The Anonymous Widower

Rolls-Royce Provide mtu Trigeneration Plant For Largest Data Centre In Romania

The title of this post, is the same as that of this press release on the Rolls Royce web site.

  • mtu Series 4000 gas generator sets to provide electricity, heat and cooling for ClusterPower’s Technology Campus in Craiova
    The completed campus will feature five data centers and provide a significant boost to the region’s global IT infrastructure competitiveness
  • Rolls-Royce, along with its distributor partner Knopf & Wallisch (K&W), has supplied three mtu customized and containerized combined cooling, heat and power plant (CCHP) trigeneration units to Romanian cloud service provider ClusterPower. They will be used for the efficient and sustainable energy supply at its new technology campus near the southern Romanian city of Craiova, where the IT company will open the largest data center in Romania.

The press release also says that trigeneration plants are hydrogen-ready.

The engines are gas engines, that can be converted to running on a mix of 25 % hydrogen and natural gas or eventually to pure hydrogen.

Conclusion

This would appear to be a neat way to sell the end customer an engine that can handle natural gas now and convert it over time to hydrogen.

January 14, 2022 Posted by | Computing, Energy, Hydrogen | , , , | Leave a comment

Will We See Class 43 Power Cars Converted To Hydrogen?

To say that the Class 43 power cars of the InterCity 125 trains are iconic is rather an understatement.

Note.

They were built by British Rail in the late 1970s and early 1980s.

  • They have an operating speed of 125 mph.
  • They are now powered by a modern MTU 16V4000 R41R diesel engine after being re-engined earlier this century.
  • They have an electric transmission.

According to Wikipedia, there are over a hundred and twenty in service.

At the back of the power car there is a lot of space, as this picture shows.

This press release from Rolls-Royce is entitled Rolls-Royce Launches mtu Hydrogen Solutions For Power Generation.

These are the introductory bullet points to the press release.

  • From 2022 mtu Series 500 and Series 4000 ready for 25% hydrogen
  • From 2023 mtu engines and conversion kits available for 100% hydrogen

And what engine is there in a Class 43 power car? – It’s an MTU 16V4000 R41R diesel engine.

Is it an mtu Series 4000 engine?

If it is, there is space in the back of the power car for the hydrogen tank and the diesel engine can be converted to run on hydrogen, Rolls-Royce have everything they need break the speed record for hydrogen-powered trains. After all power cars; 43102 and 43159 hold the diesel-train speed record at 148 mph.

That would be some Roller.

December 24, 2021 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , | 8 Comments

Rolls-Royce Invests In Methanol Technology For Climate-Friendly Shipping

The title of this post, is the same as this press release from Rolls-Royce.

The press report starts with these bullet points.

  •  Rolls-Royce Power Systems to set standards in high-speed marine methanol engines
  •  New engines based on proven mtu technologies
  •  Methanol and synthetic diesel as key fuels of the future for climate-friendly engine operation
  •  Fuel cell another option on the way to climate-neutral ship operation

It then says this

Rolls-Royce is focusing on methanol as a fuel for climate-friendly shipping: Rolls-Royce business unit Power Systems is currently working on mtu engines for use with methanol. The new high-speed four-stroke engines, which are based on proven mtu technologies, are planned to be available to customers as soon as possible for use in commercial ships and yachts.

This paragraph gives the reasons, why Rolls-Royce is in favour of methanol.

Methanol offers a number of advantages for Rolls-Royce’s efforts to make shipping more climate-friendly and ultimately climate-neutral: The fuel can be produced in a CO2-neutral manner in the so-called power-to-X process, in which CO2 is captured from the air. The energy density of methanol is high compared to other sustainable fuels and, thanks to its liquid state, it can be easily stored and refuelled at ambient temperatures. Existing infrastructure can continue to be used in many cases. Unlike ammonia, methanol is not highly toxic and is environmentally safe. The combustion of methanol in a pure methanol engine can be climate-neutral with significantly reduced nitrogen oxide emissions, thus eliminating the need for complex SCR exhaust gas aftertreatment. Methanol tanks can be flexibly arranged in the ship and require significantly lower safety measures compared to hydrogen or ammonia. Besides the safety aspects and the lower complexity, the lower investment costs for users are a further upside of the methanol tank system.

Methanol seems to be a convenient and safe fuel, which is easier to incorporate into the marine environment, than hydrogen or ammonia.

Wikipedia says this about methanol’s use in shipping.

Methanol is an alternative fuel for ships that helps the shipping industry meet increasingly strict emissions regulations. It significantly reduces emissions of sulphur oxides (SOx), nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter. Methanol can be used with high efficiency in marine diesel engines after minor modifications using a small amount of pilot fuel (Dual fuel).

Rolls-Royce certainly seem to be keen to use the fuel. They also seem to have the technology.

December 24, 2021 Posted by | Energy | , , , , , | 4 Comments

Rolls-Royce Makes Duisburg Container Terminal Climate Neutral With MTU Hydrogen Technology

The title of this post, is the same as this press release from Rolls-Royce.

This is the first sentence.

Rolls-Royce will ensure a climate-neutral energy supply at the container terminal currently under construction at the Port of Duisburg, Germany.

There is also this Rolls-Royce graphic, which shows the energy sources.

It would appear batteries,  combined heap and power (CHP), grid electricity, hydrogen electrolyser, hydrogen storage and renewable electricity are being brought together to create a climate-neutral energy system.

  • As the graphic was named hydrogen technology for ports, I would assume that this is a Rolls-Royce mtu system that will be deployed at more than one port around the world.
  • Note the H2 CHPs in the graphic. Could these be applications for Rolls-Royce’s beer keg-sized 2.5 MW electrical generator based on a Super Hercules engine?
  • One of Rolls-Royce’s small modular nuclear reactors could be ideal for a large port outside Germany.

This is the last paragraph of the press release.

“Hydrogen technology is no longer a dream of the future, but hydrogen technology will prove itself in everyday use in Duisburg. The parallel use of fuel cell solutions and hydrogen engines shows that we have taken the right path with our technology-open approach to the development of new solutions for the energy supply of the future,” says Andreas Schell, CEO of Rolls-Royce Power Systems.

Rolls-Royce mtu appear to be very serious about the possibilities of hydrogen.

 

December 24, 2021 Posted by | Energy, Energy Storage, Hydrogen | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

What Will Happen To Northern’s Class 195 Trains?

Northern’s Class 195 trains could be a problem in the future.

  • They are diesel multiple units.
  • There are twenty-five two-car trains and thirty-three three-car trains.
  • All cars have a Rolls-Royce MTU 6H1800R85L diesel engine, that drives the train through a ZF EcoLife 6-speed transmission.
  • They are 100 mph trains, which is adequate for the routes they serve.
  • According to Wikipedia, the trains are designed for a lifespan of thirty-five years, which takes the trains past the date, when it is intended that all trains should be zero-carbon.

It looks to me, that a plan will be needed to decarbonise these trains, as they are probably too new and costly to scrap.

These are possibilities to upgrade them to zero-carbon.

Rebuild as Class 331 Electric Trains

The design of the Class 195 trains is based on the same platform as that of the Class 331 trains.

I would expect that it could be possible to rebuild the Class 195 trains as Class 331 trains.

But it would be an expensive and disruptive process and would require a lot of electrification.

Some battery-electric versions could be created to cut the need for electrification.

Run The Trains On Net-Zero Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil Or Other Fuels

In Powered By HVO, I wrote about research going on into the use of Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil or HVO.

There is also ongoing research into other net-zero fuels that can be used in a diesel engine.

The process used by Velocys to create sustainable aviation fuel can also be used to produce diesel from various sources like disposable nappies, household waste and scrap wood.

Run The Trains On A Dual Fuel Basis With Hydrogen

In Grand Central DMU To Be Used For Dual-Fuel Trial, I talk about how Grand Central in collaboration with a company called G-volution are running experiments with dual-fuelling a Class 180 train. G-volution state that they could dual fuel with hydrogen using their technology.

The Class 180 trains have Cummins engines, but I suspect G-volution’s technology or something similar could be applied to the Rolls-Royce MTU engines in the Class 195 trains.

This could be a very promising route.

Convert The Diesel Engines To Run On Hydrogen

Cummins and JCB have developed internal combustion engines, that can run on hydrogen. I would be very surprised if Rolls-Royce MTU are not developing this technology.

Conclusion

There are options to convert the Class 195 trains into low or zero-carbon trains.

.

December 23, 2021 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , , , , , , | 10 Comments

The Mathematics Of A Hydrogen-Powered Freight Locomotive

If we are going to decarbonise the railways in the UK and in many countries of the world, there is a need to replace diesel locomotives with a zero-carbon alternative.

In looking at Airbus’s proposal for hydrogen powered aircraft in ZEROe – Towards The World’s First Zero-Emission Commercial Aircraft, it opened my eyes to the possibilities of powering freight locomotives using gas-turbine engines running on liquid hydrogen.

A Hydrogen-Powered Equivalent Of A Class 68 Locomotive

The Class 68 Locomotive is a modern diesel locomotive used on UK railways.

This is a brief specification

  • It can pull both passenger and freight trains.
  • It has an operating speed of 100 mph.
  • The diesel engine is rated at 2.8 MW
  • It has an electric transmission.
  • It has a 5,000 litre diesel tank.
  • It weighs 85 tonnes.
  • It is 20.5 metres long.

There are thirty-four of these locomotives in service, where some haul passenger trains for Chiltern Railways and TransPennine Express.

Rolls-Royce’s Staggering Development

Staggering is not my word, but that of Paul Stein, who is Rolls-Royce’s Chief Technology Officer.

He used the word in a press release, which I discuss in Our Sustainability Journey.

To electrify aviation, Rolls-Royce has developed a 2.5 MW generator, based on a small gas-turbine engine, which Paul Stein describes like this.

Amongst the many great achievements from E-Fan X has been the generator – about the same size as a beer keg – but producing a staggering 2.5 MW. That’s enough power to supply 2,500 homes and fully represents the pioneering spirit on this project.

This generator is designed for flight and the data sheet for the gas-turbine engine is available on the Internet.

  • It has a weight of under a couple of tonnes compared to the thirteen tonnes of the diesel engine and generator in a Class 68 locomotive.
  • It is almost as powerful as the diesel.
  • It looks to be as frugal, if not more so!
  • Rolls-Royce haven’t said if this gas-turbine can run on aviation biofuel, but as many of Rolls-Royce’s large engines can, I would be very surprised if it couldn’t!

Rolls-Royce’s German subsidiary; MTU is a large producer of rail and maritime diesel engines, so the company has the expertise to customise the generator for rail applications.

Could this generator be modified to run on liquid hydrogen and used to power a Class 68-sized locomotive?

  • The size of the generator must be an advantage.
  • Most gas-turbine engines can be modified to run on natural gas and hydrogen.
  • Its power output is electricity.
  • There’s probably space to fit two engines in a Class 68 locomotive.

In addition, a battery could be added to the transmission to enable regenerative braking to battery, which would increase the efficiency of the locomotive.

Storing Enough Hydrogen

I believe that the hydrogen-powered locomotive should carry as much energy as a Class 68 locomotive.

  • A Class 68 locomotive has a capacity of 5,000 litres of diesel fuel.
  • This will have a mass of 4.19 tonnes.
  • Each kilogram of diesel can produce 47 Mega Joules of energy.
  • This means that full fuel tanks contain 196,695 Mega Joules of energy.
  • Each litre of liquid hydrogen can produce 10.273 Mega Joules of energy

This means that to carry the same amount of energy will need 19,147 litres or 19.15 cubic metres of liquid hydrogen.

  • This could be contained in a cylindrical tank with a diameter of 2 metres and a length of 6 metres.
  • It would also weigh 1.38 tonnes.

The E-Fan-X aircraft project must have worked out how to store, similar amounts of liquid hydrogen.

Note that I used this Energy And Fuel Data Sheet from Birmingham University.

Running On Electrification

As the locomotive would have an electric transmission, there is no reason, why it could not run using both 25 KVAC overhead and 750 VDC third-rail electrification.

This would enable the locomotive to haul trains efficiently on partially electrified routes like between Felixstowe and Leeds.

Hydrogen-Powered Reciprocating Engines

When it comes to diesel engines to power railway locomotives and big trucks, there are few companies bigger than Cummins, which in 2018, turned over nearly 24 billion dollars.

  • A large proportion of this revenue could be at risk, if governments around the world, get serious about decarbonisation.
  • Cummins have not let the worst just happen and in 2019, they acquired Hydrogenics, who are a hydrogen power company, that they now own in an 81/19 partnership with Air Liquide.
  • Could all this expertise and Cummins research combine to produce powerful hydrogen-powered reciprocating engines?
  • Other companies, like ABC and ULEMCo are going this route, to modify existing diesel engines to run on hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and diesel.

I believe it is very likely, that Cummins or another company comes up with a solution to decarbonise rail locomotives, based on a conversion of an existing diesel engine.

Refuelling Hydrogen-Powered Rail Locomotives

One of problems with hydrogen-powered trucks and cars, is that there is no nationwide refuelling network providing hydrogen. But railway locomotives and trains usually return to depots at the end of the day for servicing and can be fuelled there.

Conclusion

I feel that there are several routes to a hydrogen-powered railway locomotive and all the components could be fitted into the body of a diesel locomotive the size of a Class 68 locomotive.

Consider.

  • Decarbonising railway locomotives and ships could be a large market.
  • It offers the opportunities of substantial carbon reductions.
  • The small size of the Rolls-Royce 2.5 MW generator must offer advantages.
  • Some current diesel-electric locomotives might be convertible to hydrogen power.

I very much feel that companies like Rolls-Royce and Cummins (and Caterpillar!), will move in and attempt to claim this lucrative worldwide market.

September 25, 2020 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , , , , , , | 11 Comments