The Anonymous Widower

Rahul Gandhi Disqualified As MP After Conviction In Defamation Case

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on the BBC.

This is the sub-heading.

India’s parliament has disqualified senior opposition leader Rahul Gandhi, a day after he was sentenced to two years in prison in a defamation case.

The next two paragraphs outline the case.

A parliament notice said that Mr Gandhi “stands disqualified from the membership of Lok Sabha”, alluding to the lower house of parliament.

He was convicted by the court for 2019 comments about PM Narendra Modi’s surname at a election rally.

Recently, I made a comment to a doctor with part Indian genes about Modi and I got a very unflattering reply.

March 26, 2023 Posted by | World | , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Further Thoughts On BP’s Successful INTOG Bid

I have been searching the web and I feel BP’s successful INTOG bid may be different.

In 13 Offshore Wind Projects Selected In World’s First Innovation And Targeted Oil & Gas Leasing Round, I decided that BP’s bid, which only was for 50 MW of offshore wind would generate hydrogen and send it to shore through the Forties Pipeline System, which is owned by INEOS.

My reasons for feeling that it would generate hydrogen were as follows.

  • In the wider picture of wind in the North Sea, BP’s proposed 50 MW wind farm is a miniscule one. SSE Renewables’s Dogger Bank wind farm is over a hundred times as large.
  • A cable to the shore and substation for just one 50 MW wind farm would surely be expensive.
  • BP Alternative Energy Investments are also developing a 2.9 GW wind farm some sixty miles to the South.
  • It would probably be bad financial planning to put large and small wind farms so close together.

I still believe for these and other reasons, that there is no reason to believe that the proposed 50 MW wind farm is a traditional wind farm and most likely it will be paired with an appropriately-sized electrolyser producing around twenty tonnes of hydrogen per day.

But instead of being sent ashore by using the Forties Pipeline System, could this hydrogen be sent directly to the coast near Aberdeen, in its own personal hydrogen pipeline?

  • Using a variety of maps, I have estimated the distance at only around twenty miles.
  • With all the experience from BP and their suppliers, there must be a solution for a relatively short hydrogen pipeline.

I also found this scientific paper on ScienceDirect, which is entitled Dedicated Large-Scale Floating Offshore Wind To Hydrogen: Assessing Design Variables In Proposed Typologies, which talks about three different layouts.

  • Centralised Onshore Electrolysis
  • Decentralised Offshore Electrolysis
  • Centralised Offshore Electrolysis

All would appear to be feasible.

There is a lot of information in the scientific paper and it leads me to the conclusion, that hydrogen could be generated offshore and transferred by pipeline to storage on the shore.

The paper shows a design for a submarine hydrogen pipeline and schematics of how to design a system.

I believe that BP’s proposed system could deliver around twenty tonnes of hydrogen per day to the shore.

The system could be as simple as this.

  • A few large floating wind turbines would be positioned offshore, perhaps twenty miles from shore.
  • Perhaps 5 x 10 MW, 4 x 12 MW turbines or 3 x 16 MW could be used. Deciding would be one of those calculations, that combines accountancy, data, engineering and finance, which are great fun.
  • The offshore distance would be carefully chosen, so that complaints about seeing them from the shore would be minimised.
  • The generated electricity would be collected at a floating electrolyser, where hydrogen would be created.
  • The hydrogen would be pumped to the shore.
  • The floating electrolyser could also contain hydrogen storage.

I think there is large scope for innovation.

  • I can imagine drones and helicopters delivering equipment and personnel to service the electrolyser.
  • Underwater hydrogen storage could be developed.
  • A standard system could be developed for rolling out anywhere.
  • It could be placed in the sea, by a steelworks or other large hydrogen user.

In its own right the concept would develop new markets, which is one of the wind farm’s aims.

Could This Be The Route To Create Affordable Hydrogen For All?

BP would be failing their customers, employees and shareholders, if they weren’t developing a zero-carbon alternative to diesel and petrol.

Offshore hydrogen electrolysers strategically placed along the coastline, could provide a reliable hydrogen supply to a that sizeable proportion of the world’s population, who live near to the coast.

Could The Technology Be Adapted To Motorway And Large Service Stations?

This document on the UK Government web site, gives the mileage statistics of lorries (HGVs) and has this sub-heading.

In 2019 lorries travelled 17.4 billion vehicle miles, remaining broadly stable (increasing slightly by 0.3%) compared with 2018.

It breaks this figure down, by the class of road.

  • Motorways – 8.0 – 46 %
  • A Roads – 6.3 – 36 %
  • Rural Minor Roads – 0.9 – 5 %
  • Urban A Roads – 1.5 – 9 %
  • Urban Minor Roads – 0.7 – 4 %

Note that 82 % of HGV mileage is on Motorways or A roads. Anybody, who has ever driven a truck bigger than a Ford Transit over a distance of upwards of fifty miles, knows that trucks and vans regularly need to be fuelled up on the road. And that applies to the drivers too, who also by law must take a break, away from the cab.

Charging an electric truck could be a lengthy business and would require service stations to be connected directly to the nation grid and be fitted with a substantial number of heavy duty chargers.

One thing, that would be difficult with an electric truck, would be a Splash-and-Dash, if a truck was nearing the destination  and needed a small amount of charging to meet delivery schedules.

Because of the distances involved, the driving rules, the often tight schedules and the fast filling, I am convinced that there will be a large proportion of hydrogen-powered trucks and vans on the road and these will need a network of service stations where hydrogen is available.

Look at these overhead view of South Mimms Services, where the M25 and the A1(M) cross to the North of London.


I would envisage that at least four 10 MW wind turbines, which have a rotor diameter of around 160-190 metres could be dotted around and inside the site including inside the roundabout.

  • The electrolyser would be slightly smaller than that which would be used at Aberdeen.
  • Perhaps fifteen tons per day of hydrogen could be generated.
  • No hydrogen needed on the site would ever be brought in by truck.
  • Wind-generated electricity could also power the hotels, restaurants and the service station.
  • As the percentage of vehicles running on fossil fuels decreased, the air quality in the area of the service station, should increase.
  • How many people, who lived locally would switch to a hydrogen-powered runabout and fill it up perhaps once a week, when they passed?

Much of the technology needed to add a hydrogen option to a typical large service station has already been developed and some would also be needed to build BP’s 50 MW offshore wind farm with an electrolyser.





March 26, 2023 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Ricardo Supports Industry Leaders To Develop Innovative Dedicated Hydrogen Engine

The title of this post, is the same as that of this press release from Ricardo.

This is the sub-heading.

Ricardo, a global strategic, environmental, and engineering consulting company, has delivered a hydrogen-fuelled research engine to global engine specialist Cummins and automotive supplier BorgWarner, as part of Project BRUNEL part funded by the Advanced Propulsion Centre (APC)

These four paragraphs outline the project.

Cummins is a global specialist in diesel and alternative fuel engines and generators, and related components and technology. BorgWarner is an automotive tier 1 supplier and specialist in the design and manufacture of systems for electrified and conventional propulsion types, that includes injection equipment for conventional and renewable fuels. BorgWarner recently announced the intention to spin off its Fuel Systems segment. The intended company name is PHINIA Inc. PHINIA is expected to be a product leader in fuel systems, starters, alternators and aftermarket distribution.

The project aims to support internal combustion engine (ICE) sub-system suppliers to increase their use of hydrogen as an alternative zero-emissions fuel solution across the light commercial vehicle market.

The engine is specifically designed to burn only hydrogen – with no supporting fuels that could give rise to any carbonaceous, or excessive air quality emissions.

Experts in hydrogen technology and integration, Ricardo has provided an engine based upon its world-renowned series of single cylinder research units, which can help the research teams evaluate a wide variety of fuels. The engine is designed to help engineers evaluate a variety of injector types and will support increased fuel efficiency, reduced air quality emissions and the move towards carbon-free heavy-duty propulsion.

Reports of the death of the internal combustion engine are greatly exaggerated.

The Aims Of The Project

This talks about the light commercial market, which for Cummins means, that this engine could be a replacement for their B Series engine, which is described in Wikipedia like this.

In production since 1984, the B series engine family is intended for multiple applications on and off-highway, light-duty, and medium-duty. In the automotive industry, it is best known for its use in school buses, public service buses (most commonly the Dennis Dart and the Alexander Dennis Enviro400) in the United Kingdom, and Dodge/Ram pickup trucks.

A version is also used in London’s New Routemaster buses.

Speculation About A Hydrogen-Powered Dodge Ram Pickup

This article on Mopar Insiders is entitled Next-Gen Ram Heavy Duty Could Feature Cummins Hydrogen Powerplant!

It has this sub-heading.

Fast Refuel Times, Extended Range, & Zero-Emissions…

Sounds great for wide open spaces.

I’ve also read in an interview with a retiring Cummins Executive, who said that Dodge RAM trucks are being converted to hydrogen by enthusiasts.

Could New Routemasters Be Converted To Hydrogen?

In the Wikipedia entry for the Cummins B Series engine, this is said about the engine in a New Routemaster.

The 4.5L ISB is essentially a four-cylinder, two-thirds version of the 6.7L ISB rated at 185 hp (138 kW), used in the New Routemaster, a series hybrid diesel-electric doubledecker bus in London.

Having worked in the Cummins factory at Darlington, I know they are happy to produce specials for a particular application, so I wouldn’t be surprised to see a hydrogen-powered New Routemaster created by an engine and fuel system transplant.


The tie-up between Cummins, BorgWarner and Ricardo could be significant.

American power with a touch of Sussex finesse.


March 26, 2023 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , , | 2 Comments

Electric Cars Are A Dead End!

When you introduce any product to the general population, you must think of all the consequences.

I found these statistics on the RAC Foundation web site.

There were 33.2 million cars (81.3 per cent), 4.63 million LGVs (11.3 per cent), 0.54 million HGVs (1.3 per cent), 1.46 million motorcycles (3.6 per cent), 0.15 million buses & coaches (0.4 per cent) and 0.84 million other vehicles (2 per cent) licensed at the end of September 2022.

Could anybody please tell me how the average guy or gal, who owns one of those 33.2 million cars is going to be able to afford to replace it, find a convenient place to park and charge it and go and visit their mum in say Scunthorpe from Plymouth?

We are going down a massive dead end!

The only sensible alternative is internal combustion engines running on hydrogen, many of which could be converted from existing diesel engines.

But only a few councils have a hydrogen policy, with the biggest disgrace being London, where the Mayor’s hydrogen policy, is to ignore it and hope it will go away.London has an air quality problem, which is not helped by large numbers of HGVs in the centre.

The technology exists to convert HGVs to hydrogen and it would be possible to insist that all vehicles over a certain weight were zero-carbon. But as London has no plans for hydrogen, it can’t happen.

Vote Hydrogen for Mayor in May 2024, to improve London’s air quality.


  1. To replace 33.2 million cars with electric ones would cost 1660 billion pounds, assuming each electric car costs fifty grand.
  2. As most electric cars are not made in the UK, what would happen to our balance of payments?
  3. On average an electric car needs 63 kilos of lithium for its battery, so 33.2 million will need over two million tonnes of lithium.


March 26, 2023 Posted by | Finance, Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , | 5 Comments