The Anonymous Widower

Toyota Unveils AE86 Hydrogen Car Concept

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Hydrogen Fuel News.

The article is all about Toyota showing off, what they can do with hydrogen internal combustion engines.

It is an article that is very much worth a read.

This paragraph explains the work Toyota did to run the car on hydrogen.

Toyota explained that to create its new H2 burning internal combustion engine vehicle involved changing only “fuel injectors, fuel pipes, and spark plugs,” to make it possible to burn cleanly.

The article also suggests that conversion kits may be made available for older cars.

Hydrogen power is not one technology, but several that all might end up with sizeable shares of the market.

January 19, 2023 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , | Leave a comment

Hydrogen Corolla Cross Begins Testing In Japan

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Toyota UK Magazine.

These two introductory paragraphs outline Toyota’s plans for hydrogen.

Toyota’s approach to carbon neutrality is to develop and offer multiple technologies to support widely varying customer needs and market environments around the world. This multi-technology approach – which includes battery electric and fuel cell electric and plug-in hybrid electric and hybrid electric vehicles – is witnessed in the company’s development of a new hydrogen car powered by a hydrogen combustion engine.

Toyota firmly believes it is too early to focus on a single zero-emission solution and is therefore concurrently developing hydrogen fuel cell and hydrogen combustion technology alongside battery electric technology. Today’s announcement follows last week’s confirmation that Toyota Motor Manufacturing UK will lead a consortium developing a hydrogen fuel cell version of the Hilux pick-up at its Burnaston car plant in Derbyshire.

This paragraph gives more details of the car.

This version of the mid-size Corolla SUV* is powered by the 1.6-litre, three-cylinder turbocharged engine featured in the GR Corolla* performance model, re-engineered with high-pressure hydrogen direct injection technology. The prototype is also fitted with hydrogen fuel tanks, packaged with know-how gained from the development of the Toyota Mirai fuel cell electric saloon. The prototype is able to accommodate five passengers and their luggage. Real-world evaluation is being carried out alongside digital development, and the vehicle will soon undergo winter testing in northern Japan.

I must admit, that if I still drove, this type of vehicle with a hydrogen internal combustion engine, would be what I’d buy.

 

 

December 14, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , | Leave a comment

Ricardo Supports Toyota To Develop Its First UK-Based Hydrogen Light Commercial Vehicle

The title of this post, is the same as that of this press release from Ricardo.

This is the first paragraph.

Ricardo, a global strategic, environmental, and engineering consulting company, is supporting Toyota, in partnership with the APC, on a significant, multi-year project to develop its first zero emission hydrogen powered light commercial vehicle in the UK.

Note.

  1. Ricardo is a long-established engineering consultancy, headquartered in Shoreham, that employs 3,000 people and has a turnover of around £350,000. It has a high reputation, especially in the design of diesel engines.
  2. Ricardo has already converted a diesel bus to hydrogen, which I wrote about in Ricardo Repowers Double Decker Diesel Bus With Hydrogen Fuel Cells.
  3. The zero emission hydrogen powered light commercial vehicle, will be based on the Toyota Hilux, of which nearly twenty million have been built.
  4. Toyota already produce the hydrogen-powered Mirai.
  5. The APC is the UK Government’s Advanced Propulsion Centre.

This looks like one of those collaborations in the 1960s between Ford and Lotus, that produced the iconic Lotus Cortina.

The press release says this about Ricardo’s role in the project.

The Toyota Hilux hydrogen variant will be the first of its kind, manufactured and assembled at Toyota’s Derby-based facility and is scheduled for prototype production in 2023. Ricardo has been chosen as a partner by Toyota due to its proven experience in applying advanced propulsion technologies and expertise in hydrogen fuel cell integration, including for the UK’s first hydrogen transport hub.

Ricardo’s role in the project is to integrate the complete hydrogen fuel cell, fuel storage system, and controls including design, analysis, and validation. The integration ensures efficient operation of all systems to give an excellent vehicle range and supports attributes for longevity and reliability. Working as part of the consortium, Ricardo will support the delivery of a complete turnkey solution, which will create greater agility for Toyota in the UK supply base and a quicker turnaround in the design of low volume manufacturing.

This certainly looks like a co-operation between equals.

I have a few thoughts on the fuel cells.

The Wikipedia entry for the Toyota Mirai says this about the fuel cells for that car.

The first generation of Toyota FC Stack achieved a maximum output of 114 kW (153 hp). Electricity generation efficiency was enhanced through the use of 3D fine mesh flow channels. These channels—a world first, according to Toyota—were arranged in a fine three-dimensional lattice structure to enhance the dispersion of air (oxygen), thereby enabling uniform generation of electricity on cell surfaces. This, in turn, provided a compact size and a high level of performance, including the stack’s world-leading power output density of 3.1 kW/L (2.2 times higher than that of the previous Toyota FCHV-adv limited-lease model), or 2.0 kW/kg. Each stack comprises 370 (single-line stacking) cells, with a cell thickness of 1.34 mm and weight of 102 g. The compact Mirai FC stack generates about 160 times more power than the residential fuel cells on sale in Japan.[40] The Mirai has a new compact (13-liter), high-efficiency, high-capacity converter developed to boost voltage generated in the Toyota FC Stack to 650 volts.

As a rudimentary search of the Internet says that an entry-level HiLux has a 148 hp diesel engine, it seems that Toyota’s own fuel cells could be in the right ball park.

This second press release from Ricardo is entitled Hyzon And Ricardo To Deliver Hydrogen Fuel Cell Systems For Commercial Vehicles.

These are the first two paragraphs.

Ricardo is a world-class environmental, engineering and strategic consulting company, is partnering with leading hydrogen vehicle supplier Hyzon Motors Inc. on developing and deploying commercial systems to support the decarbonisation of the global transport and energy sectors.

The companies announced today they will be working to combine Hyzon’s high-power-density fuel cell stack with Ricardo’s unrivaled software and controls, thermal management and proven track record advising customers on hydrogen fuel cell technology.

Note, that the press release dates from December 2021.

The last paragraph of the press release is probably the most significant.

The potential of the Hyzon-Ricardo engagement has already borne fruit with the debut of the Ricardo Vehicle Integrated Controls and Simulation (VICS) control system within the Hyzon fuel cell electric truck at the Advanced Clean Transportation conference in September. Moving forward, Ricardo will support Hyzon in a global capacity on the development and deployment of advanced energy management and propulsion systems to accelerate the realisation of net zero initiatives across all modes of transport.

Note.

  1. Have Ricardo used Hyzon fuel cells to create their hydrogen-powered bus? I wrote about this project in Ricardo Repowers Double Decker Diesel Bus With Hydrogen Fuel Cells.
  2. If Ricardo and Hyzon have been working together for a few years, the timescale would fit.
  3. As a Graduate Control Engineer, I know that with complex engineering systems of all kinds, good control is often hard to achieve. Perhaps, Ricardo have cracked it!

I can certainly see, Ricardo playing a similar role in the creation of Toyota’s Hydrogen HiLux.

Conclusion

It looks to me, that with their hydrogen deals with Toyota and Hyzon, Ricardo are converting themselves from a giant in the field of diesel engine technology to a significant player in the field of hydrogen power.

December 3, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , | Leave a comment

Better Fuel Technology

Better Fuel Technology is a Canadian company and has this web site.

They appear to use hydrogen to improve the fuel economy of vehicles in an unusual way.

This page on their web site is entitled Facts About HHO.

Under a heading of How Hydrogen Generators For Vehicles Work, this is said.

The greatest misconception about hydrogen is that we are making fuel from water. This is entirely incorrect and if it were true, would violate several laws of physics.

It is NOT possible to generate hydrogen at a rate fast enough to be used as the primary fuel.

Hydrogen powered cars do exist. They are designed to use Hydrogen as primary fuel. The hydrogen is created in advance. Just as every ordinary car requires a tank for gasoline, hydrogen is stored within cylinders on board the vehicle.

Our equipment is an inexpensive retrofit, compatible with any vehicle type and size.

Hydrogen assists the combustion process of the existing fuel. Although you will enjoy substantial fuel savings, you will still have to use the primary fuel.

Hydrogen generators use electricity from the battery of the vehicle to split the water (H2O) into its basic elements of oxygen and hydrogen. The generated hydrogen is then injected into the air stream of the vehicle to improve combustion efficiency and fuel economy.

In a standard engine, the combustion cycle is very fast: 0.007 seconds. Most of the fuel molecules are too large to burn completely in this extremely limited time.

The situation is made worse by the fact that the spark plug only ignites a small percentage of the fuel. The fire generated must cascade from one fuel molecule to the next as it propagates through the combustion chamber of the engine. This wastes precious time.

Hydrogen burns and travels through the combustion chamber 10X faster than a gasoline flame. Hydrogen fills the space between fuel molecules and has the effect of making them closer together. The flame travels faster and the fuel is exposed to flame sooner and for a longer period of time. The result is a cleaner, more complete burn.
You can think of hydrogen as a giant spark plug in your engine; igniting all the fuel instead of leaving much of it unburned.

The science behind hydrogen injection has been well documented and understood. It has been known for over thirty years that the addition of hydrogen to fossil fuels, burned in internal combustion engines, will increase the efficiency of the engine.

This concept has been validated by a multitude of papers published by the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).

This is all very interesting.

December 3, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , | Leave a comment

Honda’s NSX Factory Is Shifting To Plug-In Hydrogen CR-V Production

The title of this post, is the same as that, of this article on Road and Track.

The hydrogen is mainly used as a range extender, but it’s interesting to see Honda going this way!

December 1, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel, Uncategorized | , , | 2 Comments

Centrica And Ryze Agree To Develop Hydrogen Pathway

The title of this post, is the same as that of this press release from Centrica.

These are the first three paragraphs.

Centrica and Ryze Hydrogen are set to jointly build and operate hydrogen production facilities aimed at providing a reliable supply of hydrogen for industry and transportation.

Under the landmark agreement the firms will jointly develop hydrogen production projects on existing Centrica sites and work with third-parties to build production on their sites too.

A Memorandum of Understanding has been signed and will combine expertise in order to kickstart the development of the UK hydrogen economy, targeting the mobility, industrial and commercial markets.

There are also some other interesting statements in the press release.

  • Centrica’s Head of Hydrogen, says that we should be bold in our thinking about hydrogen.
  • The partnership will explore how the UK can work with international hydrogen production facilities.
  • Jo Bamford, green entrepreneur and Executive Chairman of Ryze, believes that Centrica are very serious about hydrogen.
  • Centrica and Ryse will convert some of the British Gas fleet to hydrogen.

I feel this could be a very significant deal for the decarbonisation of the UK.

December 1, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen | , , , , | Leave a comment

Hyperion XP-1 Hydrogen Car Unveiled With 1,000-mile Range

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Hydrogen Fuel News.

This is the specification of the hydrogen-powered Hyperion XP-1.

  • 1,000 mile range.
  • No batteries as it uses supercapacitors.
  • Five minute refuelling time
  • All-wheel drive
  • 221 mph top speed
  • 0-to-60 mph in 2.2 seconds
  • Weighs just over a tonne
  • Carbon-titanium monocoque
  • Outrageous styling

Unbelievable!

 

November 29, 2022 Posted by | Design, Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , | Leave a comment

Classic Cars Are Being Rebuilt As Hydrogen-Powered Vehicles

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Hydrogen Fuel News.

This is the first paragraph.

Arrington Performance has rebuilt a 1964 Ford Falcon Sprint coupe to be powered by H2 in a trend converting classic cars into hydrogen-powered vehicles.

The company has also converted was a 1948 Chevrolet pickup, which it rebuilt with a 6.2-liter GM V8.

Not everybody would consider these to be classic cars, but surely if you can convert a 1948 pickup with a 6.2 litre engine, you can convert a wide range of vehicles.

 

 

 

November 19, 2022 Posted by | Transport/Travel | , | Leave a comment

Why BMW Chair Oliver Zipse Says Hydrogen Cars Will Be The “Hippest Thing” On The Road

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Hydrogen Fuel News.

This is the introductory paragraph.

BMW Chair Oliver Zipse recently spoke at an interview in Goodwood, England, underscoring that hydrogen cars will soon be the most desirable zero-emission passenger vehicles to drive, not battery electrics.

He made these points and predictions.

  • Electric vehicles will hit their peak in about ten years, then H2 will take over.
  • After the electric car, which has been going on for about 10 years and scaling up rapidly, the next trend will be hydrogen.
  • When it’s more scalable, hydrogen will be the hippest thing to drive.

I agree with him, but I do find anybody called Zipse to take seriously, because of the character in the Tom Sharpe novel; Porterhouse Blue.

October 27, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , | Leave a comment

The Third Route To Zero-Carbon Transport

The two most common routes to zero-carbon transport are.

  • Battery-electric vehicles
  • Hydrogen fuel-cell vehicles

Note that most hydrogen-fuel cell vehicles also have a battery.

But I believe there’s a third route and that is the use of hydrogen in an internal combustion engine.

Earlier today, I wrote Rolls-Royce And AVK Provide Over 3.5 Gigawatts Of Emergency Power Capacity In The UK, which is based on a Rolls-Royce press release, with the same title.

This is an extract.

And this is said about the use of hydrogen.

Rolls-Royce is also currently developing its mtu gas engine portfolio for power generation so that the engines can run on hydrogen fuel in future, enabling a Net Zero energy supply. The company is also launching complete mtu hydrogen fuel cell solutions, that emit nothing but water vapor from 2025. This will enable CO2-free generation of emergency power for data centers and many other critical applications.

I certainly think, that they are going in the right direction.

Rolls-Royce mtu have a lot to lose, if their diesel engines that power trains, heavy equipment, ships and emergency power generators are replaced by other companies zero-carbon solutions.

  • Large investments will need to be made in hydrogen electrolyser and fuel cell production.
  • Some traditional factories making diesel engines will be closed and could this mean redundancies?
  • A lot of retraining of staff at both manufacturer and customer will need to be made.

But a traditional internal combustion engine, that runs on hydrogen or even both hydrogen and diesel makes the transition to hydrogen a lot less painful.

Other companies going this route include Cummins, Deutz and JCB.

Conversion Of Existing Diesel Engines To Hydrogen

Surely, if an equivalence hydrogen engine exists for all of their diesel engines, a company like Cummins or Rolls-Royce mtu can produce a sound engineering route to decarbonise some of their existing applications.

A classic application would be converting London’s Routemaster buses to hydrogen, which I wrote about in Could London’s New Routemaster Buses Be Converted To Hydrogen Power?

This was my conclusion in that post.

I believe from my knowledge of Cummins and the way they work, that they will come up with a hydrogen-based solution, that will replace the Cummins diesel in these buses with a zero-carbon engine.

If Cummins don’t then someone else will.

Whoever solves the problem of converting London’s new Routemasters to hydrogen will have one of the best adverts for their product, there has ever been.

After converting London’s thousand Routemasters, the engineers could move on to anything powered by a Cummins engine.

As this is a world-wide problem, I believe that the manufacturers of cars, buses, trucks and many other vehicles will offer zero-carbon solutions for their products, as it will be necessary for survival.

If you have just bought a new diesel BMW and your government says that in two years time, diesel will no longer be available, you’re up the creek without a paddle. But if BMW can convert it to hydrogen for a small fraction of the cost of a new electric equivalent, you have a more available way out.

August 23, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment