The Anonymous Widower

Hydrogen-Powered Turbines May Help Clean And Improve Electrical Grid Reliability

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Hydrogen Fuel News.

This is the first paragraph.

In less than three years, one or more hydrogen-powered turbines are expected to be up and running at or near New Jersey’s Bayonne Energy Center power plant, which feeds power to New York City.

Note.

  1. The Bayonne Energy Center is a peaker plant with ten gas turbines, with a total capacity of 640 MW.
  2. Peaker plants automatically cut in, when power demand is high, but power generation is low.
  3. The Bayonne Energy Centre transfers power to New York, through an underwater cable.
  4. The electrolyzers will be made by Ohmium International Inc and I suspect they will be powered by offshore wind.
  5. The hydrogen that is created will be stored. As Bayonne has a history of chemical manufacturing, there may be salt caverns that can be used or the hydrogen could be stored as a compressed gas or liquid in tanks.

I can see hydrogen being used in peaker plants elsewhere in the world, where there is lots of renewable energy and suitable hydrogen storage.

The hydrogen can also be used to decarbonise local industries and transportation.

The Potential For Wind Power In New Jersey

Wikipedia says this about the potential of wind power in the state.

New Jersey has the potential to generate 373 GWh/year from 132 MW of 80 m high wind turbines or 997 GWh/year from 349 MW of 100 m high wind turbines located onshore as well as 430,000 GWh/year from 102,000 MW of offshore wind turbines.

Note.

  1. New Jersey used 76,759 GWh in 2011
  2. It appears that most of these turbines would be located along the coast.

There is also a worry about hurricanes. But solving that is an engineering problem.

From my experience of modelling floating structures, I believe they may stand up to high winds better. But I’m not sure!

November 19, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , , | Leave a comment

bp And Mauritania To Explore Green Hydrogen At Scale

The title of this post, is the same as that of this press release from BP.

I’m fairly certain, that this post is the first on this blog about Mauretania.

This Google Map shows the country’s position in West Africa.

Note.

  1. The population is about ten percent more than Wales.
  2. But the land area is fifty times as large.
  3. Most people live in the South-West of Mauretania.

The weather appears very different in the two countries.

This is the first paragraph of the press release.

bp today signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with the Government of Mauritania under which it will deliver an innovative programme exploring the potential for large-scale production of green hydrogen in the country. Building on bp’s existing strong relationships with the country, the agreement could be an important step towards the development of significant green hydrogen production in Mauritania.

There’s certainly a large area to explore.

The MoU was signed today in a meeting alongside COP27.

This paragraph outlines what will be done.

Under the agreement, bp will carry out a number of studies to evaluate the technical and commercial feasibility of producing green hydrogen in Mauritania. Green hydrogen is produced by the electrolysis of water, powered by renewable energy.

Given the area of Mauretania, there could be a substantial tonnage of green hydrogen produced.

BP And Mauritania

This paragraph details the current relationship between BP and Mauretania.

bp and Mauritania already have a long-standing relationship. bp and partners, including Mauritania’s Société Mauritanienne Des Hydrocarbures (SMH), are now working toward the completion of the Greater Tortue Ahmeyim (GTA) Phase 1 liquefied natural gas project. The development of this innovative offshore project on the border of Mauritania and Senegal was approved in 2018. It is set to produce around 2.3 million tonnes of LNG per year, with sufficient resources to support production for over 20 years. Earlier this year, bp also announced the signature of an Exploration and Production Sharing Contract for the BirAllah gas resource in Mauritania.

There could be scope to move Mauretania towards net-zero.

Electrolysis Of Salt Water

Typically electrolysis for hydrogen uses pure water, but companies like Torvex Energy, which I covered in a post called Torvex Energy can electrolyse salt water.

Surely, in a country like Mauretania, where water is much more precious than the UK, salt water electrolysis should be used.

I wouldn’t be surprised to see a major gas company like BP or Shell form a very strong relationship with Torvex Energy.

November 9, 2022 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Transport Enterprise Leasing To Integrate Cummins X15H Hydrogen Engine Into Heavy Duty Trucks

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Fleet Equipment.

This is the first paragraph.

Transport Enterprise Leasing and Cummins Inc. announced recently that TEL has signed a letter of intent planning to purchase Cummins’ 15-liter hydrogen internal combustion engines when available. TEL will integrate the Cummins’ X15H hydrogen engines into their fleet of heavy-duty trucks.

This second paragraph is very significant.

Hydrogen engines can use zero-carbon green hydrogen fuel, produced by Cummins-manufactured electrolyzers. The projected investment in renewable hydrogen production globally will provide a growing opportunity for the deployment of hydrogen-powered fleets utilizing either Cummins fuel cell or engine power.

Cummins would appear to be aiming to be a one-stop shop to decarbonise your fleet of heavy trucks or anything that is powered by a Cummins diesel engine.

I did a small amount of work for Cummins about twenty years ago and one of the companies objectives was to be able to provide a diesel engine to fit anybody’s application.

So if someone wanted a diesel engine with a particular power, that fitted in an unusually-shaped or confined space, they would rearrange the layout of the engine to make it fit.

I suspect that London’s New Routemaster buses have a special version of Cummins B Series engine, designed for its unusual location halfway up the back stairs.

Will Cummins produce a hydrogen internal combustion engine for the New Routemaster?

  • The buses could become zero-carbon, at less cost than new buses.
  • Passengers would notice no difference in ride comfort and experience.
  • Drivers would just need to use the hydrogen systems.
  • Maintenance staff would only need to be trained n handling the hydrogen system, as much of the buses would be unchanged.
  • Cummins could sell an electrolyser to each garage.
  • London would get some good publicity for tourism.

London’s iconic bus would look the same.

September 15, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Hydrogen Fuel Cells Could Get A Lot Cheaper With Newly Developed Iron Catalyst

The title of this post, is the same ass that of this article on Hydrogen Fuel News.

These are the first two paragraphs.

Scientists have been looking for an alternative to precious metals such as platinum for decades, in the hopes of bringing down the cost of hydrogen fuel cells.

An alternative to a platinum catalyst that costs considerably less will help to bring down the cost of hydrogen fuel cells and of using H2 as a carbon emission-free fuel. This would make it cheaper to both produce and use H2.

Researchers at the University of Buffalo, appear to be on the road to using iron as an affordable catalyst.

This paragraph describes he structure of the catalyst.

The researchers looked to iron because of its low cost and abundance. On its own, iron does not perform as well as platinum as a catalyst, particularly because it isn’t as durable in the face of highly corrosive and oxidative environments such as those within hydrogen fuel cells. The researchers bonded four nitrogen atoms to the iron in order to overcome that barrier, followed by embedding the material within a few graphene layers “with accurate atomic control of local geometric and chemical structures,” said Wu.

Gang Wu is leading the research.

In the early 1970s, I worked with one of ICI’s catalyst experts and he said, that improvements in this area will be large in the future.

Increasingly, I see his prediction being proved right, in the varied fields, where catalysts are used.

July 13, 2022 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Global Electrolyzer Capacity To Reach 8.52GW By 2026

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Power Technology.

This is the first paragraph.

GlobalData’s latest report, ‘Hydrogen Electrolyzers Market Report Market Size, Share and Trends Analysis by Technology, Installed Capacity, Generation, Key Players and Forecast, 2021-2026’, reveals that the global electrolyzer capacity is estimated to grow to 8.52GW in 2026. Hydrogen is gaining prominence as a critical component of the energy transition, as significant policy support and government commitment to deep decarbonisation are spurring investments in hydrogen. By the end of 2021, seventeen governments released hydrogen strategies, with more than 20 governments publicly announcing that they are developing strategies, and numerous companies planning to tap business opportunities in hydrogen.

Hydrogen certainly appears to be coming.

In The Mathematics Of Blending Twenty Percent Of Hydrogen Into The UK Gas Grid, I calculated how much electricity would be needed to blend twenty percent of hydrogen into the UK gas grid.

To achieve this blending, which would reduce our carbon emissions by a large amount and still be compatible with existing boilers and appliances would 8.2 GW of electricity to generate the hydrogen.

The world needs to be developing more electrolysers for green hydrogen.

 

July 11, 2022 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , | Leave a comment

Shell To Start Building Europe’s Largest Renewable Hydrogen Plant

The title of this post, is the same as that of this press release from Shell.

This is the first paragraph.

Shell Nederland B.V. and Shell Overseas Investments B.V., subsidiaries of Shell plc, have taken the final investment decision to build Holland Hydrogen I, which will be Europe’s largest renewable hydrogen plant once operational in 2025.

Theconstruction timeline for Holland Hydrogen 1 is not a long one.

The next paragraph describes the size and hydrogen production capacity.

The 200MW electrolyser will be constructed on the Tweede Maasvlakte in the port of Rotterdam and will produce up to 60,000 kilograms of renewable hydrogen per day.

200 MW is large!

The next paragraph details the source of the power.

The renewable power for the electrolyser will come from the offshore wind farm Hollandse Kust (noord), which is partly owned by Shell.

These are my thoughts.

Refhyne

Refhyne is a joint project between Shell and ITM Power, with backing from the European Commission, that has created a 10 MW electrolyser in Cologne.

The 1300 tonnes of hydrogen produced by this plant will be integrated into refinery processes.

Refhyne seems to have been very much a prototype for Holland Hydrogen 1.

World’s Largest Green Hydrogen Project – With 100MW Electrolyser – Set To Be Built In Egypt

The sub-title is the title, of this article on Recharge.

It looks like Holland Hydrogen 1, is double the current largest plant under construction.

Shell is certainly going large!

Will ITM Power Be Working Again With Shell?

Refhyne has probably given Shell a large knowledge base about ITM Power’s electrolysers.

But Refhyne is only 10 MW and Holland Hydrogen 1 is twenty times that size.

This press release from ITM Power is entitled UK Government Award £9.3 m For Gigastack Testing.

This is the first paragraph.

ITM Power (AIM: ITM), the energy storage and clean fuel company, announces that the Company has been awarded a contract by The Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS), under its Net Zero Innovation Portfolio Low Carbon Hydrogen Supply 2 Competition, to accelerate the commercial deployment of ITM Power’s 5 MW Gigastack platform and its manufacture. The award for the Gigatest project is for £9.3m and follows initial designs developed through previous BEIS funding competitions.

Note.

  1. The Gigastack is 2.5 times bigger, than ITM Power’s previously largest electrolyser.
  2. Forty working in parallel, in much the same way that the ancient Egyptians built the pyramids, will be needed for Holland Hydrogen 1.
  3. ITM Power have the world’s largest electrolyser factory, with a capacity of one GW. They have plans to create a second factory.

ITM Power would probably be Shell’s low-risk choice.

My company dealt with Shell a lot in the 1970s, with respect to project management software and we felt, that if Shell liked you, they kept giving you orders.

The Hollandse Kust Noord Wind Farm

This wind farm is well described on its web site, where this is the introduction on the home page.

CrossWind, a joint-venture between Shell and Eneco, develops and will operate the Hollandse Kust Noord subsidy-free offshore wind project.

Hollandse Kust Noord is located 18.5 kilometers off the west coast of the Netherlands near the town of Egmond aan Zee.

CrossWind plans to have Hollandse Kust Noord operational in 2023 with an installed capacity of 759 MW, generating at least 3.3 TWh per year.

This Google Map shows the location of Egmond aan Zee.

Note that the red arrow points to Egmond aan Zee.

Will The Electrolyser Be Operational In 2025?

If Shell choose ITM Power to deliver the electrolysers, I don’t think Shell are being that ambitious.

I would suspect that connecting up an electrolyser is not the most complicated of construction tasks.

  • Build the foundations.
  • Fix the electrolyser in place.
  • Connect power to one end.
  • Connect gas pipes to the other.
  • Switch on and test.

Note.

  1. If ITM Power deliver electrolysers that work, then the installation is the sort of task performed on chemical plants all over the world.
  2. ITM Power appear to have tapped the UK Government for money to fund thorough testing of the 5 MW Gigastack electrolyser.
  3. Enough wind power from Hollandse Kust Noord, should be generated by 2025.

I feel it is very much a low risk project.

Shell’s Offshore Electrolyser Feasibility Study

This is mentioned in this article in The Times, which describes Holland Hydrogen 1, where this is said.

Shell is also still involved in a feasibility study to deploy electrolysers offshore alongside the offshore wind farm. It has suggested this could enable more efficient use of cabling infrastructure.

I very much feel this is the way to go.

Postscript

I found this article on the Dutch Government web site, which is entitled Speech By Prime Minister Mark Rutte At An Event Announcing The Construction Of Holland Hydrogen 1.

This is an extract.

By building Holland Hydrogen 1, Shell will give the Dutch hydrogen market a real boost.
So congratulations are in order.
And this is only the beginning.
Because countless companies and knowledge institutions are working now to generate the hydrogen economy of tomorrow.
The government is supporting this process by investing in infrastructure, and by granting subsidies.
Because we want to achieve our climate goals, though the war in Ukraine won’t make it any easier.
We want to reduce our dependence on Russian gas.
We want the Netherlands to lead the way in the European energy transition.
And all these ambitions are combined in the Holland Hydrogen 1 project.

Mark Rutte seems to believe in hydrogen.

Conclusion

This is a very good example of the sort of large electrolyser, we’ll be seeing all over the world.

In fact, if this one works well, how many 200 MW electrolysers will Shell need all over the world?

Will they all be identical?

 

 

 

 

July 7, 2022 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Rolls-Royce To Develop mtu Hydrogen Electrolyser And Invest In Hoeller Electrolyser

The title of this post, is the same as that of this press release from Rolls-Royce.

These are the three main points in the press release.

  • Holdings in start-up companies in northern Germany secure Rolls-Royce Power Systems access to key green hydrogen production technology.
  • Electrolysis systems for several megawatts of power.
  • First demonstrator in 2023 using a Hoeller stack.

This is the introductory paragraph to the deal.

Rolls-Royce is entering the hydrogen production market and acquiring a 54% majority stake in electrolysis stack specialist Hoeller Electrolyzer, whose innovative technology will form the basis of a new range of mtu electrolyzer products from its Power Systems division. Hoeller Electrolyzer, based in Wismar, Germany, is an early-stage technology company that is developing highly efficient polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) stacks, under the brand name Prometheus, for the cost-effective production of hydrogen.

This page on the Hoeller Electrolysis web site gives details of Prometheus.

  • Hoeller are planning small, medium and large electrolyser modules, the largest of which is rated at 1.4 MW.
  • Load changes of between 0 and 100 % within seconds.
  • Cold start capability.
  • It will produce 635 Kg/day.
  • They are talking of a cost of 4€/Kg.

It all sounds good to me.

This paragraph is from the press release.

Founded in 2016, Hoeller Electrolyzer has positioned itself, with Prometheus, as one of the few highly specialized expert players in the field of high-efficiency PEM electrolysis stacks. Its founder, Stefan Höller, has more than a quarter of a century’s experience of developing electrolysis technology and has already registered 14 patents connected with Prometheus. Particularly high efficiency is promised by special surface technologies for the bipolar plates which significantly reduce the use of expensive precious metals platinum and iridium as catalysts, as well as increased output pressure.

I know a small amount about electrolysis and feel that Rolls-Royce may have got themselves a high-class deal.

Rolls-Royce’s large German presence in companies like mtu, will also help to smooth any doubts about the deal.

This paragraph indicates a shared belief.

Rolls-Royce and Hoeller Electrolyzer are united by a shared belief in the opportunity of zero-carbon energy – both for power supply and the propulsion of heavy vehicles. With decades of experience and systems expertise, Rolls-Royce is going to develop a complete electrolyzer system and has a global sales and service network, which opens up the potential for significant worldwide sales.

But perhaps, this is the most significant paragraph of the press release.

Armin Fürderer, who heads up the Net Zero Solutions business unit of Power Systems, said: “We’re going to launch electrolyzers with several megawatts of power right from the start. A total output of over 100 megawatts is conceivable by combining several electrolyzers.”

A quick search of the Internet, indicates that 100 MW is the size of the world’s largest electrolysers.

Applications

I can see applications for these large electrolysers.

Rolls-Royce Power Systems

This is a sentence from the press release.

Hoeller Electrolyzer, whose innovative technology will form the basis of a new range of mtu electrolyzer products from its Power Systems division.

The Rolls-Royce Power Systems web site, has this mission statement.

The Power Systems Business Unit of Rolls-Royce is focused on creating sustainable, climate neutral solutions for drive, propulsion and power generation.

In Rolls-Royce Makes Duisburg Container Terminal Climate Neutral With MTU Hydrogen Technology, I describe one of Rolls-Royce Power Systems projects.

The title of this post, is the same as this press release from Rolls-Royce.

This is the first sentence.

Rolls-Royce will ensure a climate-neutral energy supply at the container terminal currently under construction at the Port of Duisburg, Germany.

There is also this Rolls-Royce graphic, which shows the energy sources.

It would appear batteries,  combined heap and power (CHP), grid electricity, hydrogen electrolyser, hydrogen storage and renewable electricity are being brought together to create a climate-neutral energy system.

Note.

  1. The system uses a large hydrogen electrolyser.
  2. I suspect the hydrogen will be generated by off-peak electricity and local renewables.
  3. Hydrogen will probably power the container handling machines, ships, trucks, vehicles and other equipment in the port.

Hydrogen appears to be used as a means of storing energy and also for providing motive power.

I would suspect, the ultimate aim is that the port will not emit any carbon dioxide.

Other ports like Felixstowe and Holyhead seem to be going the hydrogen route.

Refuelling Hydrogen Buses and Charging Electric Buses

If you look at the Duisburg system, I can imagine a similar smaller system being used to refuel hydrogen buses and charge electric ones.

  • The hydrogen electrolyser would be sized to create enough hydrogen for a day or so’s work.
  • Hydrogen would be generated by off-peak electricity and local renewables.
  • If an operator bought more buses, I’m certain that the architecture of the electrolyser would allow expansion.
  • Hydrogen fuel cells would boost the electricity supply, when lots of buses needed to be charged.
  • Any spare hydrogen could be sold to those who have hydrogen-powered vehicles.
  • Any spare electricity could be sold back to the grid.

It should be noted that manufacturers like Wrightbus have developed a range of hydrogen and electric buses that use the same components. So will we see more mixed fleets of buses, where the best bus is assigned to each route?

I have used buses as an example, but the concept would apply to fleets of cars, trucks and vans.

Green Hydrogen

Large efficient electrolysers will surely be the key to producing large quantities of green hydrogen in the future.

It appears that about 55 MWh is needed to produce a tonne of green hydrogen using existing electrolysers.

The Hoeller electrolyser appears to be about 53 MWh, so it is more efficient.

Green Hydrogen From An Onshore Wind Farm

If you look at the average size of an onshore wind farm in the UK, a quick estimate gives a figure of 62 MW. I shouldn’t expect the figure for much of the world is very different, where you ignore the gigafarms, as these will distort the numbers.

An appropriately-sized electrolyser could be added to onshore wind farms to provide a local source of hydrogen for transport, an industrial process or a domestic gas supply for a new housing estate.

A single 5 MW wind turbine with a capacity factor of around 30 % would produce around 680 Kg of green hydrogen per day.

Green Hydrogen From An Offshore Wind Farm

There are basic methods to do this.

Put the electrolyser onshore or put the electrolyser offshore and pipe the hydrogen to the shore.

I think we will see some innovative configurations.

In ScotWind N3 Offshore Wind Farm, I described how Magnora ASA are developing the ScotWind N3 wind farm.

The floating turbines surround a concrete floater, which in the future could contain an electrolyser and tankage for hydrogen.

The ScotWind N3 wind farm is designed to be a wind farm rated at 500 MW.

I can see an electrolyser on the floater, of an optimal size to make sure all electricity is used.

Pink Hydrogen

Pink hydrogen, is zero-carbon hydrogen produced using nuclear-generated electricity.

There are industrial processes, like the making of zero-carbon chemicals, concrete and steel, that will require large quantities of zero-carbon green or pink hydrogen.

Rolls-Royce are developing the Rolls-Royce SMR, which will be a 470 MW small modular nuclear reactor.

One of these placed near to a steel works and coupled to one or more 100 MW electrolysers could provide enough zero-carbon electricity and hydrogen to produce large quantities of zero-carbon green steel.

Manufacturing

Rolls-Royce and their subsidiaries like mtu, seem to be extensive users of advanced manufacturing techniques and I would expect that they can improve Hoeller’s manufacturing.

Research And Development

The press release says this about the founder of Hoeller.

Its founder, Stefan Höller, has more than a quarter of a century’s experience of developing electrolysis technology and has already registered 14 patents connected with Prometheus.

If Rolls-Royce can develop and support Stefan Höller and his team, development could easily go to a higher level.

Conclusion

I think that Rolls-Royce have taken over a company, that will in the end, will design excellent efficient electrolysers.

 

 

 

June 29, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Could Rolls-Royce SMRs Be The Solution To Europe’s Gas Shortage?

Of all the offshore wind farms, that I’ve looked at recently, I find Magnora’s ScotWind N3 wind farm the most interesting.

I wrote about it in ScotWind N3 Offshore Wind Farm.

I said this.

In any design competition, there is usually at least one design, that is not look like any of the others.

In the successful bids for the ScotWind leases, the bid from Magnora ASA stands out.

  • The company has an unusual home page on its offshore wind web site.
  • This page on their web site outlines their project.
  • It will be technology agnostic, with 15MW turbines and a total capacity of 500MW
  • It will use floating offshore wind with a concrete floater
  • It is estimated, that it will have a capacity factor of 56 %.
  • The water depth will be an astonishing 106-125m
  • The construction and operation will use local facilities at Stornoway and Kishorn Ports.
  • The floater will have local and Scottish content.
  • The project will use UK operated vessels​.
  • Hydrogen is mentioned.
  • Consent is planned for 2026, with construction starting in 2028 and completion in 2030.

This project could serve as a model for wind farms all round the world with a 500 MW power station, hydrogen production and local involvement and construction.

I very much like the idea of a concrete floater, which contains a huge electrolyser and gas storage, that is surrounded by an armada of giant floating wind turbines.

These are my thoughts.

Floating Concrete Structures

To many, they may have appear to have all the buoyancy of a lead balloon, but semi-submersible platforms made from concrete have been used in the oil and gas industry for several decades.

Kishorn Yard in Scotland was used to build the 600,000-tonne concrete Ninian Central Platform,in 1978. The Ninian Central Platform still holds the record as the largest movable object ever created by man.

The Ninian Central Platform sits on the sea floor, but there is no reason why a semi-submersible structure can’t be used.

Electrolysers

There is no reason, why a large electrolyser, such as those made by Cummins, ITM Power or others can’t be used, but others are on the way.

  • Bloom Energy are working on high temperature electrolysis, which promises to be more efficient.
  • Torvex Energy are developing electrolysis technology that used sea water, rather than more expensive purified water.

High Temperature Electrolysis

High temperature electrolysis needs a heat source to work efficiently and in Westinghouse And Bloom Energy To Team Up For Pink Hydrogen, I described how Bloom  Energy propose to use steam from a large nuclear power station.

Offshore Nuclear Power

I’ve never heard of offshore nuclear power, but it is not a new idea.

In 1970, a company called Offshore Power Systems was created and it is introduced in its Wikipedia entry like this.

Offshore Power Systems (OPS) was a 1970 joint venture between Westinghouse Electric Company, which constructed nuclear generating plants, and Newport News Shipbuilding and Drydock, which had recently merged with Tenneco, to create floating nuclear power plants at Jacksonville, Florida.

Westinghouse’s reactor was a 1.150 MW unit, which was typical of the time, and is very similar in size to Sizewell B.

The project was cancelled before the reactors were towed into position.

Nuclear Knowledge Has Improved

Consider.

  • In the fifty years since Offshore Power Systems dabbed their toes in the water of offshore nuclear power, our knowledge of nuclear systems and engineering has improved greatly.
  • The offshore oil and gas industry has also shown what works impeccably.
  • The floating offshore wind industry looks like it might push the envelop further.
  • There has been only one nuclear accident at Fukushima, where the sea was part of the problem and that disaster taught us a lot.
  • There have been a large number of nuclear submarines built and most reached the planned end of their lives.
  • Would a small modular nuclear reactor, be safer than a large nuclear power plant of several GW?

I would suggest we now have the knowledge to safely build and operate a nuclear reactor on a proven semi-submersible platform, built from non-rusting concrete.

An Offshore Wind Farm/Small Modular Reactor Combination Producing Hydrogen

Consider.

  • A typical floating offshore wind farm is between one and two gigawatts.
  • A Rolls-Royce small modular reactor is sized to produce nearly 0.5 GW.
  • The high temperature electrolyser will need some heat to achieve an optimum working temperature.
  • Spare electricity can be used to produce hydrogen.
  • Hydrogen can be stored platform.
  • Hydrogen can be sent ashore using existing gas pipes.
  • Hydrogen could even be blended with natural gas produced offshore to create a lower-carbon fuel.
  • It would also be possible to decarbonise nearby offshore infrastructure.

A balance between wind and nuclear power can be obtained, which would provide a steady output of energy.

Conclusion

There are a large numbers of possibilities, to locate a Rolls-Royce small modular reactor close to a wind farm to use high temperature electrolysis to create green hydrogen, which can be used in the UK or exported through the gas network.

June 23, 2022 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Nuclear-Enabled Hydrogen – How It Helps To Reach Net Zero

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Power Engineering.

These are the first two paragraphs.

Nuclear enabled hydrogen is zero carbon, has low cost energy input, is large scale and offers co-location synergy and energy system connectivity.

With the revival of interest in nuclear energy, interest is growing in the potential for nuclear-enabled hydrogen, otherwise sometimes known as ‘pink’ hydrogen, to meet the anticipated demand for hydrogen at scale.

The article is certainly a must-read.

Topics covered include.

  • Co-location of pink hydrogen production with industrial clusters, where heat can also be provided.
  • The production of hydrogen on a large scale.
  • The use of high temperature electrolysis, using steam from the nuclear plant.

I particularly like the idea of combining a small modular nuclear reactor with high temperature electrolysis to generate hydrogen for local industry like a steelworks or chemical plant.

June 17, 2022 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , , , , , | Leave a comment

Westinghouse And Bloom Energy To Team Up For Pink Hydrogen

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Hydrogen Fuel News.

This is the introductory paragraph.

Westinghouse Electric Company and Bloom Energy Corporation have announced that they have signed a letter of intent together for the production of pink hydrogen in the commercial nuclear power market.

Note.

  1. Westinghouse Electric Company is an American builder of nuclear power stations.
  2. Bloom Energy Corporation make a solid-oxide electrolyser.
  3. Pink hydrogen is green hydrogen produced using nuclear power.

Figures on the Bloom web site, claim that their electrolysers could be upwards of twelve percent more efficient than PEM electrolysers, as produced by companies like ITM Power.

Bloom Energy Vice President of Hydrogen Business Rick Beuttel, is quoted as saying this.

We are proud Westinghouse has turned to Bloom and our solid oxide technology to supercharge the clean hydrogen economy. Solid oxide technology is well suited for nuclear applications, efficiently harnessing steam to further improve the economics of hydrogen production. High temperature electrolysis is already garnering attention and accolades as a cost-effective and viable solution to create low-cost, clean hydrogen, which is critical to meeting aggressive decarbonization goals.

It sounds that by integrating the nuclear power station and the electrolyser, there are cost savings to be made.

Conclusion

I think this could turn out to be a significant development.

Some countries, like Iceland, Indonesia, New Zealand, Philippines and the United States, who can generate large amounts of electricity and steam from geothermal energy, Bloom’s technology must surely be a way of electrolysing hydrogen.

June 11, 2022 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , , , , , , , | 2 Comments