The Anonymous Widower

Industry Calls For 10 GW Of Offshore Hydrogen In German National H2 Strategy

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on

This is the sub-heading.

Offshore wind and hydrogen developers and organisations in Germany have called on the federal government to set clear targets for offshore hydrogen in the update of the country’s National Hydrogen Strategy, with an additional 10 GW of offshore electrolysis capacity to be added by 2035.

These two paragraphs add detail the story and name those who are behind it.

On 26 May, several companies and industry organisations signed an appeal sent to the German Federal Government that highlights offshore hydrogen’s advantage of adding large-scale capacities and asks that a target of an additional 10 GW of offshore hydrogen by 2035 be added to both the country’s hydrogen strategy and the area development plan.

The parties that signed the appeal include the German offshore wind-to-hydrogen initiative AquaVentus, offshore wind and hydrogen players BP, Siemens Gamesa, Gasunie, Copenhagen Infrastructure Partners (CIP), EnBW, Equinor, and Lhyfe, as well as industry organisations WAB and the Federal Association of Offshore Wind Farm Operators (BWO), among others.

These two paragraphs describe an area to be developed for the first offshore hydrogen production.

As reported in January, in the country’s new area development plan for offshore wind, Germany’s Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) also outlined the first offshore hydrogen area in the North Sea.

The area, SEN-1, spans over 100 square kilometres in the North Sea and will allow for an electrolysis capacity of up to 1 GW to be tested and connected with a hydrogen pipeline.


  1. 1 GW if electricity should create about 435 tonnes of hydrogen per day.
  2. That amount of hydrogen could be stored as liquid in a sphere with a radius of 11.35 metres.

May 29, 2023 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Seabed Power Grid To Link North Sea Wind Turbines

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on the BBC.

This is the sub-heading.

A vast power grid on the seabed of the central North Sea is being planned as part of a £20bn project to power oil and gas platforms with green electricity.

Points in the article include.

  • There could be more than 400 offshore turbines.
  • If they were 15 MW turbines, that would be at least 6 GW.
  • The plan could involve 10,000 jobs, many of which could be in the supply chain in Scotland.
  • The plan is for three connected large sea areas in the central North Sea covering nearly 400 square miles.
  • Infrastructure could be in place by 2028.
  • Scotland was among the most investable countries in the world for floating wind farms.
  • Partners include experienced companies like NOV, Siemens Gamesa, Siemens Energy, DEME and Worley.
  • Nearly a third of the world’s current order pipeline for floating wind is destined for Scottish waters.

In Cerulean Winds Is A Different Type Of Wind Energy Company, I said, the project is privately-funded. and will need no government subsidy .

This article on is entitled Cerulean North Sea Renewables Grid To Power Oil & Gas Platforms With Floating Wind finishes with this paragraph.

Cerulean has agreed on an approach with its industrial partners early to de-risk the project in the same way other large-scale infrastructure developments are initiated, the company said. In total, the three wind farms could contribute over GBP 12 billion GVA to the UK’s economy.

Do you believe in magic money trees?

The Original Cerulean Press Release

This press release on the Cerulean Wind web site, gives more details.

Read it and you might get some measure of the ambition of the company.

Questions And Thoughts

In Cerulean Winds Is A Different Type Of Wind Energy Company, I answer a few questions at the end of the post, and come to this conclusion.

It looks like Cerulean Winds are a very different energy company.

If you have any more questions, put them in the comments and I’ll answer them, as best as I can in the related post.


May 4, 2023 Posted by | Energy, Finance | , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Thor Offshore Wind Farm To Feature Siemens Gamesa’s Newly Launched GreenerTowers

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on

This is the sub-heading.

Siemens Gamesa has revealed its GreenerTower, a wind turbine tower made of more sustainable steel. The company already closed its first order with RWE to feature 36 of the GreenerTower units at the 1 GW Thor offshore wind project in Denmark.

This is the first paragraph.

Today, tower production accounts for more than one-third of all wind-turbine-related CO2 emissions, according to Siemens Gamesa.

Siemens Gamesa’s new GreenerTower will ensure a CO2 reduction of at least 63 per cent in the tower steel plates compared to conventional steel.

Siemens Gamesa also claim this.

If all towers installed by the company in one year were exchanged with GreenerTowers, it would be the same as removing more than 466,000 cars from the roads in Europe for a year.

The first supplier to be qualified is Salzgitter AG.

  • I wrote about Salzgitter’s green steelmaking in WindH2 Hydrogen Project Commissioned In Germany.
  • Only a maximum of 0.7 tonnes of CO2-equivalent emissions are permitted per tonne of steel while maintaining the same steel properties and quality.
  • Salzgitter’s electric furnaces will be fed with green electricity produced by renewable energy sources.
  • Salzgitter AG have recently signed a Power Purchase Agreement (PPA) with Iberdrola.
  • It looks like Salzgitter AG are going both the electric and hydrogen route to green steel.

I suspect over the next few years, we’ll be seeing more steel products made with green steel.

In this case, I suspect that Siemens Gamesa could use the same production process with very little modification, which is a great advantage.



April 24, 2023 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Siemens Gamesa, Ørsted Link Up With UK Universities To Boost Wind Turbine Efficiency

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on

This is the sub-heading.

A major collaboration between universities and energy companies has made “vital” improvements to offshore wind turbines, which could help them generate more renewable energy and reduce the UK’s reliance on fossil fuels.

This paragraph outlines the research.

The GBP 7.7 million partnership between the Universities of Sheffield, Durham, Hull, and two global energy companies, Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy and Ørsted, could help offshore wind turbines run for longer periods of time – boosting the amount of energy each wind farm generates.

We may not manufacture a large proportion of wind turbines, but companies do turn to UK universities, when they need important research to be done.

March 23, 2023 Posted by | Design, Energy | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Lützerath: German Coal Mine Stand Off Amid Ukraine War Energy Crunch

The title of this post, is the same as that on this article on the BBC.

This is the sub-heading.

From her tiny wooden treehouse, which sways precariously in the winter wind, a young woman watches an enormous mechanical digger tear into the earth below, its jaws edging ever closer to the village which she’s determined to save.

And these two paragraphs outline the protest.

Lützerath, in western Germany, is on the verge – literally – of being swallowed up by the massive coal mine on its doorstep.

Around 200 climate change activists, who are now all that stand in the way of the diggers expanding the Garzweiler opencast mine, have been warned that if they don’t leave by Tuesday they’ll be forcibly evicted.

But this is not about coal or bituminous coal, as we know it in the UK, this mine will produce lignite or brown coal.

Read both Wikipedia entries linked to the previous sentence and you find some choice phrases.

For bituminous coal.

  • Within the coal mining industry, this type of coal is known for releasing the largest amounts of firedamp, a dangerous mixture of gases that can cause underground explosions.
  • Extraction of bituminous coal demands the highest safety procedures involving attentive gas monitoring, good ventilation and vigilant site management.
  • The leading producer is China, with India and the United States a distant second and third.

For lignite.

  • It has a carbon content around 25–35%. and is considered the lowest rank of coal due to its relatively low heat content.
  • When removed from the ground, it contains a very high amount of moisture which partially explains its low carbon content.
  • The combustion of lignite produces less heat for the amount of carbon dioxide and sulfur released than other ranks of coal. As a result, environmental advocates have characterized lignite as the most harmful coal to human health.
  • Depending on the source, various toxic heavy metals, including naturally occurring radioactive materials may be present in lignite which are left over in the coal fly ash produced from its combustion, further increasing health risks.
  • Lignite’s high moisture content and susceptibility to spontaneous combustion can cause problems in transportation and storage.

I don’t think, that we’ve ever burned lignite in the UK for electricity, as it is just too filthy.

This map shows the mine.


  1. The autobahn at the West of the map, is a six-land highway, so gives an idea of the scale.
  2. The village of Lützerath is towards the bottom of the map in the middle.
  3. What has been left after the mining, is going to take a lot of restoration.

It almost appears that some of the scenes of devastation, we are seeing in the Ukraine are also happening in Germany due to the frantic search for energy.

A 1960s-Educated Engineer’s Attitude To Coal

I was one of about four-hundred engineers in my year at Liverpool University in the 1960s.

  • Quite a few of those engineers were from coal-mining areas and some were children of miners.
  • I remember the graduate recruitment fair at the University in 1968, where the representative from the National Coal Board sat there alone, as if he’d got the 1960s version of Covid-19.
  • Some went and talked to him, as they felt sorry for him.
  • As far as I know, not one of us, went to work for the National Coal Board.

Engineers and other graduates of the 1960s, didn’t feel that coal was the future.

Had Aberfan and the other pit disasters of the era killed coal as a career, amongst my generation of the UK population?

What Should The Germans Do?

It is my view that whatever the Germans do, burning brown coal, should not be on the list. It’s just too polluting.

This article on euronews is entitled Germany And Poland Have A Dirty Big Secret – An Addiction To Brown Coal.

A few years ago, I was in Katowice on Poland and I have never seen such pollution in Europe, since the smogs of the 1950s.

The euronews article says this.

In eastern Germany some members of a little-known group claim they are being ethnically cleansed, not by militia groups, but by the coal mining industry.

Bulldozers have so far destroyed over 130 Sorb villages to make way for the mining of Europe’s dirtiest kind of fossil fuel – brown coal, or lignite as it is also known.

Brown coal mines are open cast and devour vast tracts of land. As well as whole villages farming and wildlife are destroyed.

The Penk family live in the village of Rohne. They feel their whole culture is also being destroyed.

Note that the Sorbs have a Wikipedia entry, which says there are 60,000 Sorbs in Germany.

One thing the Germans are doing is investing in the UK renewable energy industry.

  • RWE own or part-own over 7 GW of offshore wind farms in the UK, some of which are under development.
  • enBW and BP are developing 3 GW of offshore wind farms in the UK.
  • Over twenty offshore wind farms use Siemens Gamesa turbines.
  • The NeuConnect interconnector is being built between the Isle of Grain and Wilhelmshaven.

Would it not be better for the physical and mental health of German citizens, if they abandoned their dirty love of brown coal and spent the money in the North Sea?

January 10, 2023 Posted by | Energy | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

The Next Generation Of Fixed Foundation Wind Farms

This article on, is entitled Offshore Wind Turbines In 2022: 15 MW Prototypes Starting To Spin In Europe, Chinese Rolling Out 16 MW Models, Windcatcher And VAWTs Secure Demo Projects.

The title itself, shows 15-16 MW wind turbines and the text lists three European 15 MW and two Chinese 16 MW wind turbines, that are being developed.

This paragraph also indicates that Siemens Gamesa are in the running for orders.

So far, the SG 14-236 DD wind turbine has been selected as a preferred option for the Norfolk Vanguard and Boreas wind farms offshore the UK, as well as for the MFW Bałtyk II and MFW Bałtyk III wind farms in the Polish Baltic Sea.

Large turbines with a capacity of 15 MW and upwards appear to be becoming the new normal.

Water depths for these large turbines are forecast to be deeper than the two Norfolk wind-farms, which are between 22 and 40 metres.

This means that foundations will get much larger and heavier.

This article on, is entitled New Monopile Installation Method Attracts Major Backer, describes a new generation of monopiles as 100-130 metres in length, 12-15 metres in outer diameter, and a weight of up to 5,000 tonnes.

Installing these long and heavy objects safely in deep waters, is not a job for the faint-hearted.

The article describes a new method of installation, which I feel is very elegant.

  • The XXXL monopiles are built horizontally.
  • They are moved on to the jack-up ship by self-propelled modular transporters (SPMT).
  • It appears at least two or possibly up to four monopiles can be carried on the ship.
  • They are lifted into the vertical position by a lifting beam.


  1. No cranes are involved in the process.
  2. The lifting beam method of erecting the 5,000 tonne XXXL monopile is simple and very efficient.
  3. Self-propelled modular transporters were used to install the 2000 tonne subway at Hackney Wick station.
  4. Rollers are fitted on the ship to ease handling of the monopiles.

I can certainly see this specialised jack-up ship speeding up the installation of these giant monopiles.

Consequences For Floating Wind

I do wonder, if this method of installing fixed foundation wind farms, will allow larger foundations and these may mean that there is less need for the more complex floating wind farms.

January 5, 2023 Posted by | Energy | , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Vestas 15 MW Prototype Turbine Produces First Power

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on

This is the introductory paragraph.

Vestas’ V236-15.0 MW prototype wind turbine has produced its first kWh after being fully assembled at the Østerild National test centre for large wind turbines in Western Jutland, Denmark.

The first of the four wind farms in the Hornsea wind farm complex to be developed is Hornsea One.

  • It has a capacity of 1218 MW.
  • It is comprised of 174 Siemens SWT-7.0-154, which each have a generating capacity of 7 MW.

If 15 MW turbines could have been used on Hornsea One, it would have more than doubled the generating capacity to 2625 MW.

But obviously, larger turbines have longer blades, so they may need to be placed further apart.

In Vattenfall Boosts Capacity For Norfolk Offshore Wind Zone, I write about how Vattenfall are increasing the size of their Norfolk wind farms, by proposing to use larger turbines.


Turbines will get larger and 15 MW turbines will be commonplace.

A possible advantage is that you only need sixty-seven turbines for a GW, as opposed to a hundred 10 MW turbines, so there are possibilities to optimise the most profitable way to build a wind farm.

December 30, 2022 Posted by | Energy | , , , , | 4 Comments

SSE Renewables Completes Acquisition Of European Renewable Energy Development Platform

The title of this post, is the same as that of this press release from SSE.

This paragraph introduces the deal.

SSE Renewables has completed the transaction with Siemens Gamesa Renewable Energy (SGRE) to acquire its existing European renewable energy development platform for a consideration of €580m.

I have a few thoughts.

Why Have Siemens Gamesa Sold Their European Renewable Energy Development Platform?

This article on Renewables Now is entitled Siemens Gamesa Wraps Up Sale Of 3.9-GW Wind Portfolio To SSE Renewables, gives a reason.

For the turbine maker, the sale represents one of the measures implemented to rein in profit losses quarter after quarter due to internal challenges, high costs and supply chain issues.

As with many things, it appears to be all about the money.

Can SSE Renewables Afford It?


SSE seem to have found a Scottish magic money tree.

€580m is just small change.

What Projects Are Included In The Deal?

This is a paragraph from the press release.

The SGRE portfolio includes c.3.8GW of onshore wind development projects – around half of which is located in Spain with the remainder across France, Italy and Greece – with scope for up to 1.4GW of additional co-located solar development opportunities. Development of the portfolio of projects has continued to progress since the acquisition was announced in April, with additional opportunities identified and permits and grid connections advancing. Over 2GW of the total pipeline is considered to be at a secured stage, where a grid connection or land agreement has been secured or relevant permits granted.


  1. As an engineer, I note that there is no offshore wind, which surely is the renewable energy development with most risk and installation costs.
  2. SSE Renewables have a lot of experience of onshore wind, so delivering and financing the extra 3.8 GW, shouldn’t be a problem.
  3. The 1.4 GW of solar comes with the word co-located. Wind and solar together, perhaps with a battery must surely be a good investment in the sunnier climes of Europe.

It doesn’t look to me that SSE Renewables have bought a load of assets that no-one wants.

I do wonder thought, if Siemens Gamesa were having trouble progressing this large diverse portfolio of projects, due to a shortage of resources like money and engineers.

So are SSE finishing off a few projects and they can transfer a few engineers to these projects?

Are SSE Spreading The Risk?

SSE operate mainly in the UK and Ireland, so is adding Spain, France, Italy and Greece a good idea?

Of the four new countries, it’s unlikely that all will perform well, but a mixed portfolio is usually a good idea.

Will SSE Renewables  Buy Siemens Gamesa Turbines In The Future?

SSE Renewables seem to do an individual deal on each wind farm, as no one manufacturer dominates.

But now Siemens Gamesa may be more financially stable, perhaps they can get a better deal for the turbines they want.


I don’t think SSE Renewables have done a bad deal.



September 5, 2022 Posted by | Energy | , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Siemens Gamesa Partners On Offshore Wind-to-Hydrogen

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on

This is the first three paragraphs.

Siemens Gamesa has signed a memorandum of understanding with Strohm to collaborate on the development of offshore wind-to-hydrogen infrastructure.

The partnership will focus on the advancement of hydrogen transfer solutions that will look to improve the decentralized green hydrogen concept, whereby green hydrogen is generated in each turbine generator and transported to shore by a subsea pipe.

In this concept power cables are replaced by a pipe infrastructure used for storing and transferring hydrogen.

Thermoplastic composite pipe (TCP) will be used.

December 8, 2021 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , , , | 5 Comments