The Anonymous Widower

A Battery-Electric Class 99 Locomotive

In GB Railfreight Plans Order For Future-Proofed Bi-Mode Locomotives, I introduced the Class 99 locomotive, for which the first order was announced by Stadler and GB Railfreight today.

This was the start of that post, which I wrote in early March 2022.

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Railway Gazette.

This is the introductory paragraph.

GB Railfreight is planning to order a fleet of main line electro-diesel locomotives with a modular design which would facilitate future replacement of the diesel engine with a battery or hydrogen fuel cell module.

The rest of the article gives clues to the deal and the specification of the locomotives.

  • Negotiations appear to have started with Stadler for locomotives to be built at their Valencia plant.
  • Twenty locomotives could be ordered initially, with options for thirty.
  • The locomotive will be Co-Co bi-modes.
  • The diesel engine will be for heavy main line freight and not just last-mile operations.
  • They would be capable of hauling freight trains between Ipswich and Felixstowe, within two minutes of the times of a Class 66 locomotive.
  • They will be of a modular design, so that in the future, the diesel engine might be replaced by a battery or fuel cells as required and possible.

They have provisionally been called Class 99 locomotives.

Note the introductory paragraph of the Railway Gazette article.

GB Railfreight is planning to order a fleet of main line electro-diesel locomotives with a modular design which would facilitate future replacement of the diesel engine with a battery or hydrogen fuel cell module.

What sort of range and performance will this give to a Class 99 locomotive?

In Class 99 Electro-Diesel Locomotive Order Confirmed, I came to this conclusion.

It does appear that a design based around the latest version of a Caterpillar C175-16 diesel engine will be possible.

The easiest way to create a battery-electric Class 99 locomotive would be to replace the Caterpillar C175-16 diesel engine with the largest and most efficient batteries possible, add regenerative braking to battery and the best control system for the locomotive and the batteries, that engineers can devise.

These are my thoughts.

Range Of A Euro Dual On Diesel

Consider.

  • A Euro Dual locomotive has a 3,500 litre fuel tank.
  • A Euro Dual locomotive has a fuel consumption of 1039.3 L/hr.

This should allow the locomotive to run for about three hours and twenty minutes or about 250 miles.

Obviously, any electrification on the route, will increase the range.

Weight Of The Diesel Engine

This data sheet for the Caterpillar C175-16 diesel engine gives a weight of over twenty tonnes, which is certainly a lot of weight.

You’ve also got the weight of the fuel tank, which could also contain in the Euro Dual hold nearly three tonnes of diesel.

I will assume that the weight of a Caterpillar C175-16 diesel engine and the associated gubbins could be as high as 25 tonnes.

How Much Energy Could A Twenty Tonne Battery Hold?

In Innolith Claims It’s On Path To 1,000 Wh/kg Battery Energy Density, which was written two years ago.

This was my conclusion of that post.

I am led to believe these statements are true.

  • Tesla already has an energy density of 250 Wh/Kg.
  • Tesla will increase this figure.
  • By 2025, the energy density of lithium-ion batteries will be much closer to 1 KWh/Kg.
  • Innolith might achieve this figure. But they are only one of several companies aiming to meet this magic figure.

These figures will revolutionise the use of lithium-ion batteries.

I feel it is reasonable to go along with Tesla’s figure of 250 Wh/Kg, which gives a 5 MWh battery could replace the C175-16 diesel engine, if it had a total weight of 20 tonnes.

If the battery could have a total weight of 25 tonnes, the battery would have a capacity of 6.25 MWh.

It does look like the Caterpillar C175-16 diesel engine and the associated gubbins could be replaced by a substantial battery.

As the years go by, the capacity of the batteries will only grow.

Will Battery-Electric Class 99 Locomotives Have Regenerative Braking?

According to Wikipedia, Stadler Euro Dual locomotives do have regenerative braking, so it would seem likely, that this could be used to recharge the batteries, in addition to 25 KVAC overhead electrification, where it is available.

I will assume that battery-electric Class 99 locomotives will have regenerative braking.

How Long Could A Battery-Electric Class 99 Locomotive Run On Batteries?

Consider.

  • To have the performance of a Class 99 locomotive on diesel, the locomotive would need to output 2,800 kW.

Without regenerative braking this would give these figures.

  • A 5 MWh battery would run for at least one hours and 47 minutes.
  • A 6.25 MWh battery would run for at least two hours and 13 minutes.

Add in regenerative braking and short strategic lengths of electrification and large parts of the UK network would be opened up to electrified trains.

Conclusion

Stadler have probably done extensive simulations of the UK network with battery-electric Class 99 locomotives, so they would know the true potential of these locomotives.

April 29, 2022 Posted by | Transport/Travel | , , , , | 6 Comments

Class 99 Electro-Diesel Locomotive Order Confirmed

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Railway Gazette.

This first paragraph gives details of the order.

GB Railfreight, leasing company Beacon Rail and Stadler have signed an agreement for the supply of 30 Class 99 six-axle electro-diesel locomotives for entry into service from 2025. The operator said they would the first electro-diesel locomotives capable of hauling heavy freight at main line speeds on the UK network.

The article also gives these technical details of the Class 99 locomotives.

  • Ability to operate under 25 KVAC overhead electrification.
  • Up to 6,000 kW under electrification.
  • Maximum speed of 120 km/h (75 mph)
  • ‘high-power low-emissions’ Stage V diesel engine.
  • Tractive effort of up to 500 kN
  • The locomotives will be compatible with British the UK loading gauge and specifications.

This document on the Stadler web site is the specification for the Stadler Euro Dual locomotives, that have been sold to German operator; HVLE.

These are some technical details.

  • Ability to operate under 25 KVAC overhead electrification or 15 KVAC  German overhead electrification.
  • Up to 6,000 kW under electrification.
  • Maximum speed of 120 km/h
  • Caterpillar C175-16 Stage IIIB diesel engine.
  • Engine output of 2,800 kW
  • Tractive effort of up to 500 kN
  • A Euro Dual locomotive has a length of 23 metres
  • A Euro Dual locomotive has a 3,500 litre fuel tank.

Wikipedia gives details of a Stadler Class 68 locomotive, which is shown in this picture.

These are some details.

  • There are 34 Class 68 locomotives in service in the UK.
  • Caterpillar C175-16 Stage IIIB diesel engine.
  • Engine output of 2,800 kW
  • A Class 68 locomotive has a 5,000 litre fuel tank.
  • A Class 68 locomotive has a length of 20.5 metres.
  • It should be noted, that a Class 66 locomotive has an engine output of 2,500 kW.

These are my thoughts on the design and specification of the Class 99 locomotive.

The Diesel Engine

The Class 68 and the Euro Dual appear to have a diesel engine, with these specifications.

  • Caterpillar C175-16 Stage IIIB diesel engine.
  • Engine output of 2,800 kW

Whereas the Class 99 locomotive is stated as having a ‘high-power low-emissions’ Stage V diesel engine.

So have Stadler fitted the latest Caterpillar C175-16 Stage V diesel engine into a Class 99 locomotive?

This would surely be likely, as any reputable diesel engine company would strive to reduce the emissions of their engines and make them compatible with the latest regulations.

Will 2,800 kW Be Enough Power On Diesel?

If the Class 99 locomotive has 2,800 kW from the latest Caterpillar diesel engine, this is the same as for a Class 68 and the Euro Dual, so it is likely to be enough power.

It is also more power, than is available from a Class 66 locomotive.

What Will Be The Length Of The Class 99 Locomotive?

It does appear that the Class 68 locomotive is 20.5 metres long and the Euro Dual is 23 metres long.

But this is not really unexpected as the Euro Dual has two larger three-axle bogies.

I suspect to use the equipment layout of the Euro Dual, that the Class 99 locomotive could be 23 metres long.

What About The UK Loading Gauge?

When it came to designing the Class 68, 88 and 93 locomotives, Stadler had no difficulty fitting all the gubbins in a 20.5 metre package.

If I am right in surmising that a Class 99 locomotive will be longer because of its larger bogies, I suspect that modern computer-aided design will enable Stadler to create a locomotive, that will fit the UK loading gauge.

Conclusion

It does appear that a design based around the latest version of a Caterpillar C175-16 will be possible.

April 29, 2022 Posted by | Design, Transport/Travel | , , , , , | 2 Comments