The Anonymous Widower

What Happened To The Class 158/159 Bi-Mode Study?

In Class 158/159 Bi-Modes?, I discussed the possibility of turning South Western Railway‘s Class 158 and Class 159 trains into bi-modes.

I said this.

In the March 2018 Edition of Modern Railways, there is a short news item, which is entitled Bi-Mode Study For SWR DMUs.

The Class 158 and Class 159 diesel multiple units used by South Western Railway are diesel-hydraulic units.

Under their franchise agreement, South Western Railway, agreed to perform a study, to see if the multiple units could be converted from diesel-hydraulic to diesel-electric transmission.

If this is successful, then the plan would be to fit a third-rail capability to the trains, so they could use the electrification between Basingstoke and Waterloo on services to Salisbury and Exeter.

Could the conversion also raise the operating speed of the trains from their current 90 mph to a more timetable-friendly 100 mph?

It looks like it could be a feasible , especially as the article states they might re-use redundant modern traction equipment from Class 455 trains, which are due for replacement.

It sounded a sensible plan to do a study.

But we’ve heard nothing since.

  • Has the late delivery of the Class 701 trains, pushed the availability of the Class 455 trains, that wioll donate the traction system, too far into the future?
  • Has the Covids delayed another project?
  • Would First Group prefer more Hitachi trains as five of their companies use them or have them on order?
  • Is the 90 mph speed of the diesel trains, too slow for the busy London Waterloo and Basingstoke route?

Or could it be that Alstom, CAF, Hitachi, Stadler or another manufacturer have a much better zero-carbon plan?

September 13, 2021 Posted by | Transport | , , , | 2 Comments

Werrington Dive-Under – 8th September 2021

I had gone to Peterborough to take pictures of the Werrington Dive Under, from a train between Peterborough and Spalding.

I took these pictures going Peterborough and Spalding.

My train between Peterborough and Spalding stations took the following route.

  • The Class 158 train was a great improvement on the Class 153 train, I took in From Peterborough To Lincoln in 2015.
  • It started in Platform 1b at Peterborough station.
  • It then crossed over to the Down Fast line to go North.
  • Finally, it slowed to cross the Up Fast and Up Slow lines to go towards Spalding.
  • It is surely not an efficient and the safest way to run a railway.

Think about turning right on a busy dual carriageway, by going through a gap in the central reservation.

This diagram shows the new track layout of Werrington Junction.

Note.

  1. My train was going North on Line 5, so it had to use the two crossovers to get to the lines to Spalding.
  2. The Up Stamford (Line 4) can be seen in the pictures after the two lines have disappeared into the dive-under.

It’s a pity the first of my pictures aren’t better, but the sun was in the wrong direction.

I took these pictures going Spalding and Peterborough.

Note.

  1. The train used the Up Slow (line 7) to go between Werrington Junction and Peterborough station.
  2. The last two pictures show the Class 158 train in Platform 1b at Peterborough station.

At least this time, the train didn’t cross the Fast lines.

Will Passenger Trains Use The Werrington Dive-Under?

I’m very sure they will!

  • On the Western side of Peterborough station, there are four platforms 4 to 7 and an avoiding line for freight trains going North.
  • It appears that all of these lines can access the Down Stamford (Line 1) and Up Stamford (Line 4) to go to Werrington Junction.
  • At Werrington Junction, trains either take the route to Stamford or use the dive-under for Spalding.

It looks to me, that if the trains to and from Spalding terminated in one of the Western platforms, then they could use the Stamford Lines to access the dive-under and they wouldn’t cross the Fast Lines of the East Coast Main Line on the flat.

Greengauge 21’s Suggestion, That Thameslink Be Extended To Spalding

In the study by Greengauge 21, which is entitled Connecting East Lincolnshire, this is said.

As noted the Spalding-Peterborough line should be a strong candidate for electrification because of its freight potential, and if so it could also accommodate an extension of Thameslink services from London and the South East to Spalding where interchange would be made with a Spalding–Boston–Louth–Grimsby express bus using the A16.

This proposal may be possible, if instead of using the dive-under, the Thameslink trains were able to use the Up Slow (line 7) to go both ways between Werrington Junction and Peterborough station.

As in the near future, full digital signalling will apply through Peterborough, this shouldn’t be a problem.

Electrification Of The Werrington Dive-Under?

Consider.

  • There is a gap of around ninety miles in the freight route between the comprehensive electrification at Peterborough and Doncaster stations on the Great Northern and Great Eastern Joint Line (GNGE).
  • There are dozens of level crossings.
  • The route goes through the centre of Lincoln, where there are two level crossings.

There are two ways of decarbonising the route.

  • Full electrification
  • Using hydrogen-powered freight locomotives.

Both solutions have their proposers and opponents.

I favour hydrogen-electric hybrid locomotives, that can use electrification where it exists, as it reduces the infrastructure cost on overbridges and in freight depots.

  • Hydrogen-powered locomotives have a go-anywhere capability.
  • There are also a lot of routes in the UK, where freight trains currently run and it would take a long time to electrify all of them.
  • As rail freight companies would have to purchase a lot of new locomotives, I can see them opting for hydrogen-electric hybrid locomotives.

But there are others, who think the only way is full electrification.

London And Lincolnshire By Electric Train

Passenger trains are not a problem, as Alstom, CAF, Hitachi, Stadler and others have demonstrated battery ranges of over fifty miles.

LNER are currently serving Lincoln from London using Hitachi bi-mode Class 800 trains, which use diesel for the 16.5 miles between Newark and Lincoln.

Hitachi’s proposed Intercity Tri-Mode Battery Train, is described in this Hitachi infographic.

I believe it would be possible to handle London and Lincoln via Newark without using diesel.

It also looks like it will be possible to convert the LNER’s current Class 800 trains into Intercity Tri-Mode Battery Trains.

But I doubt their range would sufficient to go between London and Lincoln via Peterborough, Spalding and Sleaford, unless there were to be a charging system at Lincoln.

But surely though, the ideal train for Lincolnshire would be a train that ran between London and Cleethorpes via Peterborough, Spalding, Sleaford, Lincoln, Market Rasen and Grimsby Town.

  • Peterborough and Lincoln is 56.9 miles.
  • Lincoln and Cleethorpes is 47.2 miles.
  • The service could be timed for a convenient interchange with the other Lincolnshire train services.
  • The service could run perhaps a few times per day.

With charging systems at Lincoln and Cleethorpes, similar to the Hitachi ABB Power Grids system that I described in Solving The Electrification Conundrum, this service could be run by an Intercity Tri-Mode Battery Train.

Peterborough And Lincolnshire By Electric Train

If you could run between Peterborough and major places in Lincolnshire, as part of a London service, I also suspect that a well-designed Peterborough and Lincolnshire service could serve Lincolnshire almost equally well.

It might use Platform 5 to terminate at Peterborough.

  • This is paired with Platform 4, which is the platform generally used by LNER trains from London, so there would be a cross-platform interchange going North.
  • Going South, there would be a need to use the footbridge.

How many people would use an hourly cross-TransLincs service?

 

September 9, 2021 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Service Provision On The Levenmouth Rail Link

The reinstated Levenmouth Rail Link, will have two stations; Leven and Cameron Bridge.

According to this section in Wikipedia, which is entitled Service Provision, this will be the service.

The expected level of services is two trains per hour between Leven railway station and Edinburgh Waverley. Both will call at Cameron Bridge. One train will travel via Kirkcaldy and along the coast, while the other train will travel via Dunfermline along the inner Fife Circle Line.

In the Wikipedia entry for Leven station, it says that the service will take just over an hour.

Consider.

  • Services between Edinburgh and Glenrothes with Thornton take about an hour whether the go via Kirkcaldy or Dunfermline.
  • The current timings are based on Class 158 or Class 170 diesel trains.
  • If as I surmise in Trains On The Levenmouth Rail Link, the trains are battery-electric Class 385 trains, these trains with their electric power will at least match the schedules of the diesel trains.
  • Network Rail will design the track layout at Thornton junction, so that trains will clear the junction efficiently.
  • Glenrothes with Thornton station is only half a mile from Thornton Junction.
  • Leven station is only 5.9 miles from Thornton Junction.

I can see battery-electric trains moving smoothly and quietly up and down the Levenmouth Rail Line and around Thornton junction to provide a very efficient service to Edinburgh.

Could we even see trains from Edinburgh take this route?

Edinburgh, Haymarket, Edinburgh Gateway, Dalmeny, North Queensferry, Inverkeithing, Dalgety Bay, Aberdour, Burntisland, Kinghorn, Kirkaldy, Cameron Bridge, Leven, Cameron Bridge, Glenrothes with Thornton, Cardenden, Lochgelly, Cowdenbeath, Queen Margaret, Dunfermline,  Dunfermline Town, Rosyth, Inverkeithing, North Queensferry, Dalmeny, Edinburgh Gateway and Haymarket.

Note.

  1. A second service would run in the opposite direction.
  2. Trains would reverse and the drivers would change cabs at Leven station.
  3. Trains would charge batteries on the Levenmouth Rail Link and at Edinburgh.
  4. Every station on the route would get two trains per hour (tph) in both directions.

The hourly service between Edinburgh and Cowdenbeath could continue.

The Bridges Across The Firth Of Forth

There would be a battery-electric train every thirty minutes in both directions  across the Forth Bridge.

This Google Map shows the three bridges across the Firth of Forth.

Note.

  1. The most Westerly bridge is the  Queensferry Crossing, which carries the M90 and was opened in 2017.
  2. The bridge in the middle is Forth Road Bridge, which opened in 1964.
  3. The Forth Bridge is the most Easterly bridge and it opened in 1890.
  4. North Queensberry station is to the North of the bridge and Dalmeny is to the South.

After opening of the Levenmouth Rail Link, there could be a battery-electric train every thirty minutes in both directions  across the Forth Bridge.

This sounds like an opportunity to develop the bridge with its battery trains as a tourist attraction.

Battery-electric trains could run from Edinburgh to the following places.

  • Dundee
  • Perth
  • St. Andrews

And that’s just for starters.

Conclusion

There is a lot more to the Levenmouth Rail Link, than just a double-track railway to Leven, as it enables so much.

Related Posts

The New Leven Station On The Levenmouth Rail Link

The New Cameronbridge Station On The Levenmouth Rail Link

North From Thornton Junction

Trains On The Levenmouth Rail Link

Whisky Galore!

 

 

 

 

 

July 28, 2021 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , | 9 Comments

Ashington Targets 2023 Opening

The title of this post, is the same as that of an article in the April 2021 Edition of Modern Railways.

This is the sub-title.

A half-hourly service to Newcastle is planned.

The two trains per hour (tph) service and the opening date sounds just what is needed. Not just on the Northumberland Line, but in many places in the UK.

I would suggest some of the following.

There are also some much-needed stations, that could be added.

If we can create and manufacture a vaccine in a year, we can surely do a lot on a rail project in two years. And a lot of them! How many construction firms and workers would it keep employed?

The Modern Railways article gives a few more details.

How, Not If

This is the title of the first sub-section and sounds good to me!

It looks like Network Rail and others intend to apply good project management to deliver the project, fast and at a good price.

They haven’t been the best in the past, is all I’ll say!

Six Stations

This is said.

In summary, six new stations are proposed, at Northumberland Park (interchange with the Tyne and Wear Metro), Seaton Delaval, Newsham, Blyth Bebside, Bedlington and Ashington. An extension at the Northern end to Woodhorn is possible at a later stage.

Other points made include.

  • Ashington is envisaged as the terminus.
  • There are level crossing issues between Ashington and Woodhorn
  • There will be a cycleway connecting Blyth Bebside with the town centre. With all those B’s, they need an Geordie equivalent to Boris bikes!

It sounds well-thought out to me.

Butterwell Freight Line

This is said.

Also for consideration at a later stage is conversion of the currently freight-only Butterwell Line to passenger use, permitting a service from Berwick-on-Tweed and Morpeth to Newcastle via Bedlington.

This Google Map shows the railway lines North of Ashington.

Note.

  1. The big grey building at the bottom of the map is Asda’s Ashington superstore.
  2. There is a rail junction to the West of the superstore.
  3. The line going South leds to Bedlington and Newcastle.
  4. The line going North-East goes to Woodhorn, Lynemouth Power station and the Alcan Smelter.
  5. The Line going North West through the trees is the Butterwell Line, which goes to the Butterwell Opencast coal mine, Widdrington station and up the East Coast Main Line to Berwick-on-Tweed.

This second Google Map shows to the North of the first one.

Note the Butterwell Line runs from the South East corner of the map through the woods and to the East of the Ellington landfill site.

This third Google Map shows the route of the line to the East Coast Main Line.

Note.

  1. The electrified East Coast Main Line runs North-South down the Western site of the map.
  2. The large fields may indicate that coal has been removed and they have been restored.
  3. The Butterwell Line meanders its way across the map.
  4. Trains would appear to be able to enter and leave the Butterwell Line to or from the East Coast Main Line to and from the South only.
  5. The next station to the South is Pegswood and to the North is Widdrington.
  6. At the East of the map, the line connects to the line to Ashington through the woods.
  7. The Butterwell Line appears to be a mix of single and double track.

I wonder if Network Rail and train companies have a cunning plan for train services on this section of the East Coast Main Line.

Current services on the East Coast Main Line, that use the section of the line between Newcastle and Berwick-upon-Tweed include.

  • CrossCountry – 1 tph – Newcastle and Edinburgh/Glasgow – Stops irregularly at Alnmouth and Berwick-upon-Tweed.
  • East Coast Trains – 5 trains per day (tpd) – Stops at Morpeth
  • LNER – 1 tph – Newcastle and Edinburgh – Stops at Berwick-on-Tweed
  • Northern Trains – 1 tph – Newcastle and Morpeth – Stops at Manors and Cramlington
  • Northern Trains – 2 tpd – Newcastle and Chathill – Stops at Manors, Cramlington, Morpeth, Pegswood, Widdrington, Acklington and Alnmouth
  • TransPennine Express – 1 tph – Newcastle and Edinburgh – Stops at Morpeth

Note.

  1. Morpeth and Berwick-upon-Tweed get at least one fast tph to both Newcastle and Edinburgh.
  2. Stations between Morpeth and Berwick-upon-Tweed get only a two tpd service.
  3. Stations between Newcastle and Morpeth get a 1 tph service.
  4. The East Coast Main Line is only two tracks and I suspect that Northern’s slow diesel multiple units are not ideal trains for the route.

The obvious improvement would surely be to run an hourly train between Newcastle and Berwick-upon-Tweed, via Bedlington.

  • It would stop at Northumberland Park, Seaton Delaval, Newsham, Blyth Bebside, Bedlington, Ashington, Pegswood, Morpeth, Pegswood, Widdrington, Acklington and Alnmouth.
  • There would be a reverse at Morpeth.
  • It would join the East Coast Main Line between Pegswood and Widdrington stations.
  • Trains could be timed, so that passengers between Cramlington and Alnmouth only waited a couple of minutes during change at Morpeth.
  • Faster trains would be used to ease train pathing on the East Coast Main Line.

Current fastest times between Newcastle, Morpeth and Berwick-upon-Tweed are as follows.

  • Berwick-on-Tweed and Newcastle – LNER – 67 miles – 46 minutes – 87 mph
  • Berwick-on-Tweed and Morpeth – LNER – 50.2 miles – 30 minutes – 100.4 mph
  • Morpeth and Newcastle – TransPennine Express- 17.5 miles – 26 minutes – 40.4 mph

It looks to me that because of the times North of Morpeth, that a high performance train or some cunning signalling will be needed.

Britishvolt’s Gigaplant

BritishVolt are building a factory to produce lithium-ion batteries at Blyth.

The Modern Railways article says this.

Recent news concerning Blyth is that it has been selected as the site for Britain’s first ‘gigaplant’ for electric car battery production, with a planning application for the 95-hectare site on the north of the river Blyth (the location of the former Blyth power station) submitted by Britishvolt in February. The £2.6billion scheme is expected to generate about 3000 jobs; if all goes well, lithium-ion batteries could be produced on the site by the end of 2023. The new factory will be about 2.5 miles from Bebside station and there has been talk of linking to the site with a shuttle bus.

I looked at Britishvolt’s web site and if I was graduating soon, I don’t think it would fire me up, unlike others in similar sectors.

We live in exciting times, so don’t have a boring web site, as it will not attract exciting and enthusiastic people.

This Google Map shows the Port of Blyth.

Note.

  1. The red arrow at the top of the map labelled as a former power station, which must be Blyth power station.
  2. There is certainly a large cleared site to the South of the arrow.
  3. The Port of Blyth is to the East.
  4. Because of the power station and the port the site could be rail connected fairly easily.

Britishvolt seem to be planning to use rail freight to bring in raw materials and take out finished product.

The Modern Railways article says this.

The new factory will be about 2.5 miles from Bebside station and there has been talk of linking to the site with a shuttle bus.

As there is a rail connection, at some point in the future could a shuttle train be used? Or perhaps a few trains per day between the factory and Newcastle.

A Bridge For The A1061 At Newsham

The Modern Railways article says this.

A new road bridge will be built on the A1061 to replace Newsham level crossing.

This Google Map shows where the Northumberland Line crosses the A1061 at the level crossing at Newsham.

Note.

  1. The railway is double-track through the level crossing.
  2. It doesn’t appear to be a challenging project.
  3. A bridge could either be built along the existing route or a few metres to the South.

But as it looks like there could be more housing development in the area, would a bold design, that would allow a station to be added later be better?

Two Footbridges

The Modern Railways article says this.

In addition, there will be two new footbridges; Palmersville Dairy (replacing Palmersville foot crossing) and Chase Meadows (replacing Chase Meadows foot crossing).

This Google Map shows the Palmersville foot crossing to the West of Palmersville station on the Tyne and Wear Metro.

Note.

  1. The Northern pair of tracks are the Tyne and Wear Metro.
  2. The Southern pair of Tracks are the Northumberland Line.
  3. Palmersville and Northumberland Park stations are to the East.
  4. The current foot crossing is shown over the Northumberland Line.

It would appear that there is plenty of space for a footbridge.

Two Trains Per Hour

The Modern Railways article says this about infrastructure improvements to enable two trains per hour.

An extension of the double-track south from Newsham, for about 1 km in the direction of Seaton Delaval, along with a new 2.4 km passing loop between Holywell and Seghill, are in place in order to permit a half-hourly service in both directions.

From the maps, it looks like about half the route between Northumberland Park station and Seghill will be double-track.

It may even be possible to extend the double-track further South towards Northumberland Park station, if there became a need to run more trains on the Northumberland Line.

Operations

The Modern Railways article says this.

It is assumed that Class 158 DMUs will be the rolling stock for the first couple of years of service to Ashington, with three or four units required. Conversion of these trains (or replacement with new) to allow battery-electric operation is envisaged for the later years of this decade. There will be provision for two-car services at the outset with passive provision for extension to four-cars in the infrastructure works.

In Trains: £34m For Revival Of 50-Year-Old North-East Railway Line, I felt that the Hitachi Regional Battery Trains would be ideal for this route.

I said this.

I’m drawn inextricably to the conclusion, that the trains should be 100 mph battery-electric trains.

Hitachi, who have a factory in the North-East, have announced their Regional Battery Train in July 2020, which is described in this Hitachi infographic.

These trains can be based on Class 385 trains.

    • They are 100 mph trains.
    • They come in three- and four-cars lengths.
    • The three-car trains have 206 seats.
    • They can work in pairs.
    • They can use 25 KVAC overhead electrification.
    • They have a range of 90 kilometres or 56 miles on battery power.
    • The batteries would be charged on the ECML between Benton North junction and Newcastle station.
    • The battery packs will be designed and manufactured by Hyperdrive Innovation in Sunderland.
    • They have big windows for the views.

I’m sure Hitachi, Hyperdrive and Britishvolt would like a fleet in service, just up the road from their factories.

Now that the extension to between Ashington and Berwick-upon-Tweed via Morpeth is being talked about, I suspect that battery-electric trains, will be ideal for this route.

Distances without electrification of the two routes are as follows.

  • Benton North Junction and Ashington – 19 miles – 38 miles round trip
  • Benton North Junction and Widdrington – 27 miles

These distances are well within the planned range of the Hitachi Regional Battery Trains and they would even be capable of working a round trip to Ashington without charging at the Northern end of the route.

Batteries can be charged on the East Coast Main Line on the following sections of the route.

  • Between Benton North Junction and Newcastle.
  • Between Morpeth and Berwick-upon-Tweed stations.

Their fast acceleration and 100 mph operating speed mean that it could keep out of the way of the 140 mph Hitachi trains North of Morpeth.

Calling At Manors Station

The Modern Railways article says that because the East Coast Main Line is so busy, some peak services may have to omit the call at Manors station in the suburbs of Newcastle that is envisaged for the off-peak services.

I wonder with their faster acceleration, if the Hitachi Regional Battery Trains would be able to handle the stop at Manors station for all services.

Development At Ashington

The Modern Railways article gives this quote from Network Rail’s manager for the reopening project.

For instance in the centre of Ashington there’s a rather grim 1960s tower block that is owned by the county council that could be replaced by something more appropriate to today’s needs. This is Wansbeck Square in the centre of the town; the square is in line to be remodelled to make it more attractive. The integrated station and development need to be delivered at the same time for maximum impact.

This Google Map shows the Northerland Line going through the centre of the town of Ashington.

Note.

  1. Station Road running East-West .across the top of the map.
  2. The 1960s block could be to the West of the railway, especially as the Southern part is labelled Northumberland County Council.
  3. The site to the West of the railway does appear to be quite large.

The new station and the Wansbeck Square site does look look to have strong development potential.

 

 

 

April 9, 2021 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Teeside’s Refurbished Trains

On my trip around Teeside, I took four trains.

There was none of the usual rubbish, that I have endured in the North like this scrapyard special at Carlisle.

All trains were refurbished Class 158 trains.

They were a lot better, with tables and clean, working toilets.

But will they get replaced with hydrogen or updated to zero-carbon trains?

Hydrogen Trains

In Fuelling The Change On Teesside Rails, I talked about the local services on Teesside being run by a fleet of hydrogen trains, based on an article in RAIL Magazine.

But the order has not been placed and it must be getting tight if trains are going to run in a few years.

There was this report in the November 2020 Edition of Modern Railways, which is entitled Tees Valley Hydrogen Hub.

This is the first paragraph.

Mott MacDonald is to create a masterplan for the development of a hydrogen transport hub  in the Tees Valley. Transport Secretary Grant Shapps made the announcement as he travelled on the HydroFLEX on the 29th of September.

It appears the masterplan could be published in January and would cover several modes of transport.

Battery Electric Trains

There have been developments in the battery electric train field over the past few months.

Hitachi at Newton Aycliffe and Hyperdrive Innovation at Sunderland have partnered up to produce Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train. Three-car trains based on Hitachi’s Class 385 trains would be ideal for trundling around the North East.

The trains would need charging and what better charging system is there than Vivarail’s Fast Charge system? And they could be produced at Vivarail’s factory at Seaham just up the coast towards Sunderland.

As I indicated in £100m Station Revamp Could Double Local Train Services, where I said this about the location of chargers to power battery electric trains in the Tees and the Tyne.

There will need to be strategically-placed battery chargers around the North-East of England. These could include.

    • Hexham
    • Nunthorpe
    • Redcar or Saltburn – This would also be used by TransPennine Express’s Class 802 trains, if they were to be fitted with batteries.
    • Whitby

If Grand Central did the right thing and ran battery electric between London and Sunderland, there would probably be a need for a battery charger at Sunderland.

It appears that Adrian Shooter of Vivarail has just announced a One-Size-Fits-All Fast Charge system, that has been given interim approval by Network Rail.

I discuss this charger in Vivarail’s Plans For Zero-Emission Trains, which is based on a video on the Modern Railways web site.

Vivarail might just have another card or should it be train to play.

In the video, Mr. Shooter discusses using Vivarail’s technology to convert British Rail era diesel multiple units to battery electric trains.

Northern have already refurbished the Class 158 trains, so it would surely be an economical route to convert them to battery electric operation.

October 30, 2020 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport | , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Replacement Of South Western Railway’s Class 158/159 Trains

South Western Railway use Class 158 and Class 159 trains on the following routes.

  • London Waterloo and Salisbury (and Yeovil Pen Mill)
  • London Waterloo and Exeter St Davids
  • Romsey and Salisbury
  • Salisbury and Bristol Temple Meads

The two types of train are very similar, with the Class 159 trains being converted from Class 158 trains.

  • There are ten two-car Class 158 trains in service with South Western Railway. which have a capacity of around 140 seats
  • There are thirty three-car Class 159 trains in service with South Western Railway, which have a capacity of 196 seats
  • Each car has a diesel engine driving two axles through a hydraulic transmission.
  • Both trains have an operating speed of 90 mph.
  • The trains are all around thirty years old.

I took these pictures on my trip to Basingstoke station on Friday, when I rode in nine-car formation of three Class 159 trains both ways.

Note.

  1. For much of the route between Clapham Junction and Basingstoke, the trains were doing just a few mph short of ninety on the 100 mph route.
  2. The interiors are fairly spacious and I got a table seat both ways.

As diesel multiple units go, there are worse ones in service in the UK. And I don’t mean Pacers.

Replacement Possibilities

Ideally, these trains should be replaced with zero-carbon trains.

As most of the routes, on which the trains run are not-electrified, there must either be a lot of new third-rail electrification or battery electric trains must be used.

These are my thoughts for the various trains.

Two-Car Class 158 Train

These trains have the following specification.

  • Length – 46 metres
  • Seats – 140
  • Operating Speed – 90 mph

In Converting Class 456 Trains Into Two-Car Battery Electric Trains, I stated that these Class 456 battery electric trains would have the following specification.

  • Seats – 113
  • Range on Battery Power – 30-40 miles
  • Operating Speed – 75 mph

I also felt that as the trains would receive a new AC traction system, that the operating speed could be increased to perhaps 90 mph.

I wouldn’t be surprised to find, that a professional conversion capitalising on Alstom’s work to create the Class 600 hydrogen train, could turn a Class 456 train into a battery electric replacement for a two-car Class 158 train.

Three-Car Class 159 Train

These trains have the following specification.

  • Length – 69 metres
  • Seats – 196
  • Operating Speed – 90 mph

Could these be replaced with a three-car Class 456 battery electric train, lengthened by the addition of a Trailer Car from a Class 321 train, that has been converted to a Class 600 hydrogen train?

As most Class 159 trains probably work in longer formations, this could be a possibility, to replace units working alone.

Two Three-Car Class 159 Trains Working As A Six-Car Formation

These trains have the following specification.

  • Length – 138 metres
  • Seats – 392
  • Operating Speed – 90 mph

This formation would be impossible for Class 456 battery electric trains, so it must be a case for calling up the heavy brigade, in the shape of Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train, which is described in this Hitachi infographic.

A five-car version of this train could have the following specification.

  • Length – 130 metres
  • Seats – 326
  • Range on battery power – 56 miles
  • Operating Speed – 100 mph
  • It would probably be able to work with both 25 KVAC overhead and 750 VDC third-rail electrification.

Note.

  1. More seats could probably be fitted if needed.
  2. Platforms where the trains would work can already accept nine-car Class 159 trains, which are 207 metres long.
  3. The trains would charge the batteries using the electrification between London Waterloo and Basingstoke.
  4. Fast Charge facilities would also be needed at some intermediate and terminal stations like Bristol Temple Meads, Exeter St. Davids, Salisbury, Westbury and Yeovil Junction.
  5. These trains would be ten mph faster than the Class 159 trains and this may enable the saving of a few minutes between London Waterloo and Basingstoke stations.

A six-car version would be possible, if more capacity is needed.

Three Three-Car Class 159 Trains Working As A Nine-Car Formation

These trains have the following specification.

  • Length – 207 metres
  • Seats – 588
  • Operating Speed – 90 mph

An eight-car version of Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train could have the following specification.

  • Length – 208 metres
  • Seats – 522
  • Range on battery power – 56 miles
  • Operating Speed – 100 mph
  • It would probably be able to work with both 25 KVAC overhead and 750 VDC third-rail electrification.

Note.

  1. More seats could probably be fitted if needed.
  2. Platforms where the trains would work can already accept nine-car Class 159 trains, which are 207 metres long.
  3. The trains would charge the batteries using the electrification between London Waterloo and Basingstoke.
  4. Fast Charge facilities would also be needed at some intermediate and terminal stations like Bristol Temple Meads, Exeter St. Davids, Salisbury, Westbury and Yeovil Junction.
  5. These trains would be ten mph faster than the Class 159 trains and this may enable the saving of a few minutes between London Waterloo and Basingstoke stations.

A nine-car version would be possible, if more capacity is needed.

More Capacity Between London Waterloo And Basingstoke

London Waterloo and Basingstoke was very busy before COVID-19 and it needed more capacity.

  • All the express passenger trains are capable of 100 mph, with the exception of the diesel Class 158 and Class 159 trains, which can only do 90 mph.
  • If these diesel trains were to be replaced by Hitachi’s Regional Battery Trains, these trains will be able to do 100 mph on battery power.

This speed increase will enable faster journey times and increase capacity.

  • But between London Waterloo and Basingstoke, they will be using the third-rail electrification.
  • Class 800 and Class 801 trains, which are cousins of the Regional Battery Train are currently able to do 125 mph between London Paddington and Swindon and London Kings Cross and Doncaster.
  • London and Doncaster is being upgraded to 140 mph running.

So will we see 125 mph running between London Waterloo and Basingstoke? I will be very surprised if we didn’t, before 2030.

Charging The Batteries

Much of the charging of batteries will be performed whilst running on electrified lines.

But as I indicated there will need to be Fast Charge facilities at intermediate and terminal stations.

The Need For A Universal Fast Charge Facility For All Battery Electric Trains

If you look at Salisbury for example, the facility would need to be able handle all types of battery electric trains. So the Government, Network Rail and the Office of Road and Rail must come up with a universal design of charging facility that can be used by all battery electric trains.

Standard UK electrification, which can be either 25 KVAC overhead or 750 VDC third-rail, can obviously be used, as all battery electric trains will be designed to be able to charge the batteries, whilst running on electrified lines.

But a Universal Fast Charge system is surely needed, that can charge every battery electric train running on the UK rail network.

Splash-and-Dash At Yeovil Junction Station

But I believe that trains like Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train, when working long routes like Salisbury and Exeter will need the equivalent of Formula One’s Splash-and-Dash, where a fast pit-stop enabled cars to complete the race in the most economic manner.

If you look at timings between Salisbury and Exeter on Real Time Trains, you find the following.

  • Salisbury and Exeter is 88.5 miles
  • Salisbury and Yeovil Junction is 39 miles
  • Yeovil Junction and Exeter St. Davids is 50 miles
  • Trains seem to be timed to wait between 8-14 minutes at Yeovil Junction station.
  • At several times during the day the Westbound and Eastbound services pass at Yeovil Junction station.

I would assume the wait and the passing, are so that trains can safely navigate the sections of single-track line, that are a legacy of British Rail’s policy of saving money, that affectively ruined the efficiency of sections of the network.

It would appear that a well-designed Universal Fast Charge facility at Yeovil Junction station could enable battery electric trains to run between Salisbury and Exeter St Davids stations, without any adjustment to the existing timetable.

This Google Map shows Yeovil Junction station.

Note.

  1. Yeovil Junction station is in the South West corner of the map.
  2. The West of England Main Line passes East-West through the station.
  3. The station has two platforms.
  4. The two lines running North to Yeovil Pen Mill and Westbury stations.
  5. The line running between the North side and the South-East corner of the map is the Heart of Wessex Line, between Yeovil Pen Mill in the North and Weymouth in the South.
  6. Most links between the West of England Main Line and the Heart of Wessex Line have been removed.

The station doesn’t appear short of space.

Great Western Railway’s Gloucester And Weymouth Service

If a link between Yeovil Junction station and the Heart of Wessex Line towards Weymouth, this would enable Great Western Railway’s Gloucester and Weymouth service to call at both Yeovil stations, with a reverse at Yeovil Junction.

It would surely, improve the train service for the town of Yeovil.

If in the future, it was desired to run the Gloucester and Weymouth service using a battery electric train, Yeovil Junction station could be used to charge the train’s batteries.

Vivarail’s Fast Charge System

Vivarail’s Fast Charge system has been patented and demonstrated and this could be used with both the battery electric Class 456 train and Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train.

So it could be used as an initial design for a Universal Fast Charge system.

Conclusion

A mix of these battery electric trains could probably replace the Class 158 and 159 trains.

  • Two-car Class 456 train
  • Three-car Class 456 train
  • Five-car Hitachi Regional Battery Train
  • Eight-car Hitachi Regional Battery Train

Note.

  1. Universal Fast Charge facilities would also be needed at some intermediate and terminal stations like Bristol Temple Meads, Exeter St. Davids, Romsey, Salisbury, Westbury and Yeovil Junction.
  2. Services between London Waterloo and Basingstoke could be faster.

These rebuilt and new trains would fully decarbonise South Western Railway.

 

 

August 16, 2020 Posted by | Energy Storage, Transport | , , , , , , , , | 4 Comments

Westbury Station – 30th July 2020

I went to Westbury station today and took these pictures.

I found Westbury station to be a station in extremely good condition.

It also had a buffet, where I was able to purchase a delicious ice cream.

Passenger Services Through Westbury Station

I was at the station for about an hour and several trains passed through.

Great Western Railway services through the station include.

  • One train per two hour (tp2h) – London Paddington and Exeter St. Davids – Stops
  • One tp2h – London Paddington and Penzance – Passes through
  • One tp2h – London Paddington and Plymouth – Passes through
  • One train per hour (tph) – Cardiff Central and Portsmouth Harbour – Stops
  • One tp2h – Great Malvern and Westbury
  • One tp2h – Gloucester and Weymouth – Stops
  • One tp2h – Swindon and Westbury

Train classes included Class 800 trains and Class 166 trains.

South Western Railway services through the station include.

  • Five trains per day – Salisbury and Bristol Temple Meads – Stops

Train classes include Class 159 trains.

Battery Trains Through Westbury

Hitachi’s Class 800 train with a battery electric capability or Regional Battery Train, is described in this infographic from the company.

The proposed 90 km or 56 mile range could even be sufficient take a train between Westbury and Bristol Temple Meads stations on a return trip.

Many of the trains through Westbury go to the same stations.

Distances are as follows.

  • Bristol Temple Meads – 28 miles
  • Newbury – 42 miles
  • Salisbury – 24 miles
  • Swindon – 32.5 miles
  • Taunton – 47 miles

It looks like all of these places should be in range of an electric train with a battery capability, providing there is a charging facility at the other end.

An Electrification Island At Westbury Station

I have been advocating an island of electrification around Westbury station for some time and feel about a dozen miles of electrification through the station would be sufficient for Class 800 trains with a battery capability to bridge the gap.

  • At Newbury, trains would access the current electrification into London Paddington.
  • Between Exeter and Taunton, the rail route runs alongside the M5, so why not electrify this stretch, as the wires will not be so noticeable?

Looking at Westbury, to my untrained eye, it would appear that a short section of electrification around the station, would not be the most challenging of projects.

I believe that discontinuous electrification between Newbury and Exeter would be possible and could gradually be extended across Devon and Cornwall.

It should also be noted that one of Hitachi’s Regional Battery Trains has a range of 56 miles, so that these places from Westbury could be an return trip on batteries, with a well-driven train with excellent energy management.

  • Bath Spa – 17 miles
  • Bradford-on-Avon – 7 miles
  • Bristol Temple Meads – 28 miles
  • Chippenham – 16 miles
  • Frome – 6 miles
  • Salisbury – 24 miles
  • Trowbridge – 4 miles
  • Warminster – 9 miles

Obviously, the number of stops and the terrain will play a part.

Freight Might Drive Full Electrification Through Westbury Station

As the pictures show, there are heavy freight trains going through the area, which bring long and weighty loads of stone from the Mendips to London.

  • There are regularly two or three stone trains in an average hour of the day.
  • Like in the picture, I suspect they are usually hauled by a noisy, smelly, polluting and carbon-dioxide emitting Class 66 Locomotive. Not all of these, are as clean and well-maintained, as the one in the picture.
  • Some trains start at Merehead Quarry, which is about fifteen miles from Westbury station.

I believe that we must decarbonise freight trains.

But freight and electric haulage is not a simple subject.

  • I once had extensive talks with a Senior Crane Driver at the Port of Felixstowe during an Ipswich Town Away match. Ports don’t like overhead wires, as containers do get dropped and fall off rail wagons.
  • Suppose a historic line without electrification, like the Settle and Carlisle has a serious land-slip, which it did a couple of years ago. How do you haul in the materials for repair?
  • Because freight can be of a random and unpredictable nature, to electrify freight, you probably need to electrify the whole rail network.

For these and other reasons, we need independently-powered freight locomotives and I feel that a new freight locomotive will develop, that will be needed by the rail industry all over the world.

There are several solutions.

Biodiesel

Biodiesel is the simplest solution and would mean that the current diesel locomotives could be used.

In Grant Shapps Announcement On Friday, I talked about Government support for an industrial process, that has been developed by Oxford University and their spin-off company; Velocys, from the the Fischer-Tropsch Process, which can produce, the following fuels from household and industrial waste.

  • Aviation biofuel.
  • Biodiesel.

A plant to process 500,000 tonnes per year of Lincolnshire finest waste is now being built at Immingham to create 50,000,000 litres of fuel, by Altalto, which is a partnership between Velocys, British Airways and Shell.

If nothing else, waste-to-fuel is the interim solution to the decarbonisation of tricky sectors like heavy rail freight, rail construction, large diesel-powered machines, ships or long-distance aviation.

This fuel could be ideal to haul the heavy stone trains from the Mendips.

Hydrogen

I did think, it would be hydrogen powered, but I’m not so sure now, as hydrogen trains and locomotives seem to have a slow development cycle.

Although, there is one factor, that might influence the use of hydrogen as a fuel, which I wrote about in Thirsty High-Rollers … Mining’s Heavy Haulers Prime Candidates For Hydrogen Conversion.

Mining and quarrying don’t have a good green image, but converting mines and quarries to hydrogen power, would surely have operational and good public relational advantages.

It would also ensure a plentiful and convenient supply of hydrogen, for any hydrogen-powered locomotives.

Hydrogen-powered locomotives, with their electric transmissions, would probably be able to use electrification for traction power, so they would put pressure on the Government to electrify between Westbury and Newbury stations, so that there was a fully-electrified route between the Mendips and London.

Rolls-Royce’s Staggering Development

Staggering is not my word, but that of Paul Stein, who is Rolls-Royce’s Chief Technology Officer.

He used the word in a press release, which I discuss in Our Sustainability Journey.

To electrify aviation, Rolls-Royce has developed a 2.5 MW generator, based on a small gas-turbine engine, which Paul Stein describes like this.

Amongst the many great achievements from E-Fan X has been the generator – about the same size as a beer keg – but producing a staggering 2.5 MW. That’s enough power to supply 2,500 homes and fully represents the pioneering spirit on this project.

This generator is designed for flight and the data sheet for the gas-turbine engine is available on the Internet.

  • It has a weight of under a couple of tonnes compared to the thirteen tonnes of the diesel engine and generator in a Class 68 locomotive.
  • It is also more powerful than the diesel.
  • It looks to be as frugal, if not more so!
  • Rolls-Royce haven’t said if this gas-turbine can run on aviation biofuel, but as many of Rolls-Royce’s large engines can, I would be very surprised if it couldn’t!

Rolls-Royce’s German subsidiary is a large producer of rail and maritime diesel engines, so the company has the expertise to customise the generator for rail applications.

I can see this generator ending up in a high-powered heavy independently-powered electric locomotive for hauling stone and inter-modal container trains.

As with hydrogen-powered locomotives, this new breed of gas-turbine locomotive with its electric transmission, will be able to use electrification, where it exists.

So would locomotive developments drive the electrification through Westbury and especially between Westbury and Newbury?

I would rate is likely, that in the future, increasingly rail locomotives will have sophisticated electric transmissions, between their prime motive power of diesel, hydrogen, gas-turbine or whatever and their traction system. All of these locomotives will have pantographs and/or third-rail shoes to access electrification, where it exists.

These locomotives will surely add to pressure to electrify between Westbury and Newbury.

Biodiesel is surely the interim freight solution, if one is needed.

Future Zero-Carbon Passenger Services

Passenger services through Westbury can be divided into three groups.

Great Western Railway’s Services Between London Paddington And Devon And Cornwall

From Beeching Reversal projects put forward over the last few months, it looks like these services will increase and stop at several new and refurbished stations.

I can see discontinuous electrification being used to create a series of electrification islands to allow Class 800 trains, with a battery capability reach the Far South West of Cornwall.

Electrification islands could be at places like

  • Around Westbury station.
  • Between Taunton and Exeter St. Davids stations alongside the M5.
  • Between Plymouth station and the Royal Albert bridge.
  • Around Bodmin Parkway station
  • Around Truro station
  • At Newquay station
  • At Penzance station

Obviously, the number and type of the various installations will depend on the methods used and the engineering required.

I do believe that with Hitachi trains, that meet their specification, that trains will be able to travel between Paddington and Penzance without touching a drop of diesel.

Great Western Railway’s Cardiff Central And Portsmouth Harbour Service

The service can be split into the following legs.

  • Cardiff Central and Filton Junction – 33 miles – Electrified
  • Filton Junction and Bristol Temple Meads – 5 miles – Not Electrified
  • Bristol Temple Meads and Westbury – 28 miles – Not Electrified
  • Westbury and Salisbury – 24 miles – Not Electrified
  • Salisbury and Southampton Central – 15 miles – Not Electrified
  • Southampton Central and Portsmouth Harbour – 26 miles – Electrified

It would appear that a train with the performance and range on batteries of Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train should be able to handle the route, provided the following conditions are met.

  • It can leave the Great Western Main Line at Filton Junction with a full battery.
  • It can leave the electrification at Westbury station with a full battery.
  • It can leave Southampton Central station with a full battery.
  • Third-rail shoes are fitted for working between Southampton Central and Portsmouth Harbour stations.

Recharging batteries at Bristol Temple Meads and Salisbury stations, although probably welcome, are not necessary.

I can envisage Hitachi Class 800 and Class 385 trains being able to fulfil this role, along with Bombardier Electrostars and Aventras and Siemens Desiros.

As Great Western Railway have forty-five Class 387 trains, conversion of some of these to battery electric operation must be a possibility.

Great Western Railway’s Gloucester and Weymouth Service

The service can be split into the following legs.

  • Gloucester and Bristol Temple Meads – 39 miles – Not Electrified
  • Bristol Temple Meads and Westbury – 28 miles – Not Electrifield
  • Westbury and Dorchester Junction – 52 miles – Not Electrified
  • Dorchester Junction and Weymouth – 4 miles – Electrified

It would appear that a train with the performance and range on batteries of Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train should be able to handle the route, provided the following conditions are met.

  • It can leave Gloucester station with a full battery.
  • It can leave Bristol Temple Meads with a full battery.
  • It can leave Westbury with a full battery.
  • It can leave the South Western Main Line at Dorchester Junction with a full battery.

It would be a tight trip for a battery electric train and I suspect, that there would be some extra electrification between Westbury and Dorchester Junction or perhaps charging facilities at Frome or Yeovil Pen Mill stations.

The alternative would be to fit larger batteries on the train.

As to the train to be used, a Class 387 train with a battery capability would surely be ideal.

Great Western Railway’s Swindon and Westbury Service

The service can be split into the following legs.

  • Swindon and Chippenham – 16 miles – Electrified
  • Chippenham and Westbury- 16 miles – Not Electrified

It would appear that a train with the performance and range on batteries of Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train should be able to handle the route, provided the following conditions are met.

  • It can leave Chippenham station with a full battery.

This would have sufficient charge to do the thirty-two mile round trip from Chippenham to Westbury and back.

As to the train to be used, a Class 387 train with a battery capability would surely be ideal.

South Western Railway’s Bristol Temple Meads and Salisbury Service

The service can be split into the following legs.

  • Bristol Temple Meads and Westbury – 28 miles – Not Electrified
  • Westbury and Salisbury- 24 miles – Not Electrified

t would appear that a train with the performance and range on batteries of Hitachi’s Regional Battery Train should be able to handle the route, provided the following conditions are met.

  • It can leave Bristol Temple Meads station with a full battery.
  • It can leave Westbury with a full battery.
  • It can leave Salisbury with a full battery.

But, I do wonder, if with a slightly larger battery, a well-driven train could work the route with only charging the battery at Westbury station?

Conclusion

Could Westbury station develop into a zero-carbon rail transport hub for Wiltshire?

  1. It has an hourly train service between London Paddington and Exeter St. Davids.
  2. It has an hourly service between Bristol Temple Meads and Weymouth.
  3. There are hourly services to stations like Bath Spa, Bradford-on-Avon, Bristol Temple Meads, Chippenham, Dorchester, Frome, Swindon, Taunton, Trowbridge and Yeovil

It could be electrified to charge battery electric trains as they pass through.

 

July 30, 2020 Posted by | Energy Storage, Hydrogen, Transport | , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

South Western Railway Completes Trial Of Class 159 Emission Reducing Technology

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article  on Rail Advent.

This is Project 4 called Green Rail Exhaust After Treatment, that I wrote about in Grants To Support Low-Carbon Technology Demonstrators.

I also wrote about the project in SWR And Porterbrook Trial New Emission-Slashing Rail Technology.

This paragraph from the Rail Advent article sums up the results.

In partnership with Porterbrook and Eminox, South Western Railway has trialled a new system that has real-world reductions in pollution from nitrous oxides (NOx) by over 80% and hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and particulate matter (PM) by over 90%.

The technology appears to have performed well in a six-month trial.

As the proof of the pudding is always in the eating, it will be interesting to see how many systems are installed on the two hundred trains in the closely-related Class 158 and Class 159 train fleets.

June 30, 2020 Posted by | Transport | , , , | Leave a comment

Orders For Alstom Breeze Trains Still Expected

It is almost a year since I wrote Breeze Hydrogen Multiple-Unit Order Expected Soon, but no order has so far been placed.

But some things have happened or are happening.

At present, Greater Anglia appear to have 102 Class 321 trains in service, all of which could be converted to Alstom Breeze trains.

Although it should be noted that thirty trains have been upgraded to a Renatus specification, as cover, if there are any problems during Greater Anglia’s fleet changeover.

The Conversion Process

The 102 Class 321 trains will release the same number of each of the following coaches.

  • DTCO – Driving Trailer Composite Open
  • TSO – Trailer Standard Open
  • PMSO – Pantograph Motor Standard Open
  • DTSO – Driving Trailer Standard Open

Each three-car Breeze will need two Driver Trailer cars and a Pantograph Motor car to be converted.

Driver Trailer Cars

Consider.

  • Most two- and three-car diesel multiple units in the UK, don’t have First Class seats.
  • Many new trains like those of Greater Anglia and South West Trains don’t have First Class seats.
  • Seating in these cars will be very much reduced by the fitting of a large hydrogen tank.

I wouldn’t be surprised to see both types of Driver Trailer cars converted into identical cars.

Pantograph Motor Car

The Pantograph Motor car will be seriously modified, with these systems and components installed.

  • A new AC traction system.
  • Batteries fed by the fuel cells,
  • Regenerative braking

All will be controlled by a sophisticated energy management system.

  • Will regenerative braking be able to charge the batteries?
  • Will the pantograph be retained, so that on electrified lines, the trains can use the electrification?
  • Will the fitting of third-rail shoes be considered?
  • Will the train retain the 100 mph capability of the Class 321 train?

The train could be a real 100 mph efficient go-anywhere train.

New Interiors

New Class 321 Renatus-style interiors will be fitted.

The Class 321 Renatus is a high-class interior for a suburban train.

  • There are both fully-accessible and standard toilets.
  • There are power sockets and wi-fi.
  • Passenger information displays are fitted.

I suspect tables could be fitted, if the operator required them.

Northern Trains And The Alstom Breeze

The three-car Alstom Breeze is expected to have a similar capacity to a two-car diesel multiple unit.

Northern Trains Current And Future Trains

At present Northern have the following two-car diesel multiple units in service, according to Wikipedia.

In addition, there are eight three-car Class 158 trains, which gives a total of 107 trains, that could be suitable for replacement by Alstom Breeze trains.

If these were the only trains available, Northern would have to keep some old diesel multiple units in service for longer.

But there are other trains expected to enter service, in the coming months.

Northern should just about scrape through, especially as COVID-19 has reduced services.

I would think, that Northern could absorb quite a lot of Alstom Breeze trains.

Deployment On Teesside

In Fuelling The Change On Teesside Rails, I talked about using the trains on Teesside.

  • Services would be centred on Darlington and Middlesbrough.
  • There is a supply of hydrogen nearby.
  • Bishop Auckland, Newcastle, Nunthorpe, Redcar and Whitby could be served.
  • The 1000 km range could be useful.
  • The trains could even be a tourist attraction for the area.

In Northern’s Hydrogen Plans, I wrote about progress on these plans, which included applying for planning permission for the depot at Lackenby.

Deployment Around Widnes

In A Hydrogen Mobility Roadmap For North-West England, I wrote using the trains around Widnes.

  • Services could be centred around Alstom’s Widnes factory.
  • Hydrogen could be supplied by pipeline from Runcorn.
  • Chester, Liverpool and Manchester could be served.
  • Some routes might need more capacity.

Could Alstom introduce a couple of pre-production trains on a route past Widnes, in a similar way, that they have introduced the Coradia iLint train in Germany?

This approach seems to have helped a successful introduction into service of the trains.

Increasing Capacity

I do think that these trains will need extra capacity on some routes, like perhaps Liverpool and Manchester via Widnes and Warrington.

The solution would surely be to add one of the spare Trailer cars to bring the trains up to four cars and increase the passenger capacity by perhaps fifty percent.

Northern Routes Currently Run By Two-Car Diesels

Wikipedia lists these services as run by two-car-diesels in Classes 150, 155, 156 and 158.

  • Barrow-in-Furness and Carlisle
  • Barrow-in-Furness and Lancaster
  • Blackburn and Rochdale
  • Blackburn and Wigan Wallgate
  • Blackpool North and York
  • Clitheroe and Rochdale
  • Hexham and Nunthorpe *
  • Hull and Scarborough
  • Hull and York
  • Huddersfield and Castleford
  • Huddersfield and Leeds
  • Huddersfield and Sheffield
  • Lancaster and Morecambe/Heysham Port
  • Leeds and Carlisle
  • Leeds and Chester
  • Leeds and Goole
  • Leeds and Knottingley
  • Leeds and Lincoln
  • Leeds and Manchester Victoria
  • Leeds and Morecambe
  • Leeds and Nottingham
  • Leeds and Selby
  • Leeds and Sheffield
  • Leeds and Wigan Wallgate
  • Leeds and York
  • Liverpool Lime Street and Manchester Oxford Road *
  • Manchester Piccadilly and Buxton
  • Manchester Piccadilly and Chester
  • Manchester Piccadilly and New Mills Central
  • Manchester Piccadilly and Rose Hill Marple
  • Manchester Piccadilly and Sheffield
  • Manchester Victoria and Kirkby
  • Manchester Victoria and Southport
  • Manchester Victoria and Stalybridge
  • Middlesbrough and Whitby *
  • Newcastle and Carlisle
  • Newcastle and Chathill
  • Newcastle and Morpeth
  • Oxenholme Lake District and Windermere
  • Preston and Blackpool South
  • Preston and Colne
  • Preston and Ormskirk
  • Saltburn and Bishop Auckland/Darlington *
  • Sheffield and Adwick
  • Sheffield and Bridlington
  • Sheffield and Gainsborough Central
  • Sheffield and Hull
  • Southport and Alderley Edge

Those marked with an * could be served by hydrogen trains from Laverton and Widnes.

Positioning Hydrogen Trains

Trains often have to be positioned from and to the depot at the beginning and end of a day’s work.

On my list of services, there is an hourly shuttle service between Oxenholme Lake District and Windermere stations.

Suppose this service was to be run by an Alstom Breeze based at Widnes.

  • The train could be fuelled with hydrogen at Widnes, early in the day.
  • The train could position to Oxenholme Lake District along the West Coast Main Line, using the electrification, after joining it a few miles from the depot.
  • Each round trip to Windermere is 20 miles or 32 kilometres.
  • An Alstom Breeze train has a range of 1000 kilometres on hydrogen, so it could do thirty round trips without refuelling.
  • At the end of the day, the train would return to the depot using the electrification.

I would expect, that the long range of hydrogen trains could make them easier to diagram or schedule, than battery ones.

They might also be able to work some distance away from the depot, if they could use an electrified route for positioning.

So if we look at Widnes, these are approximate distances to stations where hydrogen services might run.

  • Liverpool Lime Street – 12 miles
  • Manchester Airport – 33 miles
  • Manchester Oxford Road – 22 miles
  • Preston – 33 miles
  • Warrington Central – 6 miles
  • Wigan North Western – 18 miles

Some of the routes to these stations are partially electrified, so the trains could position using the electrification.

Consider these routes.

  • Preston and Blackpool South – 20 miles
  • Preston and Colne – 19 miles
  • Preston and Ormskirk – 20 miles

A hydrogen train could position from Widnes and perhaps do fifteen trips before needing a refuel.

I will also look at distances from Lackenby, where the Teesside Depot will be built, as I wrote in Northern’s Hydrogen Plans.

  • Darlington – 23 miles
  • Newcastle via East Coast Main Line – 59 miles
  • Newcastle via Durham Coast Line – 54 miles
  • York via Northallerton and East Coast Main Line – 56 miles

I suspect quite a few services could be run from Lackenby depot, if the electrified East Coast Main Line was used to position the trains.

Possible Future Stages

If the trains are successful, I can see that Northern Trains will want to introduce more hydrogen trains.

As the Government controls this franchise, does this make more zero-carbon trains more or less likely?

More Trains

There are only so many Class 321 trains to convert, but after Alstom complete their takeover of Bombardier, I believe that a hydrogen-powered Aventra could become a reality.

I wrote about my ideas for this in I Design A Hydrogen Aventra.

So in the long term, if more hydrogen trains are needed, it shouldn’t be a problem.

More Depots

More depots will be needed and I would expect others like Lackenby will be added in strategic locations.

  • Given the service pattern, Blackburn, Leeds and Sheffield must be possibilities.
  • Hydrogen will probably be generated in the depots using electrolysers.

In the future could we see depots for hydrogen trains shared between bordering franchises?

  • A depot at Carlisle could be shared between Northern and Scotrail
  • A depot at Chester could be shared between Northern and Trains for Wales
  • A depot at Exeter could be shared between Great Western and South West Railways

ITM Power in Rotherham have the technology to generate the hydrogen, which could also be used to fuel the local buses and other vehicles.

Conclusion

From pubished reports, it looks to me, that Northern have been thinking hard how they can deploy a substantial fleet of Alstom Breeze trains, by using depots at Widnes and Lackenby, where the trains can be refuelled overnight.

I am also fairly sure that Alstom will design the Breeze, so that trains can position themselves along the West and East Coast Main Lines, using the 25 KVAC electrification.

 

 

 

 

May 10, 2020 Posted by | Transport | , , , , | 5 Comments

Industry Urged To Decide On Alternative Technology

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Rail Magazine.

This is the first paragraph.

The rail industry needs to decide on the right approach to alternative technology as soon as possible, to ensure the industry can continue to reduce emissions.

Speaking to the All-Party Parliamentary Rail Group, Anthony Perratt of the RSSB, outlined how there was a huge opportunity to replace ageing Sprinter trains with new units powered by alternative energy sources like batteries and hydrogen.

The Size Of The Opportunity

Sprinter trains in service of stored in the UK include.

These add up to 516 trains, with a total of 1035 cars.

In the Wikipedia entry for the Class 710 train, this is said.

TfL announced that it had placed a £260m order for 45 four-car Bombardier Aventra EMUs.

This works out at nearly £1,500,000 for each car of a modern train.

This means that replacement of the Sprinters, with new independently-powered trains, would be project of the order of £1.5billion.

That is a market, that would be very much desired by a train builder.

Battery, Diesel Or Hydrogen Power?

Diesel power is probably not a good idea, if it can be avoided.

The following points about hydrogen- and battery-powered trains should be noted.

  • Most hydrogen-powered trains are battery-powered trains, with a hydrogen fuel-cell to recharge the batteries.
  • Battery technology is improving fast.
  • Systems to rapidly charge batteries will be available in a couple of years.
  • Battery-powered trains can use existing electrification to charge the batteries.
  • Hydrogen-powered trains may need a large tank for the hydrogen, which limits passenger capacity.
  • Hydrogen-powered trains need a refuelling structure, which may be more difficult to install, than a charging system for battery trains.

I feel that innovative engineers will be able to find ways to enable battery-powered trains on routes that need independently powered trains.

Conclusion

I don’t think, that we’ll see many long-term applications of hydrogen-powered trains in the UK.

 

 

 

July 23, 2019 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , , | 6 Comments