The Anonymous Widower

High Risk Of Coeliac Disease In Punjabis. Epidemiological Study In The South Asian And European Populations Of Leicestershire

The title of this post, is the same as that of this peer-reviewed paper on PubMed.gov.

This is the abstract of the paper.

The purpose of this study was to measure the incidence of coeliac disease in different ethnic communities and investigate the hypothesis that the incidence is decreasing in most European countries and the role incomplete retrieval of data may play. In a retrospective study of histologically confirmed cases of coeliac disease between 1975 and 1989 in the City of Leicester, 106 patients with coeliac disease were identified. Of these 86 were European and 20 Asian. The overall incidence of coeliac disease in Europeans was 2.5/10(5)/year (95% CI 2-3.2), in Gujaratis 0.9/10(5)/year (95% CI 0.4-1.8), and in Punjabis 6.9 (95% CI 3.2-12.3). These differences were independent of religious belief. The relative risk to Punjabis compared with Europeans is 2.9 (95% CI 1.5-5.3; chi 2 = 12.5, p < 0.01) and to Gujaratis 8.1 (95% CI 3-22.4; chi 2 = 25; p < 0.001). Gujaratis were at 0.4 risk of Europeans (90% CI 0.2-0.8; chi 2 = 6.7; p < 0.01). The incidence in the urban populations of Leicester was 6/10(5)/year (95% CI 1.3-1.9) which was significantly lower than the 3.2/10(5)/year (95% CI 2.7-3.8; chi 2 = 5.6; p < 0.001) in surrounding rural areas. This study shows that the incidence of coeliac disease in Punjabis (Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims) is 8 times higher than in Gujaratis (Hindus and Muslims) and 4 times higher than in Europeans in Leicester.

I find the last sentence in particular very significant.

I’m no medic, but I think it is reasonable to assume, that in a particular community for every diagnosed coeliac, there will be several undiagnosed coeliacs out there.

In this overview of coeliac disease on the NHS web site, this is said about the incidence of coeliac disease.

Coeliac disease is a condition that affects at least 1 in every 100 people in the UK.

But some experts think this may be underestimated because milder cases may go undiagnosed or be misdiagnosed as other digestive conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

Reported cases of coeliac disease are around 3 times higher in women than men.

The one-in-100 figure is often used in web pages in European countries or Australia, Canada and the United States, so I’ll go along with that.

So does that mean that Punjabis living in Leicester, have a one-in-twenty-five  likelihood of being coeliac?

Whether you have been diagnosed though, is a matter of pure luck.

I had been having gut problems for years and then one Autumn, I didn’t see my GP, but a very elderly locum, who as I had recently had my fiftieth birthday, gave me a present of my first blood test.

It turned out my B12 levels were very low and after several months of B12 injections, which made little difference to my B12, my GP decided to send me to a consultant at Addenbrooke’s Hospital in Cambridge.

My appointment was on a Monday morning and consultant took about ten minutes to ask a few questions, after which he said they would take a few bloods.

On the Wednesday morning, I received a letter that said, that I was probably suffering from coeliac disease and this would be confirmed by endoscopy.

Was I diagnosed solely by analysis of my blood? This was in 1997, which is after the date of the Leicester study.

Two endoscopies without sedative or anaesthetic were performed and I was confirmed as coeliac.

The first was performed by Dr. Richard Hardwick and the second by Dr. Rebecca Fitzgerald.

Both doctors feature in this story on the Cambridge University Hospitals web site, which is entitled Familial Gastric Cancer – Case Study.

My problems have been minor compared to the two sisters in the story.

My luck had been good and I recommend that everyone who feels they could be coeliac should get themselves tested.

Cases Of Covid-19 In Leicestershire

This article on the Leicester Mercury is entitled 11 Areas Of Leicestershire Have Among Worst Infection Rates in the UK.

In Coeliac Disease: Can We Avert The Impending Epidemic In India?, I started like this.

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on the Indian Journal Of Research Medicine.

With the high levels of COVID-19 in Leicester and an Indian population who make up 28.3 % of the population of the city, I was searching the internet to see if there was any connection between those of Indian heritage and coeliac disease.

I know you should not try to prove a theory. But as a coeliac, I’m very interested to see how the millions of diagnosed coeliacs on a gluten-free diet like me, are faring in this pandemic.

I then talk about some extracts from the Indian research.

In a section entitled, which is entitled All Wheats Are Not Equal, I say this.

The other dimension to this problem is that not all wheat is alike when it comes to inducing celiac disease. The ancient or diploid wheats (e.g. Triticum monococcum) are poorly antigenic, while the modern hexaploid wheats e.g. Triticum aestivum) have highly antigenic glutens, more capable of inducing celiac disease in India, for centuries, grew diploid and later tetraploid wheat which is less antigenic, while hexaploid wheat used in making bread is recently introduced. Thus a change back to older varieties of wheat may have public health consequences.

So did all these factors come together to create the high levels of Covid-19 in Leicestershire?

Conclusion

I am getting bored with saying this. More research needs to be done!

 

December 27, 2022 - Posted by | Health | , , , , , ,

3 Comments »

  1. I was diagnosed with Ceoliac disease in 2010. My symtoms have not changed, Regular B12 injections, lots of Iron tablets, and blood transfusions to keep my heart working. Last year my doctor said I no longer have Ceoliac disease. I am still losing blood every day, they claim it is not cancer. To be honest I did not expect to survive Christmas. I do agree that tests on ancient wheats do suggest that we do not do well with modern foods. Humans did not at one time live long lives, nor travel far from their ancestral homes. Did the Nuclear testing during the fifties alter the soils and air around the planet? Medical science, is at best, fragmented, relying on untested theories and suppositions. The East Europeans who arrived in East Anglia have a high degree of Intestinal ailments since arriving in England, it adds up, perhaps, even though Red Turkey Wheat originated from Eastern Europe, it has been geneticlly modelled for bigger yields.

    Comment by jagracer2021 | December 27, 2022 | Reply

    • Are you still gluten-free? A friend of mine and his Cuban wife, went through the covids without any infection on a Cuban diet.

      It is generally gluten-free with lots of meat.

      All the high-gluten wheats in the Middle Ages were developed in Germany and I’ve read that these brought the plague back in the 1600s.

      Where does your coeliac disease come from? Mine comes from my great-great-great grandfather, who was born in Konigsberg in East Prussia around 1800.

      Comment by AnonW | December 27, 2022 | Reply

      • I was told before Christmas that I still Coeliac free. I have not taken Gluten free food for five years as my then doctor said they were bad for my health! My present Indian doctor has also challenged the diagnosis, and is trying to get more tests done. My ancesters were Norman French and Hugenou, Saxon Jutes, the French side from Poitiers, and Dutch, the house of Orange. Interesting how it works out. My Fathers side once owned a large slice of Kent. All my ancesters originate from gentlemen farmers and brewers.

        Comment by jagracer | December 28, 2022


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