The Anonymous Widower

Thoughts On Extending The Northern Line To Clapham Junction

As I wrote in Northern Line Could Be Extended To Clapham Junction In Regeneration Plans, the extension of the newly-built extension to Battersea Power Station station could be further extended to Clapham Junction station.

Railways Between Battersea And Clapham

This map from OpenRailwayMap shows the tracks that run between the two stations.

Note.

  1. Battersea Power Station station is in the North-East corner of the map.
  2. The orange and yellow lines going North from that corner go to Victoria station.
  3. The orange and yellow lines going North-East from that corner go to Waterloo station.
  4. The yellow line going West is the West London Line to Shepherds Bush and Willesden Junction stations.
  5. Clapham Junction station is in the South-West corner of the map.

I estimate that the distance between Battersea Power Station and Clapham Junction stations is about three kilometres.

This map from OpenRailwayMap shows an enlargement of the tracks around Battersea.

Note.

  1. The tracks going North over the River to Victoria station.
  2. The tracks going East to Waterloo station.
  3. The tracks going South West to Clapham Junction station.
  4. The tracks from Victoria pass over and then join the tracks from Waterloo to continue to Clapham Junction station.

Battersea Power Station station can be seen to the North-East of the junction.

This map from OpenRailwayMap shows an enlargement of the tracks around Battersea Power Station station.

Note how the tracks go through Battersea Power Station station and terminate just before the lines into Victoria station.

It should also be noted that the platforms at Battersea Power Station station are reached using two sets of escalators, so they could be over forty metres below the surface. This would surely make the construction of tower blocks with deep foundations easier over the Northern Line.

But the depth would also enable an extended Northern Line to be below any existing or future construction.

This map from OpenRailwayMap shows the approaches to Clapham Junction station.

There are certainly a lot of tracks through Clapham Junction station.

Reasons For The Extension Of The Northern Line To Clapham Junction

These reasons come to mind.

To Enable Development In The Area

This is always a good reason.

In Network Rail To Outline Business Case For Clapham Junction Redevelopment, I said this.

The Rail Technology Magazine article talks of decking over the whole station and putting two million square feet of development on top. But it also cautions, it would be very expensive.

With that amount of development, there would be a need for as many transport links as possible.

To Improve Access To The Elizabeth Line For Passengers On Trains To And From Victoria

Victoria station does not have an Underground Line, that connects to easily the Elizabeth Line.

The best route to use is described in The Lizzie Line And Circle/District Line Interchange At Paddington – 1st July 2022, where you use the Circle to Paddington.

  • To go to the West on the Elizabeth Line, take the Circle/District Line to Paddington.
  • To go to the East on the Elizabeth Line, take the District Line to Whitechapel.
  • To go to Liverpool Street take the Circle Line all the way.

Getting to the stations between Paddington and Liverpool Street means a change at either of those stations.

At Waterloo, you can use the Northern Line, which has a direct connection to Tottenham Court Road on the Elizabeth Line.

Connecting to the Northern Line at Clapham Junction will give Victoria-bound passengers, the advantages of those going to Waterloo.

An Alternative Way Of Connecting Victoria To The Elizabeth Line

The lack of an easy connection between the Victoria and the Elizabeth Line is a pain and I believe that it was a major omission in the design of the Elizabeth Line.

  • Dear Old Vicky has a frequency of upwards of thirty trains per hour (tph)
  • With some improvements at stations like Oxford Circus, Highbury & Islington and Walthamstow Central, the line could handle some more passengers.
  • More step-free access would also help increase capacity.
  • Engineers are a competitive bunch and I could see the day, when Vicky is running at 40 tph.

If Vicky was running at forty full tph, it would be moving 45120 passengers per hour.

This would mean that to match the passenger capacity of the older line, the Elizabeth Line would have to be running at a frequency of thirty tph.

As passengers at the ends of the line have difficulty getting to places like Paddington and Heathrow, a connection between the two Queens would really help.

Vicky was universe-class in the 1960s and now she needs updating to the 21st Century.

This map from cartometro shows the Lines through Bond Street and Oxford Circus stations.

Note.

  1. The Bakerloo Line is shown in brown.
  2. The Central Line is shown in red.
  3. The Elizabeth Line is shown in purple.
  4. The Victoria Line is shown in light blue.
  5. The Elizabeth Line is the deepest line.

In addition, consider.

The Eastern exit of the Elizabeth Line at Bond Street station has three escalators and lifts. It also opens onto Hanover Square, so it won’t suffer from overcrowding problems outside.

  • Hanover Square is just a garden, with no car park underneath, so pedestrian tunnels could pass under it
  • I also suspect there are no existing or planned buildings between the two stations with deep foundations that would block a pedestrian tunnel.
  • With the capability and ingenuity of three-D design software, I can see wide tunnels being created that would link Oxford Circus and the two Bond Street stations.
  • The new wide tunnels at Bank station have opened up the station’s capacity and all the tunnels were dug traditionally.
  • If it was felt to be needed, moving walkways could be added, just as they have been at Bank station.

I am absolutely sure, that by using the ideas and methods, that have worked so well in the upgrade of Bank station, that Oxford Circus and Bond Street stations could be turned into a London Superhub Station, that connects all the Underground lines together and has entrances all over the area.

The benefits of such a station would be.

  • It would provide a high-capacity link between London’s two highest-capacity Underground Lines; Elizabeth and Victoria.
  • It would provide a high-capacity link between the Elizabeth Line and Euston, St. Pancras and King’s Cross.
  • It would provide a high-capacity link between the Elizabeth Line and Victoria.
  • It would provide a high-capacity link between the Elizabeth Line and High Speed Two.
  • Areas like Brixton, Haringey and Walthamstow would gain a much needed link to the Elizabeth Line for Heathrow and Paddington.

Wikipedia says this about the building of the Bank Station Upgrade.

As part of the development of the scheme, TfL worked with potential bidders to improve the design of the station from TfL’s original design. The design proposed in the winning bid by Dragados was 9.7% cheaper than the original design (saving TfL £60m), took 10 months less time to construct than the original design (the proposed closure of the Northern line was also 5 weeks shorter), and the layout of the station was more efficient. This substantially improved the benefit–cost ratio by 45% to 3.5:1.

The Mayor should be knocking on the door of Dragados and asking them for a price for a design and build for a West End Superhub station.

A Possible Route For The Extension Of The Northern Line To Clapham Junction

I suspect that the simplest route for the extension of the Northern Line would be to bore or dig a twin-track railway underneath the numerous other railways in the area.

It could terminate in two underground platforms at Clapham Junction station.

This is the first map of this post and it shows the tracks that run between the two stations.

Note.

  1. Battersea Power Station station is in the North-East corner of the map.
  2. Clapham Junction station is in the South-West corner of the map.

The Western of the pair of orange Lines going off the map in the North-East corner of the map is the Brighton Main Line.

It passes through Battersea Park station.

It passes over the South Western Main Line out of Waterloo.

It then loops to the West and joins the lines to Clapham Junction on the Southern side.

It serves four platforms at Clapham Junction; 12 and 14 are up platforms and 13 and 15 are down platforms.

This Google Map shows an overview of Clapham Junction station.

Note.

  1. Platforms 1 and 2 at the top of the map, handle London Overground services.
  2. Platforms 3 to 11 handle South Western Train services.
  3. Platforms 12 to 17 handle Southern services.
  4. Platforms 9 and 10 have a Delice de France cafe.
  5. Platforms 11 and 12 have a Cuppacino cafe.
  6. Platforms 13 and 14 have the logos.
  7. All platforms have full step-free access with lifts to the wide footbridge that connects all platforms.

The platforms don’t seem to be very wide and putting stairs and escalators down to underground platforms could be a difficult proposition.

This map from OpenRailwayMap shows shows the platforms at Clapham Junction station and the track layout to the West of the footbridge.

Note.

  1. The tracks through the platforms are shown in orange.
  2. The blue dots are platform numbers.
  3. The bridge connecting all the platforms is shown shaded in the middle of the map.
  4. To the West of the bridge are Clapham Junction Sidings and Clapham Traincare Depot.

These pictures were taken from the bridge.

Note.

  1. The top row of pictures were taken looking West.
  2. The bottom row of pictures were taken looking East.
  3. Many of the tracks are electrified.
  4. There is a lot of space to park trains.

Will all the space be needed now, that a new depot has been built at Feltham.

Could Two New Surface Platforms Be Built For The Extension Of The Northern Line To Clapham Junction?

Consider.

  • The step-free bridge across all the platforms at Clapham Junction station works well.
  • It is connected to the streets around the station at both ends.
  • Clapham Junction station will be redeveloped and surplus depot land could be used for housing.
  • As the maps show, there is a large gap in the platforms between the South Western Railway and the Southern sides of the station.
  • As Battersea Power Station station can turn services on the Northern Line with only two platforms, there would only need to be the same number of Northern Line platforms at Clapham Junction.

So could an extra pair of platforms be built under the bridge, with stairs and a lift similar to the existing platforms?

  • The platform would have full step-free access.
  • The platforms could be long enough for any future trains.
  • There could be sidings for a few trains.
  • The tunnels from Battersea Power Station would surface just outside the station.
  • There would need to be a crossover or a turnback siding for operational reasons.

I also think, that once the depot and sidings at Clapham Junction have released the space, the new platforms and tracks could be installed without interrupting main line services through the station.

Would The Extension Of The Northern Line Be Electrified?

Consider.

  • Merseyrail were not allowed to use third-rail electrification to Headbolt Lane station and had to use batteries.
  • The Northern Line was extended to Battersea Power Station station using London’s four-rail electrified system.
  • Clapham Junction station has third-rail electrification everywhere.

I think that the authorities would be very churlish not to allow electrification to Clapham Junction.

Conclusion

I believe it is possible to extend the Northern Line to two new surface platforms at Clapham Junction station.

But I also believe that using similar methods to those used in the Bank Station Upgrade, that a full interchange between the Elizabeth and Victoria Lines can be built at Oxford Circus and Bond Street.

 

 

.

February 4, 2023 Posted by | Transport/Travel | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Cars In Central London Surged 60% After Khan Stopped Evening Congestion Charge

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on the Standard.

These are the first two paragraphs.

Transport for London’s own data shows the dramatic impact of the Mayor’s decision to shorten the £15-a-day C-charge’s operating hours, ending it at 6pm rather than 10pm.

Last February, an average of 12,968 vehicles entered the zone between 6pm-10pm. But by October this had increased to 20,654 — a rise of 59 per cent.

To a Control Engineer like me, it is obvious that if you reduce the cost of the London Congestion Charge in the evenings between 18:00 and 22:00, you’re going to get more traffic.

Was that what was intended?

Or was the Mayor given bad advice?

I would have thought, the best course of action would have been to keep the charges as they were and use some the money to improve public transport in the central area.

January 14, 2023 Posted by | Transport/Travel | , , , | 2 Comments

London Bus Cuts: Sadiq Khan Pulls Handbrake On Planned Changes

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on the BBC.

In The Mayor Of London Is Pruning The North London Bus Network Again, I pointed out Sadiq Khan’s lopsided pruning of the London bus network.

Sadiq Khan has now changed his mind, as this paragraph indicates.

Transport for London (TfL) has announced it will only get rid of three bus routes following a consultation which saw more than 20,000 replies.

These paragraphs explain the changes in detail.

As a result of the consultation, 17 routes which had been proposed to be cut will be saved and kept as they currently operate. Another 40 services will also no longer be changed as initially planned.

Only three routes will be removed entirely – the 521 between Waterloo and London Bridge, the 507 between Victoria and Waterloo, and the 332 between Brent Park and Paddington – while alterations will be made to another 11 services.

Of the plans consulted on:

Routes 4, 12, 14, 24, 31, 45, 72, 74, 78, 242, 349, C3, D7, N31, N72, N74 and N242 will be saved and kept as they are
Planned tweaks to routes 15, 19, 27, 43, 47, 49, 53, 56, 88, 98, 100, 113, 135, 148, 171, 189, 205, 214, 236, 254, 259, 277, 279, 283, 328, 343, 388, 414, 430, 476, D3, D8, N15, N19, N27, N98, N133, N205, N414 and N430 will no longer happen
Proposed changes to routes 3, 6, 11, 23, 26, 59, 77, 133, 211, C10 and N26 will still go ahead
TfL said the consultation had raised issues with the plans and as a result the mayor of London had been able to find extra funding to ensure the cuts did not happen on such a large scale.

That is certainly a substantial U-turn!

November 23, 2022 Posted by | Transport/Travel | , , , | 1 Comment

HyBRADFORD: One Of Largest Hydrogen Power Plants In The Country Could Open In Yorkshire

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on the Yorkshire Post.

This is the first paragraph.

Gas distributor Northern Gas Networks (NGN) has partnered with clean energy pioneers Hygen Energy Holdings and Ryze Hydrogen to work on a low carbon hydrogen production and dispensing facility in the heart of Bradford.

Good to see Bradford getting, its hydrogen act together, which is more than can be said for Sadiq Khan and London.

November 17, 2022 Posted by | Energy, Hydrogen | , , , , | Leave a comment

Homerton Hospital Is Bottom Of The List

In The Times today, there is an article, which is entitled Ambulance List Shows NHS Trust With The Worst Delays.

My local hospital is Homerton and it gets a very honourable mention.

At the other end of the scale, four trusts accepting patients by ambulance reported no delays of more than an hour, led by Homerton University Hospital in east London.

It is interesting that Homerton is down as one of the best.

My GP reckons it has improved greatly in the last few years. He also says, that they seem to have more spare capacity, than the other hospitals in the area.

The hospital removed my gallstones using endoscopy and I walked out to a waiting car. I could have taken the bus, if required.

I also had a knee X-rayed, where the GP gave me a chit and told me to just turn up unannounced in one of two specific three-hour periods. I was in and out in just over ten minutes.

Homerton seem to be thinking hard about their organisation and methods.

Could this be why they are the best on the list?

So what is our South London Mayor doing to improve transport to this much improved hospital?

He’s cutting out, one of the major bus routes to the hospital.

November 3, 2022 Posted by | Health, Transport/Travel | , , , , | 3 Comments

New £3.6bn London Transport Funding Deal Agreed

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on the BBC.

These five paragraphs outline the deal.

A new £3.6bn government bailout to keep Tube trains, railways, buses and trams running in London has been agreed.

The package includes almost £1.2bn of upfront funding for Transport for London (TfL) to secure the long-term future of the capital’s transport network.

It is the sixth bailout for TfL after its revenues plummeted in the pandemic.

The funds will allow Piccadilly line trains to be built as well as upgrades to three Tube lines.

TfL Commissioner Andy Byford described the deal as “hard won” but Mayor of London Sadiq Khan, who is also chair of TfL, branded it “far from ideal”.

I have a few thoughts.

Will The North And Scotland Like It?

In my travels around the UK, when I ask someone on a bus,train or tram about their new transport funding, I often get a reply something like.

It’s good, but London gets more.

I don’t think other areas of the UK will like £3.6 billion, especially after Crossrail’s over budget and late construction.

Driverless Trains

The BBC article says this about driverless trains.

The 16-page settlement letter includes a commitment to “press forward a joint programme on the implementation of driverless trains on the London Underground”.

These seven paragraphs in the  settlement letter say this about driverless trains.

29. TfL’s record of modernisation and innovation should not leave it behind other European
networks, which are achieving significant operational efficiencies through driverless trains.
Accordingly, DfT and TfL will press forward with the joint programme on the implementation of
driverless trains on the London Underground, recognising TfL’s safety, regulatory and statutory
responsibilities.
30. Taking the findings of the network review to the next stage, TfL will continue to work with DfT
to develop the evidence required to make a strong case for investment in driverless trains on the
London Underground. This will include but not be limited to the work set out below.
31. TfL will work with DfT to assess the case for introducing GoA4 on the London Underground
network, taking into account opportunities and risks.
32. TfL will undertake further studies and wider research to support progressing driverless trains
on the lines where the case(s) are strongest.
33. In addition, TfL should continue working with DfT to make progress developing and testing
innovative technology, where it can save money in the delivery of driverless trains.
34. Based on the findings of the above, TfL will work with DfT to develop a business case for
driverless trains as necessary.
35. TfL will ensure senior representation on the joint programme and will actively support this work
through the provision of staff resources, expertise and access to both the London Underground
network and any information sources. TfL’s participation should seek to explore all options in a
collaborative and open manner and work with the programme on an implementation plan. HMG
will provide resource funding to TfL to enable it to support the programme’s work

Around 1970, I worked at ICI in sections who were at the forefront in creating computer-controlled chemical plants.

I also remember that Simulation magazine gave a detailed description about how London Underground’s Victoria Line worked using automation, which colleagues thought was an excellent system.

The trouble with driverless trains, is that they have got too political.

  • You have the Government wanting to introduce driverless trains for reasons of efficiency and to follow the best technological practice in Europe.
  • You have the Unions totally against it for their obvious reasons.
  • You have the Mayor of London grudgingly accepting it.

I take a practical attitude to automation based on the views of world-class automation engineers, I worked with in the 1960s and 1970s.

  • In an airliner, most of the flying, landing and control of the aircraft is automatic, with the pilot monitoring everything on instruments.
  • Much of the automation I was involved with all those years ago, was about ensuring optimal operation of plant and machinery and ensuring that the safety margins were not exceeded.

These two paragraphs from Wikipedia, explain the operation of the Victoria Line.

On opening, the line was equipped with a fixed-block Automatic Train Operation system (ATO). The train operator closed the train doors and pressed a pair of “start” buttons and, if the way ahead was clear, the ATO drives the train at a safe speed to the next station. At any point, the driver could switch to manual control if the ATO failed. The system, which operated until 2012, made the Victoria line the world’s first full-scale automatic railway.

The Victoria line runs faster trains than other Underground lines because it has fewer stops, ATO running and modern design. Train speeds can reach up to 50 miles per hour (80 km/h). A common method used by north London residents to visit the West End is to take the Northern line Bank branch, change platforms at Euston, and continue on faster Victoria line trains. The original signalling has been replaced with a more modern ATO system from Westinghouse Rail Systems incorporating ‘Distance to Go Radio’ and more than 400 track circuits. The track operator, London Underground Limited, claimed it is the world’s first ATO-on-ATO upgrade. The new system allowed a revised timetable to be introduced in February 2013, allowing up to 33 trains per hour instead of 27. In combination with new, faster trains, the line’s capacity increased by 21%, equivalent to an extra 10,000 passengers per hour.

Note.

  1. I very much approve of this type of automation, which fits well with the operation of metro services.
  2. The driver is very much in control, as he initiates and can stop all train movements.
  3. The original automation in the 1960s, used thermionic valves and relays.
  4. I believe that automation like this can be exceptionally safe.

As the extract says, Automatic Train Operation system (ATO) increases the frequency of trains, runs them faster and increases capacity.

The only problem is how do you sell it to the unions.

 

August 30, 2022 Posted by | Transport/Travel | , , , , , , | 4 Comments

UK In Hydrogen Breakthrough As New £26m Deal With Japan To Help Tackle Energy Crisis

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Hydrogen Central.

These two paragraphs explain the deal.

The UK has received a major boost to its hydrogen ambitions as a Japanese energy company is set to sign a £26million deal to develop green hydrogen projects in Wales.

The local council of Bridgend in Wales has signed a memorandum of understanding with Marubeni, a Japanese green energy specialist company. The agreement sets out proposals to develop a new 5MW-class green hydrogen initiative after the company decided to pick Wales as the preferred UK location for a green hydrogen demonstrator project.

These two paragraphs describe how the hydrogen will be used.

Through this deal, the Welsh Government hopes that the project would generate clean fuel for fleet vehicles ranging from council gritters to recycling and refuse collection lorries.

The company is also trying to figure out how hydrogen fuel might be used to heat buildings such as schools, residential homes, and local swimming pools.

We need more projects like these to cut carbon emissions.

When is Sadiq Khan going to produce a hydrogen strategy for London, to help clean up the city’s polluted air?

August 15, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen | , , , , | 2 Comments

The Mayor Of London Is Pruning The North London Bus Network Again

Sadiq Khan is proposing to cut these bus routes.

  • 4 – Archway and Blackfriars – North London
  • 11 – Fulham Town Hall and Appold Street – North London
  • 12 – Oxford Circus Stn / Margaret Street and Dulwich Library – Cross-River
  • 14 – Putney Heath and Russell Square – North London
  • 16 – Mora Road and Victoria Bus Station – North London
  • 24 – Grosvenor Road and Royal Free Hospital – North London
  • 31 – White City Bus Station and Baynham Street – North London
  • 45 – Newington Causeway and Atkins Road / New Park Road – South London
  • 72 – Brunel Road and Hammersmith Bridge Road – North London
  • 74 – Putney Exchange and Baker Street – North London
  • 78 -Shoreditch High Street Station and St Mary’s Road – Cross-River
  • 242 – Aldgate Station and Homerton Hospital – North London
  • 349 – Glyn Road and Rookwood Road – North London
  • 521 – Waterloo Station and London Bridge Station – North London
  • C3 – Clapham Junction Station / Falcon Road  Warwick Road Tesco – Cross-River
  • D7 – All Saints Church and Mile End Station – North London

Note.

  1. The 74 is one of the recommended ways to get to Zoo.
  2. The 242 is my preferred method to get between Dalston and the excellent Homerton Hospital.
  3. The 349 is probably important to the Jewish Community in Stamford Hill.
  4. 521 appears to be a very good link between the two terminal stations. Especially, if you have a heavy case or a baby in a buggy.
  5. I have judged whether a bus is North London, South London or Cross-River from TfL’s maps of each route.

I suspect others will have their own objections.

These are my totals.

  • North London – 12
  • South London – 1
  • Cross-River – 3

These are definitely the cuts that would be imposed by someone with their roots firmly in the South, who feels that there is no valid reason to cross the Thames.

But then with these cuts, he won’t get complaints from South Londoners.

 

June 1, 2022 Posted by | Transport/Travel | , , , | 9 Comments

Mayor Announces Proposals For London-Wide Pollution Charge

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on the BBC.

These paragraphs explain the changes.

The mayor of London has announced plans to extend the Ultra Low Emission Zone (ULEZ) across the whole of London.

Under the current scheme, drivers of older, more polluting vehicles are being charged to enter London’s north and south-circular orbital roads.

New proposals will see the scheme extend to the edges of London’s boroughs in 2023.

I believe in this, as in many things, that the carrot is more powerful than the stick.

So we need to encourage people to change to electric or hydrogen-powered vehicles.

  • There are not enough electric charging points.
  • There are not enough hydrogen filling stations.
  • Installing and building more might encourage people to go zero-carbon.

But surely, the biggest drop in pollution would come from encouraging large London-based fleets of trucks to go zero-carbon. These would include.

  • Refuse trucks.
  • Cement trucks.
  • Skip trucks.
  • Large trucks used to transport aggregates and spoil from building sites.

It is unlikely, that many of these will ever be electric. The batteries would be just too heavy.

But many will go hydrogen or dual fuel, where they can use diesel and hydrogen.

I think there are various measures that would encourage the companies running these trucks to switch to hydrogen.

  • Following Birmingham, which has bought a few hydrogen buses and installed an electrolyser to provide their hydrogen fuel, which will be available to all users.
  • Once there is a good network of hydrogen stations, this might encourage owners of fleets of trucks to convert to hydrogen.
  • Once owners of taxis and Chelsea tractors, see lots of trucks and buses running on hydrogen, would they switch?

If I was the Mayor, I would offer a Mayor’s Prize to the company or borough, that has done most to cut pollution and/or carbon emissions.

Some mayors would enjoy giving out that prize.

 

March 4, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , | Leave a comment

Should We Be Given More Discretion Over Mask Wearing?

I am a bad breather and have been so for most of my life.

I suspect, it’s because I grew up in London smogs and that ruined my breathing.

But my father and his father were also bad breathers and my grandfather died before he was forty of pneumonia.

So when I go on public transport, I find the following.

  • I have difficulty climbing stairs with my mask on.
  • I can’t wait to get out of the station or bus to take off my mask and put it in my pocket.
  • Often in London during the day, there is only a few people on the bus or train and we are all sitting there quietly at least three or four metres apart.
  • If I explain my breathing to staff, they will let me remove my mask. I have done this a coule of times, when I have to climb stairs to get out of a station.

Sometimes too, I’ll be on a crowded Underground train for part of my journey, but at other times, I’ll be one of perhaps three in an air-conditioned bus.

As of Thursday rules will say, that we don’t need masks in England, but the Mayor has said we must wear them on public transport in London.

I would like to see some personal discretion, so that some like me would feel more comfortable on public transport, when it is less busy.

January 24, 2022 Posted by | Health, Transport/Travel | , , , | 9 Comments