The Anonymous Widower

Bi-Modes Offered To Solve Waterloo-Exeter Constraints

The title of this post is the same as an article by Richard Clinnick in Issue 912 of Rail Magazine.

The article is in turn based on this Continuous Modular Strategic Planning document from Network Rail, which is entitled West of England Line Study 2020.

The document is probably best described, as a document, that will need a lot of digestion for a full reading, but it does provide the reasons for what is said by Richard Clinnick.

The Need For Bi-Mode Trains

This is the a slightly edited version of the start of the Rail Magazine article.

Bi-mode trains should be ordered as part of a scheme to improve the service offered on the West of England route between London Waterloo and Exeter St, Davids, according to Network Rail.

In their extensive study, NR explains that additional capacity could be achieved on the route not only through infrastructure improvements, but also through lengthening some services.

The Network Rail report says.

This cannot be achieved using the current rolling stock fleet currently in operation; which are coming to end of life. Therefore, in the medium term, the opportunity to introduce new,
potentially bi-mode, rolling stock capable of achieving faster journey times and providing more capacity should be considered.

The report also suggests that electric, battery and hydrogen are mentioned as possible power.

South Western Railway’s Short Term Solution

In the short term, South Western Railway (SWR) have reorganised the service to meet short term objectives, which are described fully in the Network Rail report, but can be summed up as follows.

  • There is a need for a capacity increase between London Waterloo and Basingstoke and Salisbury.
  • There is a need for a capacity increase between Axminster and Exeter St. Davids.

SWR’s solution has probably been strongly driven by the needs of COVID-19, which means that a greater amount of space must be provided for each occupied seat. In the last couple of weeks, I’ve made six journeys in SWR’s Class 159 trains and like most other travellers, I’ve had four seats to myself. The trains may be thirty years old, but like most British Rail trains of that era, they keep giving valuable service.

For most of the day, SWR seem to offer the following solution.

  • Nine-car formations of Class 159 trains work between London Waterloo and Salisbury stations at a frequency of two trains per hour (tph)
  • Six-car formations of Class 159 trains work between Salisbury and Exeter St. Davids stations, at a frequency of one train per two hours (tp2h)
  • Passengers use a one-way system at Salisbury to walk between the two trains.

Yesterday, I took SWR’s trains between Clapham Junction and Yeovil Junction stations to observe the working of the route and take a few pictures.

My Observations

These are my observations.

Salisbury Station

This Google Map shows Salisbury station and the nearby Salisbury Depot.

These are some pictures I took at the station.

Note that the train in the platform is a nine-car formation which is 207 metres long. I would estimate that the platforms are around 220-240 metres long.

Yeovil Junction Station

This Google Map shows Yeovil Junction station.

These are some pictures I took at the station.

Note that the two trains in the platforms are six-car formations which are 138 metres long. I would estimate that the platforms are around 140-50 metres long.

Replacement Of The Current Class 159 Trains With Bi-Mode Trains

Consider the following train lengths and capacities.

  • A nine-car formation of Class 159 trains – 207 metres – 588 seats
  • A six-car formation of Class 159 trains – 138 metres – 392 seats
  • A nine-car Class 802 train – 234 metres – 647 seats
  • A five-car Class 802 train – 130 metres – 326 seats
  • A pair of five-car Class 802 trains – 260 metres – 652 seats

The figures for Class 802 trains are taken from the trains that are in service for Great Western Railway (GWR).

The following timings should also be noted.

  • London Waterloo and Salisbury – One hour and thirty minutes
  • Turnback time at Salisbury – Up to thirty minutes
  • Salisbury and Exeter St. Davids – Two hours and six minutes
  • Turnback time at Exeter St. Davids – Trains appear to go to Exeter New Yard for refuelling.
  • Wait at Yeovil Junction – Fourteen minutes

Note.

  1. The wait at Yeovil Junction station is so that trains can fit in with the large lengths of single-track on the West of England Main Line.
  2. The need to refuel the diesel trains would appear to be a major constraint on running more services on the route.
  3. Both legs of the journey have convenient times of one-and-a-half and two hours respectively.

Overall, I think the timings are helpful.

Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train

Hitachi have recently released details of their new Battery Regional train, which are summarised in this Hitachi infographic.

They have also signed an agreement with Hyperdrive Innovation to develop battery packs for their Class 80x trains, as I wrote about in Hyperdrive Innovation And Hitachi Rail To Develop Battery Tech For Trains.

Looking at the length and capacity table, I displayed earlier, it would appear there are several ways to run the service between London Waterloo and Exeter St. Davids using Regional Battery Trains.

  • Run nine-car trains between London Waterloo and Exeter St. Davids
  • Run five-car trains between London Waterloo and Exeter St. Davids
  • Run nine-car trains between London Waterloo and Salisbury and five-car trains between Salisbury and Exeter St. Davids
  • Run a pair of five-car trains between London Waterloo and Salisbury and a single five-car train between Salisbury and Exeter St. Davids, with selective splitting and joining at Salisbury.

Alternatively, the route could be electrified. But that has a few obstacles and disadvantages.

  • Would the various jobsworths allow this substantial length of third-rail electrification?
  • Would there be serious objections to using overhead electrification?
  • Would the travellers on the route, be prepared for all the disruption?
  • There is also the excessive cost of electrification.

I also believe, that only limited small infrastructure improvements would be needed to replace the current diesel trains with battery electric bi-mode trains like the Regional Battery Trains.

Regional Battery Trains Between London Waterloo And Salisbury

Consider.

  • London Waterloo and Salisbury stations are 83.5 miles apart.
  • The fifty miles between London Waterloo and  Worting Junction is fully electrified.
  • Only the 33.5 miles between Salisbury and Worting Junction are not electrified.
  • In the infographic, Hitachi are claiming a 90 kilometre or 56 mile battery range and a static charging time of between 10-15 minutes.

It would certainly appear, that if a train from London passed Worting Junction with full batteries, it would reach Salisbury. Also a train leaving Salisbury with full batteries would certainly reach Worting Junction and the electrification.

There would be three ways of charging the Regional Battery Trains at Salisbury.

  1. Fit a number of charging stations on the platforms.
  2. Install 25 KVAC overhead electrification.
  3. Install 750 VDC third-rail electrification.

I prefer Option 3 in a station like Salisbury.

  • It would be easy to install and British Rail probably drew up detailed plans several times, when full third-rail electrification was under consideration.
  • The trains will be fitted with third-rail shoes to access the third-rail electrification on the way to London.
  • Because of the depot, there’s probably a good power supply.
  • For increased safety, modern electrical design, could mean that power was only switched on when a train is connected.

As trains currently wait for some time in Salisbury, it would be likely, that trains would leave the station with a full battery.

Regional Battery Trains Between London Salisbury And Exeter St Davids

Consider.

  • Salisbury and Exeter St. Davids stations are 88.5 miles apart.
  • There is no electrification.
  • Yeovil Junction station is approximately half way and is 49.5 miles from Exeter St. Davids and 39 miles from Salisbury.
  • Typically, trains wait at Yeovil Junction station for up to fourteen minutes, to get through the single-track sections.

I believe that a similar method of charging to that at Salisbury could be used at Yeovil Junction.

There would also need to be charging at Exeter St. Davids station.

This Google Map shows Exeter St. Davids station.

Services from London Waterloo and Salisbury currently turnback at Exeter St. Davids station in the following manner.

  • They arrive from the track running to the station from the South East.
  • They unload passengers in Platform 1 which is the long platform on the East side of the station.
  • It seems that they then continue through the station to New Yard, where they refuel and do other things, that Class 159 trains do after a long journey.
  • At the appropriate time, they return to Platform 1, where they load up with passengers and leave by the way they arrived.

If a charging system or electrification, were to be added to Platform 1, the trains would be able to fill up in the station.

  • Currently, it appears that the Class 159 trains take over an our to do this complicated manoeuvre.
  • Hitachi are quoting a charging time of 10-15 minutes for their Regional Battery Train.

Could valuable minutes be saved, that would enable a more passenger-friendly timetable?

Charging Regional Battery Trains At Yeovil Junction Station

Currently, the timetable is arranged like this.

  • The Salisbury to Exeter St. Davids train and the Exeter St. Davids to Salisbury trains pass at Yeovil Junction station.
  • Both trains wait in the station for nearly fifteen minutes, which is an adequate time to fully-charge the batteries.

The picture shows the two trains in the platform together.

Currently, the timetable would seem to be ideal for battery electric train operation between Salisbury and Exeter St. Davids stations.

A Possible Timetable Between London Waterloo And Exeter St. Davids 

It did occur to me, that South Western Railway might be running a timetable, that could possibly be designed for Regional Battery Trains.

  1. A nine-car formation between London Waterloo and Salisbury could be replaced with a nine-car or a pair of five-car Regional Battery Trains.
  2. A six-car Salisbury and Exeter St. Davids could be replaced by a five-car Regional Battery Train.
  3. Trains could pass at Gillingham station between Salisbury and Yeovil Junction, as it is a two-platform station about half-way.
  4. Trains could pass at Honiton station between Yeovil Junction and Exeter St. Davids, as it is a two-platform station about half-way.

I think if it was needed, that two tph would be possible not only between London Waterloo and Salisbury, but also between London Waterloo and Exeter St. Davids.

I also think that the following detailed service pattern would be possible.

  • A pair of five-car Regional Battery Trains would leave London Waterloo at a frequency of two tph.
  • The front train would be for passengers for all stations between London Waterloo and Exeter St. Davids.
  • The rear train would only be for passengers for all stations between London Waterloo and Salisbury.
  • On arrival at Salisbury, both trains would charge their batteries.
  • When the batteries were fully-charged, the two trains would split.
  • The front train would continue on its journey to Exeter St. Davids, leaving the rear train in the platform.
  • The Exeter St. Davids to London Waterloo service would arrive at Salisbury and join to the train in the platform.
  • The pair of trains would then run to London Waterloo.

This service pattern has the big advantage that passengers travelling between a station East of Salisbury and one to the West of Salisbury, will not have to change trains

  • All stations on the line also get a two tph service.
  • Services would be the same or better on the whole route, to the pre-COVID-19 timetable.
  • There would be extra capacity between London and Basingstoke.

 

 

 

 

 

August 28, 2020 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Replacement Of South Western Railway’s Class 158/159 Trains

South Western Railway use Class 158 and Class 159 trains on the following routes.

  • London Waterloo and Salisbury (and Yeovil Pen Mill)
  • London Waterloo and Exeter St Davids
  • Romsey and Salisbury
  • Salisbury and Bristol Temple Meads

The two types of train are very similar, with the Class 159 trains being converted from Class 158 trains.

  • There are ten two-car Class 158 trains in service with South Western Railway. which have a capacity of around 140 seats
  • There are thirty three-car Class 159 trains in service with South Western Railway, which have a capacity of 196 seats
  • Each car has a diesel engine driving two axles through a hydraulic transmission.
  • Both trains have an operating speed of 90 mph.
  • The trains are all around thirty years old.

I took these pictures on my trip to Basingstoke station on Friday, when I rode in nine-car formation of three Class 159 trains both ways.

Note.

  1. For much of the route between Clapham Junction and Basingstoke, the trains were doing just a few mph short of ninety on the 100 mph route.
  2. The interiors are fairly spacious and I got a table seat both ways.

As diesel multiple units go, there are worse ones in service in the UK. And I don’t mean Pacers.

Replacement Possibilities

Ideally, these trains should be replaced with zero-carbon trains.

As most of the routes, on which the trains run are not-electrified, there must either be a lot of new third-rail electrification or battery electric trains must be used.

These are my thoughts for the various trains.

Two-Car Class 158 Train

These trains have the following specification.

  • Length – 46 metres
  • Seats – 140
  • Operating Speed – 90 mph

In Converting Class 456 Trains Into Two-Car Battery Electric Trains, I stated that these Class 456 battery electric trains would have the following specification.

  • Seats – 113
  • Range on Battery Power – 30-40 miles
  • Operating Speed – 75 mph

I also felt that as the trains would receive a new AC traction system, that the operating speed could be increased to perhaps 90 mph.

I wouldn’t be surprised to find, that a professional conversion capitalising on Alstom’s work to create the Class 600 hydrogen train, could turn a Class 456 train into a battery electric replacement for a two-car Class 158 train.

Three-Car Class 159 Train

These trains have the following specification.

  • Length – 69 metres
  • Seats – 196
  • Operating Speed – 90 mph

Could these be replaced with a three-car Class 456 battery electric train, lengthened by the addition of a Trailer Car from a Class 321 train, that has been converted to a Class 600 hydrogen train?

As most Class 159 trains probably work in longer formations, this could be a possibility, to replace units working alone.

Two Three-Car Class 159 Trains Working As A Six-Car Formation

These trains have the following specification.

  • Length – 138 metres
  • Seats – 392
  • Operating Speed – 90 mph

This formation would be impossible for Class 456 battery electric trains, so it must be a case for calling up the heavy brigade, in the shape of Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train, which is described in this Hitachi infographic.

A five-car version of this train could have the following specification.

  • Length – 130 metres
  • Seats – 326
  • Range on battery power – 56 miles
  • Operating Speed – 100 mph
  • It would probably be able to work with both 25 KVAC overhead and 750 VDC third-rail electrification.

Note.

  1. More seats could probably be fitted if needed.
  2. Platforms where the trains would work can already accept nine-car Class 159 trains, which are 207 metres long.
  3. The trains would charge the batteries using the electrification between London Waterloo and Basingstoke.
  4. Fast Charge facilities would also be needed at some intermediate and terminal stations like Bristol Temple Meads, Exeter St. Davids, Salisbury, Westbury and Yeovil Junction.
  5. These trains would be ten mph faster than the Class 159 trains and this may enable the saving of a few minutes between London Waterloo and Basingstoke stations.

A six-car version would be possible, if more capacity is needed.

Three Three-Car Class 159 Trains Working As A Nine-Car Formation

These trains have the following specification.

  • Length – 207 metres
  • Seats – 588
  • Operating Speed – 90 mph

An eight-car version of Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train could have the following specification.

  • Length – 208 metres
  • Seats – 522
  • Range on battery power – 56 miles
  • Operating Speed – 100 mph
  • It would probably be able to work with both 25 KVAC overhead and 750 VDC third-rail electrification.

Note.

  1. More seats could probably be fitted if needed.
  2. Platforms where the trains would work can already accept nine-car Class 159 trains, which are 207 metres long.
  3. The trains would charge the batteries using the electrification between London Waterloo and Basingstoke.
  4. Fast Charge facilities would also be needed at some intermediate and terminal stations like Bristol Temple Meads, Exeter St. Davids, Salisbury, Westbury and Yeovil Junction.
  5. These trains would be ten mph faster than the Class 159 trains and this may enable the saving of a few minutes between London Waterloo and Basingstoke stations.

A nine-car version would be possible, if more capacity is needed.

More Capacity Between London Waterloo And Basingstoke

London Waterloo and Basingstoke was very busy before COVID-19 and it needed more capacity.

  • All the express passenger trains are capable of 100 mph, with the exception of the diesel Class 158 and Class 159 trains, which can only do 90 mph.
  • If these diesel trains were to be replaced by Hitachi’s Regional Battery Trains, these trains will be able to do 100 mph on battery power.

This speed increase will enable faster journey times and increase capacity.

  • But between London Waterloo and Basingstoke, they will be using the third-rail electrification.
  • Class 800 and Class 801 trains, which are cousins of the Regional Battery Train are currently able to do 125 mph between London Paddington and Swindon and London Kings Cross and Doncaster.
  • London and Doncaster is being upgraded to 140 mph running.

So will we see 125 mph running between London Waterloo and Basingstoke? I will be very surprised if we didn’t, before 2030.

Charging The Batteries

Much of the charging of batteries will be performed whilst running on electrified lines.

But as I indicated there will need to be Fast Charge facilities at intermediate and terminal stations.

The Need For A Universal Fast Charge Facility For All Battery Electric Trains

If you look at Salisbury for example, the facility would need to be able handle all types of battery electric trains. So the Government, Network Rail and the Office of Road and Rail must come up with a universal design of charging facility that can be used by all battery electric trains.

Standard UK electrification, which can be either 25 KVAC overhead or 750 VDC third-rail, can obviously be used, as all battery electric trains will be designed to be able to charge the batteries, whilst running on electrified lines.

But a Universal Fast Charge system is surely needed, that can charge every battery electric train running on the UK rail network.

Splash-and-Dash At Yeovil Junction Station

But I believe that trains like Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train, when working long routes like Salisbury and Exeter will need the equivalent of Formula One’s Splash-and-Dash, where a fast pit-stop enabled cars to complete the race in the most economic manner.

If you look at timings between Salisbury and Exeter on Real Time Trains, you find the following.

  • Salisbury and Exeter is 88.5 miles
  • Salisbury and Yeovil Junction is 39 miles
  • Yeovil Junction and Exeter St. Davids is 50 miles
  • Trains seem to be timed to wait between 8-14 minutes at Yeovil Junction station.
  • At several times during the day the Westbound and Eastbound services pass at Yeovil Junction station.

I would assume the wait and the passing, are so that trains can safely navigate the sections of single-track line, that are a legacy of British Rail’s policy of saving money, that affectively ruined the efficiency of sections of the network.

It would appear that a well-designed Universal Fast Charge facility at Yeovil Junction station could enable battery electric trains to run between Salisbury and Exeter St Davids stations, without any adjustment to the existing timetable.

This Google Map shows Yeovil Junction station.

Note.

  1. Yeovil Junction station is in the South West corner of the map.
  2. The West of England Main Line passes East-West through the station.
  3. The station has two platforms.
  4. The two lines running North to Yeovil Pen Mill and Westbury stations.
  5. The line running between the North side and the South-East corner of the map is the Heart of Wessex Line, between Yeovil Pen Mill in the North and Weymouth in the South.
  6. Most links between the West of England Main Line and the Heart of Wessex Line have been removed.

The station doesn’t appear short of space.

Great Western Railway’s Gloucester And Weymouth Service

If a link between Yeovil Junction station and the Heart of Wessex Line towards Weymouth, this would enable Great Western Railway’s Gloucester and Weymouth service to call at both Yeovil stations, with a reverse at Yeovil Junction.

It would surely, improve the train service for the town of Yeovil.

If in the future, it was desired to run the Gloucester and Weymouth service using a battery electric train, Yeovil Junction station could be used to charge the train’s batteries.

Vivarail’s Fast Charge System

Vivarail’s Fast Charge system has been patented and demonstrated and this could be used with both the battery electric Class 456 train and Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train.

So it could be used as an initial design for a Universal Fast Charge system.

Conclusion

A mix of these battery electric trains could probably replace the Class 158 and 159 trains.

  • Two-car Class 456 train
  • Three-car Class 456 train
  • Five-car Hitachi Regional Battery Train
  • Eight-car Hitachi Regional Battery Train

Note.

  1. Universal Fast Charge facilities would also be needed at some intermediate and terminal stations like Bristol Temple Meads, Exeter St. Davids, Romsey, Salisbury, Westbury and Yeovil Junction.
  2. Services between London Waterloo and Basingstoke could be faster.

These rebuilt and new trains would fully decarbonise South Western Railway.

 

 

August 16, 2020 Posted by | Energy Storage, Transport | , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment