train roof than would be allowed with a live one.

Now there’s an idea!

A composite or earthed metal rail would be fixed to the roof of the tunnel, so that the pantograph could run smoothly from one electrified section on one side of the tunnel to the electrification on the other side, using battery power all the way.

Cost Savings

In Novel Solution Cuts Cardiff Bridge Wiring Cost, I talked about another method applied in South Wales to avoid rebuilding a bridge.

At this bridge, traditional electrification methods were used, but the need to demolish the bridge was avoided by using advanced insulation and protection measures.

This was my final statement.

Network Rail reckon that the solution will save about £10 million on this bridge alone, as it avoids the need for an expensive rebuild of the bridge.

The savings on this bridge will be higher as it is a large bridge over several tracks, but even saving a million on each bridge in the South Wales Metro is £55 million, which will probably be enough to build much of the infrastructure to extend to The Flourish, which would appear to not need expensive viaducts or electrification.

Should Downhill Tracks Be Left Without Electrification?

I think this may be possible on the South Wales Metro, as vehicles coming down the hills could use gravity and small amounts of battery power.

Regenerative braking would also be continuously charging the batteries.

It would certainly be simpler, than having to constantly swap between overhead and battery power on the descent, where the electrification was discontinuous.

As the lines are going to have a more intensive service, there will be additions of a second track in places to allow trains to pass.

Any electrification that could be removed from the project would be beneficial in terms of building and operational costs.

Other Routes

This post has used the South Wales Metro as an example, but I don’t see any reason, why the discontinous method and that used on the Cardiff Bridge can’t be applied to other bridges and structures over the lines on other routes in the country.

I suspect, that if they’d been used on the Gospel Oak to Barking Line, electric trains would have been running months ago!

Conclusion

Look what you get with thinking, when you have a Bonfire of the Boxes!

 

June 7, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

Discontinuous Electrification For Valley Lines?

The title of this post, is the same as that of an article in the May 2018 Edition of Modern Railways.

The Valley Lines in question are the Cardiff Valley Lines, that fan out from Cardiff Central and Cardiff Queen Street stations in various directions.

  • Some of the lines into the valleys are quite steep.
  • The lines in the Cardiff area seem to be typical coastal lines and fairly flat.
  • The lines are a mixture of single and double track.
  • There are various plans to extend some of the branches.

According to the article, it would appear that the current diesel system would be replaced with a system, with these characteristics.

  • Light rail vehicles
  • Discontinuous electrification
  • Use of stored energy.
  • Street running is expected to be in the specification for the vehicles to be used, to allow extension in the Cardiff Bay area and perhaps other places.

The proposal would save costs against full electrification and heavy rail.

My observations follow.

Batteries

Batteries will be an integral part of the design of the new rail vehicles.

Powering The Trains

The article states that battery power will be used to power the trains on sections that are difficult to electrify, like the mile-long Caerphilly Tunnel.

Battery power could also be used on level and downhill sections of track up to a few miles, but I suspect on steep uphill sections, electrification will be needed.

Handling Regenerative Braking

I believe that regenerative braking will be employed on the rail vehicles and the energy generated will be stored in the batteries.

The main advantage of this is that it simplifies the power supply to the electrification, as it only has to handle power going to the train.

This less complex electrical system, saves construction costs.

Recovering The Train’s Potential Energy

A train travelling from Cardiff to one of the terminal stations at the heads of the valleys, will need to acquire an amount of potential energy, based on the train’s mass and the height involved. This will be provided by the train’s traction system powered by the electrification and the energy in the batteries.

Coming down the hill, the regenerative braking will control the speed of the train and store any energy generated in the batteries.

This will save on the cost of energy to operate the system.

Charging The Batteries

The batteries will be charged from both the overhead electrification and the regenerative braking.

Extensive simulations of the route on computers would be able to calculate the following, for a wide range of scenarios.

  • The size of the batteries.
  • The power of the traction motors.
  • Where the electrification needs to be installed.
  • The maximum power output of the electrification system.

These calculations could also lead to an energy-saving operating philosophy, that could be programmed into the train’s computer system.

I suspect the worst case scenario, would be a train full of the heaviest Welshmen after an important rugby match at the Millennium Stadium.

Electrification

My thoughts on how various sections of track would be electrified follow.

Tracks With A Significant Uphill Gradient

These would need to be electrified, as I doubt battery power on the steepest gradients, would be enough to take a fully-loaded train to the top of the hill.

Electrification would be lighter-weight 750 VDC overhead wires.

The picture shows some of the overhead wires in Birmingham, that are used by the Midland Metro’s Urbos 3 trams.

Tracks With A Downhill Gradient

These would not need to be electrified, as Newton’s friend gravity would do most of the work.

However, as batteries will be fitted, these can have three important functions on downhill stretches of track.

  • Give the tram a nudge if needed.
  • Restart the train after a stop at a station.
  • Store any energy created by regenerative braking.

Note that we could have the unusual situation on a double-track section of line, where the uphill track was electrified and the downhill track was left without electrification.

Level Tracks

These would not need to be electrified, as battery power would be used to propel the train.

Selected Stations

Some stations could need to be electrified to ensure that the service was reliable. These might include terminal stations or those with tricky gradients on either side.

Tracks With 25 KVAC Electrification

Some of the tracks used by the trains on the Cardiff Valley Lines should be electrified with 25 KVAC, by the end of December 2018.

Class 399 tram-trains, that are used in Sheffield can use either 750 VDC and 25 KVAC overhead electrification.

it would probably be a good idea, if the new vehicles on the Cardiff Valley  Lines could also use both voltages.

Automatic Pantographs

The pantographs on the vehicles would be raised and lowered automatically to access the electrification. This could even be GPS-controlled and able to be carried out at line speed.

Tram-Trains?

I very much feel, that tram-trains could be used to advantage.

  • Some of the Valley Lines are also used by freight trains, so couldn’t be converted to trams-only.
  • Tram-trains like the Class 399 tram-train, under test in Sheffield can work on both  750 VDC and 25 KVAC overhead wires.
  • Tram-trains can use conventional railway signalling.
  • Tram-trains could work on the South Wales Main Line to Newport.
  • Modern tram-trains like the Class 399 tram-train have performance, that is about the same as a Class 142 train, which is a Pacer, that works the Cardiff Valley Lines, in large numbers.
  • Tram-trains could run on the streets as trams, as they do in Sheffield.

Several manufacturers make tram-trains, which I believe could be suitablefor the Cardiff Valley Lines.

Stadler’s Class 399 Tram-Trains

Nothing is said about the vehicles, that would be used, but I think they need the following characteristics.

  • Ability to climb the steepest section of the routes using 750 VDC overhead electrification.
  • Ability to store energy.
  • Regenerative braking to charge the batteries coming down the hills into Cardiff.
  • A similar capacity to a Class 150 train, which is around 150 seats.
  • It would be a bonus if they could use 25 KVAC overhead electrification, which will be available on part of some of the routes.
  • Ability to raise and lower the pantograph quickly and automatically.
  • Ability to run on the National Rail network.
  • Ability to run on the street.

This specification is virtually the same as a Class 399 tram-train with the following additions.

  • More seats and possibly an extra car.
  • Batteries.

Class 399 tram-trains are a UK version of the Stadler Citylink tram-train. The German version is used in Karlsruhe to climb into the hills surrounding the city, on routes that are as challenging as the Cardiff Valley Lines.

So I have no worries about a version of the Class 399 train handling the Cardiff Valley Lines.

I certainly believe after my experience in Karlsruhe, and looking at other Citylink variants, that Stadler can come up with a tram-train for Cardiff based on the Class 399 tram-train.

And Then There’s CAF!

CAF have provided the Urbos 3 trams for Edinburgh Trams and the Midland Metro.

These are modern trams, that will be doing  the following in a few years in the Midlands.

This sounds like a tram-train with stored energy.

Wikipedia also lists a version of the Urbos family, called an Urbos TT, which is described like this.

The Urbos TT series is built with tram-train technology, connecting existing heavy rail infrastructure directly to urban tramway systems.

This document on the CAF web site, gives more details of Urbos variants, including the Urbos TT.

Looking at the modular nature of the design, you could have a custom-built tram-train tailored to the rail network.

But surely, the major factor with CAF, is that they have recently opened a factory at Newport.

If CAF get the order for the Cardiff Valley Lines, they could do a substantial part of the train building in a factory connected directly to the lines.

Converting The Valley Lines

I think that there are advantages and cost savings to be had, by good design in this area.

Could The Rail Vehicles Be Designed To Fit The Existing Platforms?

The first thing to do would be to design, build and fully test the rail vehicles.

Could the tram-trains be built, so that they fitted all the existing platforms?

  • Class 150 trains are 2.82 metres wide.
  • Urbos 3 trams on the Midland Metro are 2.65 wide.

If the tram-trains could run without platform modifications, this would be a big cost saving and still allow diesel units to use the lines, at the same time.

Testing The Trains

If the tram-trains were being given a 25 KVAC  capability, they could even be tested on the quadruple-track the South Wales Main Line after the line is electrified through Newport.

Electrifying The Lines

It could be that the only sections of the valley lines that will need electrification, are the steep lines  into the hills, as all other sections could use stored power or the 25 KVAC, where it exists.

  • It would probably be possible to put up the simpler 750 VDC overhead lines during weekend and perhaps longer possessions.
  • The electrification could be designed so that it doesn’t interfere with existing services.
  • The lines would be converted one at a time.
  • ,Note that  tram-trains  could share track and platform with the current diesel trains working the lines.

If CAF were to get the order surely the Ebbw Valley Line, which could be connected easily to the factory would be the first to be converted.

Conclusion

Obviously, the devil will be in the detail, but it does look like a viable plan will emerge.

I think that if CAF get the order, that they could be big winners.

The Cardiff Valley Lines could demonstrate the following.

  • Running on main lines with 25 KVAC electrification.
  • Running on 750 VDC electrification.
  • Running on batteries.
  • Running on lines with steep hills.
  • Street running.
  • Sharing tracks with freight trains and other passenger services.
  • The tram-trains could also connect to Cardiff Airport.

It is a world-class demonstration and test track for innovative tram-trains, designed to cope with challenging rail networks.

With a factory close by at Newport, the selling of the tram-trains to other operators would be a salesman’s dream.

I think there’s more to CAF coming to Newport, than was apparent, when the deal for the factory was signed.

 

 

 

 

 

May 5, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Discontinuous Electrification Using IPEMUs

In Basingstoke To Exeter By Electric Train, I started to work through, how short lengths of third-rail electrification could be used to power an electric train with an IPEMU-capability.

Third-Rail Electrification

This picture shows typical third-rail electrification at Kidbrooke station in South East London.

Electrification At Kidbrooke Station

 

Note the following about the station and the electrification.

  • The two tracks are between two platforms connected by a footbridge, which is a typical layout for hundreds of stations. Some stations might use a subway for connection.
  • The two 750 VDC conductor rails are placed together in the middle of the track, well away from the passengers.
  • There is a gap in the third rail, which I assume is for staff or emergency services personnel to cross the track in an emergency.

It is a simple and very safe layout.

With many years of installing third-rail systems in stations, Network Rail has the expertise to create safe systems in stations with island or just a single platform.

A Typical Electrical Multiple Unit

The Class 377 train is a typical modern electrical multiple unit common on third-rail routes.

  • There are a total of 239 trainsets in service with lengths of three, four and five cars.
  • The trains can work in combinations of two and three trainsets.
  • The trains are a member of Bombardier’s Electrostar family.
  • The slightly older Class 375 trains can be converted into Class 377 trains.
  • The first trains entered service in 2003, so they still have many years of life.
  • Some of the trains are dual-voltage and all could be equipped to use 25 kVAC overhead line equipment.
  • They have a top speed of 90 mph.
  • Bombardier have stated that these trains can be given an IPEMU-capability.

In addition everything said about the Class 377, can also be said about the later Class 379 and Class 387 trains, although these trains are faster.

The traction current supply to the trains has a very comprehensive design, that ensures trains get the electricity they need. Wikipedia says this.

All units can receive power via third-rail pick-up which provides 750 V DC. There are eight pick-up shoes per unit (twice the number of previous generation 4-car Electric multiple units), and this enables them to ride smoothly over most third-rail gaps. The units in the 377/2, 377/5 and 377/7 sub-classes are dual-voltage, and are fitted with a pantograph to pick up 25 kV AC from overhead lines. On these units the shoe mechanism is air-operated so that when powered down, or working on AC overhead lines, they are raised out of the way. 

You don’t hear many reports of trains being gapped these days, when they are unable to pick-up electricity at somewhere like a level crossing.

So there could be a large number of electrical multiple units available with an IPEMU capability, which could be ostensibly 25 kVAC units, but could also pick up electricity from a 750 VDC third-rail.

A Charging Station At Oxted

I feel that Network Rail has the expertise to fit short lengths of third-rail electrification into stations, so that IPEMUs could pick up power, when they are stopped in the station.

These pictures show the recent installation of third-rail in the bay Platform 3 at Oxted station.

Note how the conductor rail is enclosed in a yellow shield.

Could this installation at Oxted, have been done, so that IPEMUs can run a shuttle to Uckfield?

Staff at the station didn’t know, but said the platform is used to terminate or park the occasional train from East Grinstea

d

IPEMUs To Lowestoft

Imagine such an installation at a station like Lowestoft, which has been suggested as a destination for trains with an IPEMU-capability.

Two Class 156 At Lowestoft

The picture shows two Class 156 trains at Lowestoft station.

Surely, two lengths of 750 VDC third-rail can be fitted between the tracks.

  • The electrified lines would be no closer to passengers, than the third-rail installation at Oxted.
  • The power supply would only be needed to supply electricity to charge the batteries.
  • When no train was in the platform, the electricity supply to that platform would be switched off.
  • The waiting time in the station would need to be sufficient to make sure the battery had enough charge to get to the overhead wires at Ipswich or Norwich.
  • There would be little or no modification to the structure of the station.
  • There would be no electrification needed between Lowestoft and both Ipswich and Norwich.

The biggest problem would be installing the power supply, but it would only be a transformer and rectiofier to provide 750 VDC. It would not have to cope with all the problems of regenerative braking, as the IPEMU capability of the train would take care of that.

It would appear that by using trains with an IPEMU-capability and well-proven simple technology at Lowestoft, the town can be provided with direct electric train services to Ipswich, Norwich and London.

At present the only trains with sufficient speed to not be a restriction on the Great Eastern Main Line, that can be given an IPEMU-capability are Class 379 and Class 387 trains. But Bombardier told Modern Railways, that a 125 mph Aventra is possible.

It would appear that the infrastructure modifications could be very affordable too!

The major cost would be the extra trains, but hopefully an increase in passenger numbers because of the better service would create the cash flow to lease them!

Perhaps the biggest advantage of using IPEMU trains to Lowestoft, is that electrification of the tracks through a beautiful part of East Anglia will not need to be performed.

It should also be said, that what works for Lowestoft, would also work for services to Sheringham and Great Yarmouth.

The technique would also work for branch lines from an electrified main line, where the out and back distance was more than the range of an IPEMU running on batteries. Examples would include.

  • York to Scarborough
  • Doncaster to Hull
  • Edinburgh to Tweedbank
  • Peterborough to Lincoln
  • Manchester to Sheffield

But there are many more lines, where a charging station would bring much-needed electric trains to all over the UK.

Longer Lines

Some longer lines,  where both ends are electrified and the distance is less than sixty miles, like Norwich to Cambridge and Carlisle to Newcastle, could be served by an IPEMU with sufficient range, that was charged at both ends of the line.

So that leaves longer lines over sixty miles, with no electrification at either end or just one electrified end.

Many, but not all, are through beautiful countryside and would the heritage lobby accept miles of overhead line gantries, marching through the hills and valleys.

I believe that on some longer lines, by using short lengths of third-rail electrification in selected stations, services could be run by electric trains with an IPEMU-capability.

Imagine an electric train an IPEMU-capability, approaching a station on a typical fast line with perhaps a 90 mph speed limit, like say the West of England Main Line, which is not electrified past Basingstoke.

  • As the IPEMU applies its brakes, all of the energy generated by the regenerative braking would be stored in the train’s on-board energy storage, ready to be used to accelerate the train back up to line speed after the station.
  • When the train makes contact with the third rail in the station, if the battery is not full, it can start to charge the battery from the rail.
  • Once the battery is full, the charging would stop.
  • On starting away from the station, the train could use power from the third rail, until it lost contact, after which it would use the energy stored on the train.

I think it should be possible that the train would leave the station with a full battery.

I would suspect that Bombardier and Network Rail are doing all sorts of calculations to find the best strategy, so that IPEMUs can be used to avoid the problems and costs of electrification.

Lines that could be electrified in this way would be ones, where trains stop at several stations along the route. Electricity supply at the stations, is no problem these days, as it could be connected to the mains or to some form of local generation.

It could be a very green concept!

Lines that could be electrified in this way would include.

Selected stations would be fitted with charging and the trains would stop accordingly.

I’ve included the Far North Line because I believe it is possible to electrify the line in this way provided you could get a good enough electricity supply to the required number of stations. Obviously, you may decide not to do it, as you may have enough quality diesel trains.

Conclusion

If you could run electric trains on the Far North Line using charging at stations,  you could run electric trains on any line in the UK.

 

 

 

April 30, 2016 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , | 6 Comments