The Anonymous Widower

The Formation Of A Class 707 Train

South Western Railway are starting to use more Class 707 trains.

Wikipedia does not give any details on the formation of the trains.

This morning, I rode an example out of Waterloo to Clapham Junction. So I decided to ascertain the formation, by reading the designations on the ends of the carriage.

  • DMSO – Driving Motor Standard Open
  • TSO  – Trailer Standard Open
  • TSO(L)W  – Trailer Standard Open with provision for a lavatory and a wheelchair space.
  • (P)TSO  – Trailer Standard Open with provision for a pantograph.
  • DMSO – Driving Motor Standard Open

Wikipedia has a list of British Rail coach designations.

Note.

  1. The Class 707 train has two motor cars and three trailer cars in the middle.
  2. The train is wired for a pantograph and has already been tested with one.
  3. I suspect because of the designation, that a lavatory can be added.

I have been told that the Class 720 trains for Greater Anglia, which like the Class 707 trains are 100 mph five-car trains, have traction motors on every car.

I suspect that this gives faster acceleration and smooth regenerative braking.

But because there are more traction motors, the trains must be more expensive.

So have the Class 707 trains been designed down to a price?

 

January 9, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , | Leave a comment

A First Ride In A Class 707 Train

I had my first ride in a Class 707 train today, from Clapham Junction station to Waterloo station.

I had expected a few glaring faults, as South Western Railway is dropping the trains.

But there are some good features.

  • Wide doors and spacious lobbies.
  • Free wi-fi, unlike the closely-related Class 700 trains.
  • Power scokets, unlike the Class 700 trains
  • Large litter bins.
  • Reasonably comfortable and spacious seats.
  • Walk-through.

And a few bad ones.

  • No 4G signal booster.
  • No full-length walk-through as two five-car trains, rather than one ten-car train.
  • A high step into and out of the train.

But they are certainly better than Thameslink’s Class 700 trains.

The current schedule between Waterloo and Windsor and Eton Riverside stations appears to be something like this.

  • Waterloo to Windsor and Eton – 54 minutes
  • Turnback at Windsor and Eton – 31 minutes
  • Windsor and |Eton to Waterloo – 56 minutes
  • Turnback at Waterloo – 9 minutes

Which works out at a very neat two and a half hours for the round trip.

So for a two trains per hour (tph) service you need five trains.

The timetable is written around 75 mph Class 455 trains, but the Class 707 trains are 100 mph units with a shorter dwell time at stations.

In each direction, there are twelve stops, which will give savings of at least a minute at each stop, due to the faster acceleration and smoother regenerative braking.

So assuming a minute is saved at each stop, that brings the round trip time to 126 minutes. Reduce the turnback time at Windsor and Eton Riverside and I feel it would be possible to do the round trip in under two hours.

Which would mean that the current two tph service would need four trains.

From Twickenham station, the route is fairly straight and this may enable more speed improvements on the route.

The Waterloo to Windsor and Eton Riverside service is a classic example of how running faster trains often needs less trains to provide the same or even a better service.

Conclusion

I could see trains taking forty minutes on this route.

With the possible savings on the Waterloo to Windsor and Eton Riverside service, you can understaqnd, why this is the first route to receive the new trains.

 

September 28, 2017 Posted by | News, Travel | , , , , | Leave a comment

Where Are The Class 707 Trains?

This article on Global Rail News is entitled Class 707s Enter Service On Windsor Routes.

This is the first paragraph.

The first two Class 707 EMUs have entered passenger service on the Windsor routes – a few days before the franchise is handed over to First/MTR.

I have been to Waterloo several times this week and the Class 707 trains are conspicuous by their absence.

So where are the trains?

Perhaps, South Western Railway have dragged them off to be repainted or vinyled and have appropriate signs and information fitted?

When, these trains enter service, they will allow another batch of trains to be reliveried.

August 25, 2017 Posted by | Travel | , | Leave a comment

First, MTR Take Charge On South Western

The title of this post is the same as this article on RailNews.

Some points from the article.

  • The Class 707 trains are going because they are more expensive to lease.
  • 400 extra trains on Sundays.
  • Comprehensive refresh of all trains
  • All suburban trains will have toilets.
  • Southampton Central and Wimbledon stations to be updated.
  • Flexible tickets for part-time workers.
  • A new tariff for sixteen to eighteen year olds in full-time education.

Perhaps the most interesting point, was that they have decided to look at the future of the Island Line with the local Council.

A few thoughts on their plans.

Class 707 Trains

In An Exciting New Aventra, I commented on this article in Rail Engineer, with the same title.

I said this in my post.

The Most Affordable Train

The article describes how the train was designed to give the best whole life cost.

This sentence sums up the philosophy.

It’s actually about a 50/50 split between the whole life cost and the first capital cost. That makes it a bit more difficult because we’ve got be competitive on the first practical cost, but additionally we have to offer a really high availability, strong reliability, combined with much better energy consumption and less track damage.

As someone, who used to own a finance company, that leased trucks and other expensive equipment, the product described is the sort of product that leasing companies love.

That looks like a good reason to lease an Aventra.

More Trains On Sundays

All train companies seem to offer this.

All Suburban Trains Will Have Toilets

A lot of train companies seem to care about toilets, so is there a correlation between decent toilets and increased revenue?

Flexible Tickets For Part Time Workers

Do travellers get this in London? If so, extending it over the whole area must be logical!

16-18 Year Old Tickets

London does this!

Island Line

This is one of these routes, where someone will come up with an idea, that’s so Monty Python, it will work superbly!

August 21, 2017 Posted by | Travel | , , , | Leave a comment

Personalised Water From South Western Railway

I was at Waterloo station this morning and the new operator; South Western Railway, was giving out free water.

The postcode on the water is HR1 3EY, which suggests the water came from Berrington Water.

 

 

August 20, 2017 Posted by | Travel | , | Leave a comment

Bombardier On Track For Record Sale Of New Aventra Trains

The title of this post is the same as the title of this article in the Daily Telegraph.

This is the last paragraph.

Aventra trains use energy efficient measures such as regenerative braking, which collects energy generated by the trains slowing down and stores it for later use. They will also offer wifi, and USB sockets in seats.

Does that mean that the trains are fitted with energy storage or in simple terms; batteries.

August 6, 2017 Posted by | Travel | , , | Leave a comment

Gibb Report – Ashford – Hastings Route Should Be Transferred To The New Southeastern Franchise

The Gibb Report, says that the Ashford – Hastings route should be transferred to the new Southeastern franchise.

The Gibb Report says this about the operation of the route.

The Ashford – Hastings route is currently a service operated by 12 Class 171 diesel units, running as through services from Ashford / Hastings to Eastbourne and Brighton. The trains run empty to and from GTR’s Selhurst depot for maintenance. GTR’s 2018 Timetable consultation has proposed reducing the service back to Ashford / Hastings, and concentrating the fleet there to provide more capacity to relieve current overcrowding.
In my opinion this service in its new form, in December, 2018, should transfer to the new South Eastern franchise.

Bidders for that franchise should be asked to include it, and identify the most efficient way to run the revised service, and maintain the trains in Kent or East Sussex rather than Selhurst. Other possibilities exist that bidders should explore, such as bi-mode trains and electrification.

Bidders will already be obliged to review arrangements for train maintenance and stabling as part of providing additional train capacity on South Eastern for the future. There are potential under utilised and rail connected depot facilities at Ashford and St Leonards, Hastings, that bidders will no doubt consider as part of their wider depot strategy.

It looks to me that this is not an efficient way to provide a service.

In Highspeed To Hastings, I outlined how Southeastern Highspeed services from St. Pancras would reach Hastings and Eastbourne. The most likely method seems to be by using a train with onboard energy storage, as bi-mode trains would have problems running with diesel in the tanks under London.

It should also be born in mind, that with the completion of the Ashford Spurs, that Ashford would become a more important stop for services going to and from the Continent.

So I suspect, there could be a strong case for a South Coast Express between Ashford and Bournemouth via Hastings, Eastbourne, Brighton, Portsmouth and Southampton.

This service could be a nightmare to organise, as it involves three franchise areas.

  • Southeastern.
  • Southern
  • South Western Railway.

Bur several of my friends on the South Coast would benefit from such a service.

  • The guy in Southampton, who regularly goes to Paris and Brussels.
  • The guy near Chichester, who likes to visit his old school-friends in Brighton.
  • People in Brighton, who would move to Hastings to take advantage of lower house prices and continue to work in Brighton.

Often people have to drive and they spend a long time on the South Coast’s incomplete road network.

Conclusion

Chris Gibb may be right, as regards Govia Thameslink Railway, but he is ignoring the wider picture.

July 8, 2017 Posted by | Travel | , , , , | 3 Comments

Could South Western Railway Use Class 395 Trains Instead Of The Proposed Class 442 Trains?

In When Do Mark 3 Coaches Accept The Inevitable?, I mused about why South Western Railway were using refurbished Class 442 trains on the routes betweenLondon and Portsmouth.

The reasons for using these refurbished trains include.

  • They could be very powerful trains if they were retractioned.
  • The Portsmouth Direct Line is very challenging.
  • The trains might become 100 mph plus trains, which could save minutes on journey times and aid timetabling.

|The current Class 444 and Class 450 trains working the route may be 100 mph trains, but could it be that the required performance improvements need a more powerful and/or faster train?

I suspect too, that as the trains are based on legendary Mark 3 coaches, the interiors can be refurbished to a high standard with everything passengers need and want.

In Ultimate Class 395 Train, which is part of my analysis into Kentish routes in Kent On The Cusp Of Change, I proposed upgrades to a new batch of Class 395 trains.

  • Batteries To Enable Working To Hastings For The New Southeastern Franchise
  • Wi-Fi And 4G Capability
  • Up To 125 mph Capability On 750 VDC Third-Rail Electrification

Would these trains be an alternative to the Class 442 trains for the Portsmouth Direct Line even using batteries to handle the topography of the line, regenerative braking and save energy?

If they were working a line like the Portsmouth Direct Line, where acceleration and power is probably more important than outright speed, the trains could be rated accordingly. The operating speed on the line is currently 90 mph, but how much time would be saved with perhaps a 110 mph train and some or all of the line able to handle speeds of 100 mph plus?

The choice of refurbished Class 442 trains, which are claimed to save five minutes on fast services and seven minutes on slow ones, says a lot about what is possible between London and Portsmouth.

But would a Class 395 train, similar to those needed on Kentish routes without the 25 KVAC capability be an off-the-shelf new train that could give the same or even better journey time improvements?

July 4, 2017 Posted by | Travel | , , , | Leave a comment

The Class 319 Flex Units To Be Class 769

This is the title of a short article in the June 2017 Edition of Modern Railways.

Giving the Class 319 Flex train, its own unique class number of 769, must say that Porterbrook, Northern, Network Rail and the Department of Transport, think that the bi-mode conversion of a Class 319 train is a viable project.

The article gives some new details about the trains.

  • Northern have ordered eight units, which will be delivered before the end of May 2018.
  • The first unit is at Wabtec’s Brush Traction facility in Louthborough.
  • Completion of the design and the first load testing is plasnned before the end of May.
  • The first unit is due to be completed with driver training underway, by the end of the year.
  • Northern will get a total of thirty-two Class 319 trains, which probably include the eight Class 769 trains.
  • Tri-mode functionality and dynamic mode changeover on the move are being considered.
  • Full production rate is a Class 769 train every two weeks.

The Class 319 Flex train has definitely moved from concept to a real train.

The article finishes by saying that Porterbrook expects further orders soon, while  it is also considering transferring the concept to other roiling stock, such as the Class 455 train.

Why Convert Class 455 Trains?

The Class 319 and Class 455 trains are very similar electrical multiple units based on Mark 3 coaches.

But there are a few differences.

  • The Class 455 is third-rail only, whereas the Class 319 is dual-voltage.
  • The Class 455 is a 75 mph train, whereas the Class 319  is a 100 mph train.
  • South West Trains’ Class 455 trains have had an extensive refurbishment and are fitted with 2+2 seating.
  • South West Trains planned to upgrade the traction package of the Class 455 trains, which would include new AC traction motors and regenerative braking. This article in Rail Magazine has full details.

A Class 455 Flex train could have the following specification.

  • The updated 2 x 2 seating.
  • The new traction package with AC traction motors and regenerative braking.
  • 75 mph operating speed on both electric and diesel.

It could be a better financial proposition for both the leasing company and the train operator.

In The Class 319 Flex Train And Third Rail Routes, I looked at various third-rail routes that could be served with a Class 319 Flex train.

Some of these routes could be served by a Class 455 Flex train, instead of the Class 319 Flex train.

The article states that Porterbrook are expecting further orders and could it be, that the company have assessed the number of bi-mode trains required and found that a large proportion of the available Class 319 trains might need to be converted.

So creating a Class 455 Flex train for use in areas with third rail electrification, might be a prudent action.

South Western Railway, will have around ninety well-maintained Class 455 trains with the refurbished interiors going spare, so there is certainly no shortage of trains to convert.

South Western Railway And Class 455 Flex Trains

South Western Railway, themselves could have some uses for the trains.

I doubt that the trains would be acceptable running long distance services from say Waterloo to Salisbury, due to being designed as short distance commuter trains and the lack of a toilet and tables.

They would be ideal for the following local services.

In some places like the Lymington Branch, they would release Class 158/159 trains to boost services on the West of England Main Line.

Merseyrail And The Class 455 Flex Trains

In the June 2017 Edition of Modern Railways, Chris Stokes talks about the problems of running services between Bidston and Wrexham Central stations on the Borderlands Line. He concludes with the following.

So the operation of the route is very tight, but it appears to work quite well.

There has been talk of using battery trains on this route in place of an expensive full electrification, which would allow Merseyrail’s new Stadler trains to run the route in the following manner.

  • At least two trains per hour (tph).
  • Longer trains.
  • Calls at proposed new stations on the route.

In an ideal world, the service would terminate at the Northern end of the line by going round the third-rail electrified Loop Line under Liverpool City Centre.

The Class 455 train appears on a brief look to be the same size as Merseyrail’s current Class 508 trains, so it should be possible to use the Liverpool Loop.

Chris Stokes has told me two things.

  • The Class 455 trains, used redundant trailer cars from Class 508 trains, that were shortened for Merseyrail, so there can’t be much difference in the size of the Class 455 and Class 507/508 trains.
  • The Wrexham service used to terminate at Birkenhead North station.

So it seems a better Northern terminus could be possible.

Ideally, the Loop Line would be used, but look at this Google Map of Birkenhead North station.

The Wikipedia entry for the station, has a section entitled Wrexham Diesel Service. This is said.

From 4 January 1971 until 2 October 1978, the diesel service on the Bidston to Wrexham line, which had previously operated from New Brighton, was diverted to Birkenhead North. These trains terminated on the centre platform which had previously been used for Liverpool-bound services, and when one of the diesel trains was present (which in that timetable was much of the time), Liverpool-bound electric services used the outer north side of the island platform instead. The diesel service was cut back to Bidston from 2 October 1978. Regular use of the outer platform at Birkenhead North thereafter ceased.

Note that the service used to be Wrexham to New Brighton, which with the replacement of a short chord and some work at New Brighton station might be another alternative, although the service wasn’t very busy.

So could a Class 455 Flex train work the route in the following manner?

  • Use diesel power between Wrexham Central and Bidston stations.
  • Use electric power from Bidston to Liverpool.
  • Join the other Wirral Line trains and terminate in the Liverpool Loop, stopping at the four stations in Central Liverpool.

As to frequency, you could run as many trains as you want, as the Borderlands Line is double-track, with the exception of a short single track section between the two Wrexham stations.

A round trip would take nearly three hours based on current timings, which would mean the following numbers of trains would be needed.

  • One tph – three trains.
  • Two tph – six trains.
  • Four tph – twelve trains.

As Merseyrail like to run four tph on the various branches, why not use this frequency on the Borderlands Line?

It would be a Turn-Up-And-Go service, that would benefit a large number of people.

Does the service have to terminate at Wrexham?

It certainly wouldn’t require any electrification or challenging engineering to open up these and other possible routes.

The Class 455 Flex train may have other uses in Liverpool.

Northern’s services in the area will probably use a few Class 319 Flex trains alongside their Class 319 trains, that already serve Liverpool Lime Street.

So where services are being extended from Merseyrail’s third-rail network, why not use some Class 319 Flex trains, as these trains have a third-rail capability from their days South of the Thames?

  • There may be an engineering or operational problem with a dual-voltage Class 319 Flex train.
  • The pantograph of a Class 319 Flex train might make the train too large for parts of Merseyrail’s third-rail network.
  • A third-rail only Class 455 Flex train may be a better financial proposition for leasing companies and train operators.

Or it could be that Porterbrook’s response to the Class 319 Flex train has been so positive, that the alternative offered by the Class 455 Flex train is welcomed.

Merseyrail’s prime route for a bi-mode Flex train would be the Canada Dock branch.

  •  There is a long term aspiration to run a passenger service.
  • The branch is not electrified but it could connect to Liverpool’s third-rail network at both ends and also to 25 KVAC at the Southern end.
  • Numerous freight trains use the route.
  • Perhaps four stations at about ten million pounds a time would need to be rebuilt.
  • Liverpool Football Ground would get a station.

Class 455 Flex trains could run a Southport, Ormskirk or Kirkby to Liverpool South Parkway service tomorrow.

A Four-Car Diesel Multiple Unit

In Who Would Want An Electric Train Powered Only By Diesel?, I discussed the fact that according to the Porterbrook brochure,

A diesel-only version of Class 319 Flex is now being delivered for one operator.

Could it be, that the updated interior of the Class 455 train, is exactly what the operator wants in a diesel train?

A Class 455 Flex train would have the following characteristics, if the third-rail equipment was removed.

  • Four cars.
  • Diesel power only.
  • 75 mph operating speed.
  • A quality 2 x 2 interior.
  • A train that meets all the present and future access and disabled regulations.

That sounds to me like a high-quality replacement train for which Direct Rail Services will provide you with two Class 68 locomotives and some elderly coaches, which probably don’t meet the latest regulations.

But also, the UK suburban diesel multiple unit fleet has quite a lot of two and three car trains, but very few four-car ones and you see lots of four-car trains made by coupling two two-car units together. So perhaps, some train operators, see these trains as an easy and affordable way to increase the number of four-car trains on their routes without any form of electrification.

As South Western Railway take over the South West Trains franchise on the 20th August 2017, perhaps some Class 455 trains would be available soon after, as they could replace them with new Class 707 trains.

I suspect that a Class 455 Flex train could be available early in 2018.

Conclusions

The Class 319 Flex train or more properly the Class 769 train looks to be a successful concept.

I’m also convinced that Porterbrook have decided the market is larger than they originally thought, so they are seriously looking at converting Class 455 trains, to make sure they have enough trains.

 

May 25, 2017 Posted by | Travel | , , , , , | 4 Comments

When Do Mark 3 Coaches Accept The Inevitable?

What Is A Mark 3 Coach?

This is a preamble to the main post, but if it is not included, you won’t understand a remarkable engineering story about how a nearly fifty-year-old British Rail design lies at the heart of the plans for an upgraded train service on one of the UK’s most important rail lines.

The Wikipedia entry for the British Rail Mark 3 Coach , starts with these two paragraphs.

The British Rail Mark 3 is a type of passenger carriage developed in response to growing competition from airlines and the car in the 1960s. A variant of the Mark 3 became the rolling stock for the High Speed Train (HST).

Originally conceived as locomotive-hauled coaching stock, the first coaches built were for the prototype HST in 1972. Production coaches entered service between 1975 and 1988, and multiple-unit designs based on the Mark 3 bodyshell continued to be built until the early 1990s. The Mark 3 and its derivatives are widely recognised as a safe and reliable design, and most of the surviving fleet is still in revenue service on the British railway network in 2016.

The Mark 3 coach is of an older age.

  • The structure was reputedly designed by traditional methods without computer.
  • Salford University Engineering Department did a finite-element structural analysis on the structure a few years ago and gave it a very good rating.
  • The coaches have a full monocoque construction with an all-welded mild steel stressed skin rather than aluminium.
  • Many engineers and passengers feel that it is one of the best-riding coaches in the world.
  • The coaches have a reputation for exceptional strength and crash-worthiness, which was proven in the Oxshott A244 Bridge Incident, where a 24 tonne cement mixer lorry, fell fifty metres directly onto a Mark 3-based Class 455 train, without any fatalities.

But in some ways though the trains most worthy characteristic, is that train refurbishment companies and their engineers can convert them to any passenger or traction specification, that an operator wants.

The Mark 3 may only be a humble railway coach, but it is one of the world’s great engineering designs.

First and MTR Take South Western

The front cover of the May 2017 Edition of Modern Railways has the usual variety of headlines to grab the atrtention of passing browsers in station newagents.

The main headline is First and MTR Take South Western with underneath it two sub-headlines of Plastic Pigs For Portsmouth and Brand New 707s Swept Out.

Further down, there  is another headline of New Stock Bonanza.

Bringing Back The Class 442 Trains

Between the various headlines, is a picture, not of one of the new trains, but of one of the plastic pigs. It should be said, that this is the nickname for the Class 442 trains, built by British Rail way back in the late 1980s.

The Class 442 trains were originally built to serve the routes to Weymouth and in some ways they are the ultimate Mark 3-based design. They have proper sliding external doors, that meet all the regulations. This is an extract from Description in the Wikipedia entry for the Class 442 train.

As was common on the British Rail Southern Region, many electrical components – including traction motors and electrical control gear – were salvaged from the Class 432 units they replaced. For this reason the older 4REP and 4TC units had to be withdrawn before their replacements were built.

The Class 442 was one of the first types to make extensive use of plastics in construction, and earned the nickname among staff and rail enthusiasts of “Pigs” or “Piggies”. When they were first introduced the units were plagued by minor technical failures, but they have subsequently become among the most reliable EMUs operating in the UK

With this attitude to saving money, how did anything good ever get built?

I’ve only ever ridden in a Class 442 train once and that was to Gatwick Airport a few years ago. Using the trains on the Gatwick Express was a mistake, as the trains were not friendly to airport passengers, as the luggage space was totally inadequate.

London To Portsmouth In Class 442 Trains

But now South Western Railway are bringing the Class 442 trains back into service between London and Portsmouth.

The May 2017 Edition of Modern Railways says this about the reintroduction of the trains, under a sub-heading of Plastic Pigs’ Revenge.

The Class 442 EMUs built by British Rail for the Bournemouth-Poole-Weymouth electrification in 1988, are to be upgraded, including replacement traction equipment.

The article also mentions that on a demonstration run in April 1988, a Class 442 train claimed a world record of 108 mph for a third-rail train.

Currently, services between London and Portsmouth take the following times.

  • London to Portsmouth – Fast – one hour thirty-three minutes with seven stops
  • London to Portsmouth – Slow – two hours nine minutes with fourteen stops
  • Portsmouth to London – Fast – one hour forty-two minutes with seven stops
  • Portsmouth to London – Slow – two hours eight minutes with fourteen stops

With those journey times, I shouldn’t think that it is the easiest route to schedule given the amount of traffic at the London end of the route.

According to Modern Railways, there is an aim to save five minutes on fast services and seven minutes on slower ones.

Could this actually make the scheduling problem easier?

A fast return journey currently takes three hours fifteen minutes plus, whatever it takes to turn the train at both ends of the route. I think that this is a variable amount and is adjusted according to time of day. So knocking ten minutes off the return journey might well enable the turn-round times to be more even and create a more passenger-friendly timetable.

So how will these time savings be achieved?

Upgrading The Class 442 Trains

As I said earlier, Modern Railways are saying that the traction equipment is being replaced.

Seeing that the current traction equipment for a Class 442 train,came from a Class 432 train, which were built in the mid-1960s, I suspect the current design may be reliable, but could be improved upon, with respect to power and electrical efficiency.

The very least we will see will be new traction motors and control systems, with the probable addition of regenerative braking, where the traction motors generate electricity to slow the train.

Note.

  1. The current Class 442 trains do not have regenerative braking, so a lot of energy is wasted.
  2. The Class 444 trains which work from London to Portsmouth have regenerative braking, so obviously the track can handle the reverse currents.

So if nothing else, a new traction package which included regenerative braking, would make a sensible saving in electricity.

I suspect, there are engineers in one of the companies that specialise in upgrading traction packages, working to create the ultimate traction package for the Class 442 train. It would deliver.

  • Fast acceleration and braking consistent with what is acceptable to passengers.
  • Regenerative braking.
  • Minimum energy usage.

Some might think a pantograph for 25 KVAC should be fitted, but I think the train is being modified to be a pure and simple; Pompey Rocket. The transformer to allow dual-voltage working would add weight and would rarely be needed.

A Train With An Engine In The Middle

The Class 442 train is unusual in that it only has one powered car and that is the piggie in the middle of each five-car train.

In A Train With The Engine In The Middle, I described the Stadler GTW, which is a three-car train, with one passenger car either side of a power module.

Wikipedia says this under Description for the Stadler GTW.

Although the traction is good for the powered bogies the concept has the same problem as other light railcars with the brakes on the non-powered axles having lower grip than traditional railcars. This has led to actual restrictions when leafs are on the rails as the wheel slide protection can not fully compensate the effect. The central power module has limits with heat dissipation as well which can lead into situations where the power output needs to be limited which is automatically done in this construction concept.

Perhaps because it is a heavier train, the Class 442 trains doesn’t have these problems!

I also have personal memory from about 1970.

At the time, I worked in simulation at ICI Plastics in Welwyn Garden City. I remember reading how British Rail Research at Derby had applied their analogue computer and dynamic modelling skills to the problems of why so many four-wheel freight wagons were derailing. They solved that problem and I have a feeling the work influenced the design of the running gear of the Mark 3 coach.

Could the unusual concept of the powered middle car of five have been influenced by all the research?

Incidentally, five-car Electrostars like Class 377 and Class 378 have unpowered middle cars, with most of the others powered.

Comparing power of a five-car 100 mph Class 442 train with a five-car 100 mph Class 377 train and they both have traction motors rated at a total of 1200 kW. The 442 weighs in at 199.54 long tons, as opposed to the 170.9 long tons of the Class 377 train, so it could appear that the modern train has faster acceleration.

The Class 442 Train And The High Speed Train Compared

By comparison, Wikipedia quotes the at rail power of a Class 43 locomotive as 1,320 kW.

Obviously, it was a deliberate design to put the motored car of the Class 442 train in the middle. But was it also, so that when working as a pair, you had two powerful power cars at 54 long tons separated by four lighter, but very stiff Mark 3 cars at between 35-39 long tons?

After all by the mid-1980s, British Rail had a lot of experience of running Mark 3 coaches between two powerful Class 43 locomotives, in the High Speed Train.

Surprisingly, the Class 43 locomotive is only 15 long tons heavier than the Class 442 motored car.

So could the Class 442 train be considered an electric HST, with a couple of extra cars at each end?

The dynamics could be similar and I suspect British Rail knew the dynamics of Mark 3 coaches and locomotives well.

After all, a few years later High Speed Trains on the East Coast were lengthened from 2+8 to 2+9, with it appears few problems.

The Ease Of A Power Upgrade

Upgrading the power on a Class 442 train could be easier than some.

  • All the power systems, except for the current collection, are in piggie numbered three in the middle.
  • Changes will be needed in the driver’s cabs, but I suspect that most changes in the rest of the train will be purely cosmetic and for the ease of passengers and crew.
  • The interior layout of the powered car has been chopped and changed many times, so it could be rebuilt to see the trains to their final retirement.
  • Engineers have plenty of space in which to work.
  • The upgrade would be more like updating a locomotive than an electric multiple unit.

I doubt it would be a very high cost upgrade, but the budget won’t need to be small, as an alternative fleet of eighteen 100 mph trains wouldn’t come cheap.

I suspect too, that in the rebuilt power car, no technology that helps the train meet the required performance, will be ruled out on grounds of cost.

Will The Upgrade Include A Battery?

I just wonder, whether onboard energy storage features in the engineers’ thinking?

This page on the Southern Electric Group website, shows a series of side views of the motored car. It would be interesting to see if a battery about the size of the 75 KwH unit in a Routemaster bus could be squeezed underneath.

Suppose the energy generated by the regenerative braking whilst stopping, were to be stored in such a battery.

This would mean.

  • Braking energy could be used to accelerate the train after the stop.
  • Less energy would need to be transferred from the train using the third-rail.
  • Electricity would be saved.
  • The train would have a short range on battery power.

In the Wikipedia entry for the Portsmouth Direct Line, there is a section called Topography Of The Line. This is said.

The central part of the route, from Guildford to Havant, runs through relatively thinly populated country. The line was designed on the “undulating principle”; that is, successive relatively steep gradients were accepted to reduce construction cost. In the days of steam operation this made the route difficult for enginemen.

Leaving the Southampton main line at Woking, the line diverges southwards falling to Worplesden and then climbing to Guildford, using the River Wey valley. After gentle gradients, the line then climbs from Godalming for eight miles (13 km) at 1:80/1:82 to a summit near Haslemere; it then falls at 1 in 100, climbing briefly at Liphook and then falling at 1 in 80 to Liss. A second climb of three miles (5 km) follows to a summit at Buriton Tunnel, then falling at 1 in 80 and then more gently for 8 miles (13 km) to Havant.

I’m sure that extensive modelling of the Portsmouth Direct Line has been done and it has been investigated whether a small amount of energy storage would be useful in assisting performance and saving electricity.

Will These Modifications Produce The Proposed Timings?

The upgraded Class 442 trains will probably be able to execute a stop at a station in a shorter time than the current Class 444 trains.

On the slow services, South Western Railway is aiming for a saving of seven minutes on a journey with fourteen stops, or a saving of just thirty seconds a stop.

I also suspect that services on the challenging Portsmouth Direct Line would be helped with a modern traction package and South Western Railway’s goal of a five minute saving is possible, especially as the seven stops might give three and a half minutes.

Conclusion

I suspect that someone will come up with a very innovative traction package.

The inevitable retirement could be a lot of years away yet!

 

 

April 30, 2017 Posted by | Travel | , , , | 5 Comments