The Anonymous Widower

Wind And Solar Boom Will Bring Energy Surplus

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on The Times.

Under the picture, is this sub-title.

The government has set a target of 50 gigawatts of offshore wind farms by 2030, up from about 10 gigawatts at present.

According to this Wikipedia list of offshore wind farms, the UK currently has 2180 offshore turbines with a capacity of 8113 MW.

These wind farms appear to be planned.

Hornsea

The Hornsea wind farm is currently supplying 1.2 GW to the grid, but it is planned to be expanded to 6 GW, which is another 4.8 GW.

East Anglia Array

The East Anglia Array is currently supplying 0.7 GW to the grid, but it is planned to be expanded to 7.2 GW, which is another 6.5 GW.

Sofia

The Sofia wind farm will supply 1.4 GW from 2026.

Moray East

The Moray East wind farm will supply 0.95 GW from 2022.

Neart Na Gaoithe

The Neart Na Gaoithe wind farm will supply 0.45 GW from 2023.

Triton Knoll

The Triton Knoll wind farm will supply 0.86 GW from 2022.

Seagreen

The Seagreen wind farm will supply 1.1 GW from 2023.

Dogger Bank

The Dogger Bank wind farm will supply 3.6 GW from 2025.

Moray West

The Moray West wind farm will supply 1.2 GW from 2025.

Rampion 2

The Rampion 2 wind farm will supply 1.2 GW before 2030.

Norfolk Boreas

The Norfolk Boreas wind farm will supply 1.8 GW before 2030

Norfolk Vanguard

The Norfolk Vanguard wind farm will supply 1.8 GW before 2030

These wind farms total up to 31.1 GW

Morgan And Mona

The Morgan and Mona wind farms will supply 3 GW from 2028.

ScotWind

This map shows the wind farms in the latest round of leasing in Scotland.

These wind farms should be providing 24.8 GW by 2030.

Celtic Sea

In Two More Floating Wind Projects In The Celtic Sea, I give details of six wind farms to be developed in the Celtic Sea, that will produce a total of 1.2 GW.

All should be delivered by 2030.

Northern Horizons

In Is This The World’s Most Ambitious Green Energy Solution?, I talk about Northern Horizons, which will produce 10 GW of wind energy from 2030.

An Armada Of Wind Farms

As many of these wind farms will be floating and wind-powered, the collective noun must surely be an armada.

These are some figures.

  • The size is certainly spectacular at 70.1 GW.
  • As the UK electricity consumption in 2020-2021 was 265.4 TWh, the average hourly production throughout the year is 30.3 GW.
  • As I write this post, the UK is generating 30.1 GW.

As the best offshore wind farms have a capacity factor of around fifty percent, we should be able to power the UK with wind power alone.

So when The Times says this in the first two paragraphs of the article.

Britain will have excess electricity supplies for more than half of the year by 2030 as a huge expansion of wind and solar power transforms the energy system, a new analysis suggests.

Energy storage technologies, including batteries and electrolysers to make hydrogen, will need to be deployed at massive scale to prevent this surplus electricity going to waste, according to LCP, a consultancy.

The article would appear to correct.

The Need For Energy Storage

If we look at energy production at the current time, energy production is as follows.

  • Biomass – 0.5 GW
  • Gas – 17 GW
  • Nuclear – 5 GW
  • Onshore Wind – 12 GW with 20 % capacity factor – 2.4 GW
  • Offshore Wind – 8.1 GW with 30 % capacity factor – 2.4 GW
  • Interconnects – 0.4 GW
  • Others – 0.5 GW

This totals up to 28.2 GW.

In 2030, energy production could be as follows.

  • Biomass – 0.5 GW
  • Nuclear – 5 GW
  • Onshore Wind – 12 GW with 20 % capacity factor – 2.4 GW
  • Offshore Wind – 30 GW with 30 % capacity factor – 9 GW
  • Floating Offshore Wind – 40 GW with 50 % capacity factor – 20 GW
  • Others – 0.5 GW

This totals up to 37.4 GW.

So if you take a typical day, where on average throughout the day we are producing around 7 GW more of electricity than we need, we will actually produce around 7 * 24 GWh = 168 GWh of excess electricity

Whichever was you look at it, we have got to do something concrete with a large amount of electricity.

  • Store it in batteries of various types from lithium ion, through new types of batteries like those being developed by Highview Power and Gravitricity to pumped hydro storage.
  • Store the energy in the batteries of electric cars, vans, buses, trucks, trains and ships.
  • Store the energy in Norwegian pumped hydro storage.
  • Convert it to hydrogen using an electrolyser and blend the hydrogen with the natural gas supply.
  • Convert it to hydrogen using an electrolyser and use the hydrogen to make zero-carbon steel, concrete and chemicals.
  • Convert it to hydrogen using an electrolyser and develop new zero-carbon industries.
  • Convert it to hydrogen using an electrolyser and store the hydrogen in a depleted gas field.
  • Sell it to Europe, either as electricity or hydrogen.

Note.

  1. We are going to have to build a lot of batteries and I suspect they will be distributed all round the country.
  2. We are going to have to build a lot of hydrogen electrolysers.
  3. We have world class battery and electrolyser companies.

We should also fund the following.

  • Developments of technology, that makes better batteries, electrolysers, boilers and heat pumps.
  • I would also do a lot of work to increase the capacity factor of wind farms.

I also believe that if we have masses of electricity and hydrogen, we might find as a country, it’s very beneficial in terms of jobs, exports and a healthier economy to invest in certain industries.

Conclusion

The future is rosy.

 

May 7, 2022 Posted by | Energy, Energy Storage, Hydrogen | , , , , , | 4 Comments

Carbon-Cutting Test Run Sees Welsh Timber Return To Railway

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on RailBusinessDaily.

These are the first two paragraphs.

For the first time since 2005, a freight train carrying Welsh timber left Aberystwyth as part of a trial that could see regular freight traffic return to the Cambrian line.

The successful trial, aimed at exploring the feasibility of transporting timber by rail to reduce carbon emissions, opens up the possibility of removing hundreds of large lorries from the rural roads of mid Wales.

These are a few details and points from the article.

  • The terminal at Aberystwyth appears to have been just outside Aberystwyth station.
  • The timber was taken to Kronospan at Chirk in North Wales.
  • The 700 ton load of ten wagons was hauled by a pair of Class 37 locomotives.
  • The pair was needed because of the route.
  • Network Rail claim that upwards of sixteen trucks were taken off the roads of mid-Wales.

This Network Rail picture shows the loading of timber at Aberystwyth station.

And this Network Rail picture shows the two Class 37 locomotives.

It looks to me, that the locomotives pushed the empty train in and pulled the full train out. Once on its way, the train took the Cambrian Line to Shrewsbury and then it was about twenty miles to tyhe Kronospan factory at Chirk.

This video shows the train leaving.

I appears to have been filmed at a convenient level crossing.

Conclusion

It must have been a success, as they are going to repeat the exercise.

There would appear to be only one problem. The pair of Class 37 locomotives make a bit of a noise.

  • The pair have a power of 2610 kW.
  • I estimate that the journey between Aberystwyth and Chirk will take around two hours and thirty minutes.
  • Aberystwyth and Chirk is a distance of about a hundred miles.

It looks to me that this journey could be handled by one of the new Class 99 locomotives, that I wrote about in Class 99 Electro-Diesel Locomotive Order Confirmed.

I also doubt whether a battery-electric Class 99 locomotive could handle the route, but a hydrogen-powered locomotive, that fuelled at Aberystwyth might be able to do it.

I do think though, that passenger trains between Aberystwyth and Shrewsbury could in the future be hydrogen-powered.

So if hydrogen were to be provided at Aberystwyth, hydrogen haulage of the timber trains would be a possibility.

May 7, 2022 Posted by | Transport/Travel | , , , , | Leave a comment