The Anonymous Widower

Norfolk Rail Line To Remain Closed As £68m Upgrade Project Overruns

The title of this post is the same as that of this article on the BBC.

This is the first three paragraphs.

A major railway upgrade project has been delayed, meaning a Norfolk branch line will go longer without a service.

Network Rail is spending £68m to replace Victorian signalling equipment with a computer-based system between Norwich, Great Yarmouth and Lowestoft .

The project was due to be complete by 31 March, but the deadline will now be pushed back to allow for more testing.

As only Berney Arms station will be without a service, this probably isn’t a major disaster for the thousand passengers, who use the station in a year, but the story does have a very familiar ring.

Network Rail + Signalling = Overrun

Either they’ve found a very serious problem or the planning wasn’t the best!

The Possible Reinstatement Of The Reedham Chord

There used to be a direct Yarmouth to Lowestoft Line, but now it is possible to use the Wherry Lines, with a reverse at Reedham station.

Network Rail are talking about reinstating the Reedham Chord to create a more direct route between East Anglia’s largest North-Eastern towns. This is said about the Reedham Chord in Direct Yarmouth Services in the Wikipedia entry for Lowestoft station.

In January 2015, a Network Rail study proposed the reintroduction of direct services between Lowestoft and Yarmouth by reinstating a spur at Reedham. Services could once again travel between two East Coast towns, with an estimated journey time of 33 minutes, via a reconstructed 34-chain (680 m) north-to-south arm of the former triangular junction at Reedham, which had been removed in c. 1880. The plans also involve relocating Reedham station nearer the junction, an idea which attracted criticism.

This is a Google Map of the Reedham area.

Note.

  1. Reedham station is in the North-West corner of the map.
  2. The single-track line to Yarmouth and the double-track line to Lowestoft, run together to form a triple-track railway to the East of Reedham station.
  3. There are a large number of cross-overs in the triple-track section to the East of Reedham station, so that trains can easily go between either platform at Reedham and Yarmouth or Lowestoft.
  4. The line to Yarmouth goes straight away to the East.
  5. The line to Lowestoft curves South to cross the River Yare.
  6. The Reedham to Lowestoft tracks appear to have been relaid, as far as the bridge.

Will the new track layout and signalling, allow trains between Lowestoft and Yarmouth to perform a fast reverse in either platform at Reedham station?

This approach has advantages over the reinstallation of the Reedham Chord.

  • Reedham station won’t need to be relocated.
  • All trains between Lowestoft and Yarmouth will stop at Reedham station.
  • There would be no need to build the Reedham Chord.

I also suspect, that not building the Reedham Chord is the more affordable option.

Do Class 755 Trains Have a Fast Reverse Procedure?

Greater Anglia have a number of routes, that will be run by new Class 755 trains, where the trains will need to be reversed at either end.

  • Cambridge and Ipswich
  • Colchester and Peterborough
  • Colchester Town and Sudbury
  • Ipswich and Felixstowe
  • Ipswich and Lowestoft
  • Norwich and Lowestoft
  • Norwich and Sheringham
  • Norwich and Stansted Airport
  • Norwich and Yarmoiuth

When Stadler designed the Class 755 trains for Greater Anglia, did they propose simple automation, so that trains could be reversed in the minimum time at these numerous terminals?

A simple system could be as follows.

  • On arrival in a station, the driver would put the train into a standby mode, when it was safely stopped.
  • The driver would then walk through the train to the second cab.
  • Whilst the driver is changing ends, the conductor is opening and closing the train doors and supervising the loading and unloading of passengers.
  • On arrival in the second cab, the driver would wake up the train and check everything.
  • After the doors are closed and having received the all clear from the conductor and a green light from the signals, the driver would proceed.

At all times, the driver and conductor, would have emergency remote controls to immobilise the train, if something is not what it should be.

Modern automation is certainly able to design a very safe system, that would save time at every reverse.

What I have described here, is much less ambitious than the system I described in Crossrail Trains Will Have Auto-Reverse.

This auto-reverse system will be used at Paddington on Crossrail, by the Class 345 trains, to allow the driver to change ends on a two-hundred metre long train, whilst it is reversing to return to the East.

Testing The Signalling With The New Class 755 Trains

Obviously, adequate testing must be done with all trains that will use the  new signalling on the Wherry Lines between Norwich, Lowestoft and Yarmouth.

This article on the BBC is entitled ScotRail Class 385 Fishbowl Windscreen Safety Concern.

This is the first three paragraphs.

Aslef has warned that modifications must be made to ScotRail’s new Class 385 electric trains – or its drivers will refuse to work them.

The train drivers’ union is concerned that the curved windscreen is causing reflections of other signals at night.

Drivers identified the problem on a recent evening test run between Glasgow Central and Paisley Gilmour Street.

Testing of the ~Norfolk signalling will cover a myriad of possible problems, against the whole route and all possible trains.

But there is one problem, that is probably delaying the project.

The Class 755 trains have not been certified yet! So starting of the testing can’t be started.

Conclusion

This delay is more complicated, than initial reports suggest.

On the other hand, I wouldn’t be surprised if Network Rail have produced a track and signalling solution, that will allow a direct service between Lowestoft and Yarmouth, with a reverse at Reedham.

Typical timings appear to be.

  • Between Reedham and Yarmouth – 14-16 minutes
  • Between Reedham and Lowestoft – 24-26 minutes

Given that the Class 755 trains have the following characteristics.

  • They are 100 mph trains.
  • They are optimised for fast stops.

I wouldn’t be surprised to see a sub-forty minute time between Lowestoft and Yarmouth.

Using the current times between Ipswich and Lowestoft and Norwich and Yarmouth, it also looks like a sub-three hour scenic route is possible between Ipswich and Norwich.

 

January 11, 2019 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Introduction Of New Trains To East Anglia Will Be Like Moving ‘From Mid-Table To Champions League’ Says Greater Anglia Boss

The title of this post is the same as that of this article on the East Anglian Daily Times.

It is a rare detailed article on how new trains are introduced to a network.

This is a quote from Jamie Burles of Greater Anglia in the article.

On some lines there will be a huge quality uplift – going from a 40-year old single carriage diesel train to a minimum three-carriage state-of-the-art bi-mode train with air conditioning, plug sockets and broadband wi-fi.

East Anglia is being subjected to one of most radical rail upgrades in the history of railways in the UK.

January 1, 2019 Posted by | Transport | , , , | 2 Comments

Testing Of New Greater Anglia Trains Underway

The title of this post is the same as that of this article on Rail Magazine.

This is the first paragraph.

The first Stadler bi-mode unit for Greater Anglia made its main line debut in the early hours of December 15, when it ran between Diss and Trowse Junction (near Norwich).

I looked on Real Time Trains and found that the train did five trips between Diss and Trowse Junction. After the last trip, the train went back to Crown Point Depot.

It does seem that Greater Anglia have a plan to do the testing.

 

December 17, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , | Leave a comment

Nervous Operators Force Network Rail To Defer King’s Cross Plan

The title of this post is the same as that of this article on Rail Magazine.

King’s Cross station has to be closed for three months, so that tracks, electrification and signalling can be replaced and modernised for about 1.5 miles from the buffer stops at the station.

The original dates of the closure were to have been between December 2019 and March 2020, but now it looks like it could be delayed by up to a year.

The article on the web site, is a shortened version of the article in the magazine, where this is said.

Closure dates have yet to be announced, and NR is still developing a passenger handling strategy which could include long-distance services at Finsbury Park or some services terminating at Peterborough. Some trains could even be rerouted into London Liverpool Street.

I wonder, if Network Rail’s planners are cursing that the around thirty miles between Peterborough and Ely is not electrified.

If it were electrified, it would allow electric trains as well as diesel and bi-mode trains to access Liverpool Street station via the West Anglia Main Line.

What Benefits Would There Be From Electrifying Peterborough To Ely?

I can imagine Oxford-educated civil servants in the Department of Transport and The Treasury dismissing calls for more electrification in the backwater of East Anglia, after the successful electrification to Norwich in the 1980s.

But now Cambridge is powering ahead and East Anglia is on the rise, with the massive Port of Felixstowe needing large numbers of freight trains to other parts of mainland UK.

This East Anglian success gives reasons for the electrification of the Peterborough-Ely Line.

Direct Electric Trains Between Peterborough And Cambridge

I have met Cambridge thinkers, who believe that Peterborough is the ideal place for businesses, who need to expand from Cambridge.

Peterborough has the space that Cambridge lacks.

But the transport links between the two cities are abysmal.

  • The A14 is only a two-lane dual-carriageway, although a motorway-standard section is being added around Huntingdon.
  • Peterborough station has been improved in recent years.
  • The direct train service is an hourly three-car diesel service between Birmingham and Stansted Airport, which doesn’t stop at the increasingly-important Cambridge North station.

The road will get better, but the rail service needs improvement.

  • There needs to be at least two direct trains per hour (tph) between Cambridge and Peterborough.
  • They would stop at Cambridge North, Waterbeach, Ely and March.
  • End-to-end timing would be under an hour.
  • Greater Anglia will have the four-car bi-mode Class 755 trains, which would be ideal for the route from next year.

If the Peterborough- Ely Line was electrified, Greater Anglia could use five-car Class 720 trains.

An Electric Diversion Route For The East Coast Main Line

The works at Kings Cross station, and the possible proposal to run some trains into Liverpool Street station, show that an electric diversion route would be useful, when there are closures or problems on the East Coast Main Line.

In the case of the Kings Cross closure, if Peterborough were to be used as the terminal for some trains from the North, then I suspect some high-capacity Class 800 trains could shuttle passengers to Liverpool Street.

If the date of the Kings Cross closure is 2020, then certain things may help.

  • Crossrail will be running.
  • Extra trains will be running from Finsbury Park to Moorgate.
  • Hull Trains will be running bi-mode Class 802 trains.
  • There could be more capacity on the West Anglia Main Line.
  • There could be more capacity and some longer platforms at Liverpool Street.

What would really help, is the proposed four-tracking of the West Anglia Main Line.

The latter could prove extremely useful, when Network Rail decide to bite the bullet and four-track the Digswell Viaduct.

Extending Greater Anglia’s Network

Greater Anglia have bought new bi-mode Class 755 trains.

This would appear to be more than enough to covering the current services, as they are replacing twenty-six trains with a total of fifty-eight coaches with thirty-eight trains with a total of one hundred and thirty-eight coaches.

That is 46 % more trains and 137 % more coaches.

The new trains are also genuine 100 mph trains on both electricity and diesel.

Obviously, Greater Anglia will be running extra services, but with the explosive growth around Cambridge, coupled with the new Cambridge North station, I feel they will be running extra services on the Peterborough to Cambridge route and perhaps further.

The new Werrington Grade Separation will make a difference.

  • It will open in a couple of years.
  • Trains between Peterborough and Lincoln won’t block the East Coast Main Line.
  • The Leicester route could also be improved.

So services to and from Lincoln and Leicester would probably be easier to run from Cambridge and Stansted Airport.

CrossCountry run a service between Birmingham New Street and Stansted Airport stations.

  • The service stops at Coleshill Parlway, Nuneaton, Leicester, Melton Mowbray, Oakham, Stamford, Peterborough, March, Ely and.Cambridge and Audley End stations.
  • The service doesn’t stop at Cambridge North station.
  • The service is run by an inadequate Class 170 train, which sometimes is only two coaches and totally full.
  • Trains take just over three hours ten minutes for the journey.

Will Greater Anglia take over this route? Or possibly run a second train as far as Leicester?

Their Class 755 trains with better performance and specification would offer the following.

  • Electric running between Ely and Stansted Airport stations.
  • Greater passenger capacity.
  • wi-fi, plugs and USB sockets.
  • A three hour journey both ways.
  • The extra performance would probably allow an extra important stop at Cambridge North station.

The new trains would certainly offer what passengers want.

CrossCountry run an extra train between Birmingham New Street and Leicester, so perhaps at the Western end, the Greater Anglia service need only go as far as Leicester.

At the Stansted end of the route, there will be an hourly train between Stansted Airport and Norwich, so there could be scope for perhaps cutting one the services back to Cambridge.

Obviously, time-tabling would sort it out to the benefit of the train operators and passengers, but I can envisage a set of services like this.

  • Norwich and Stansted Airport – Greater Anglia – 1 tph
  • Birmingham New Street and Stansted Airport – CrossCountry – 1 tph
  • Leicester and Cambridge – Greater Anglia – 1 tph
  • Colchester and Peterborough – 1 tph
  • Norwich and Nottingham (Currently Liverpool Lime Street) – 1 tph

Adding these up you get.

  • Stansted Airport and Cambridge – 2 tph – As now!
  • Stansted Airport and Cambridge North – 2 tph – New service!
  • Cambridge and Ely – 4 tph – At least!
  • Ely and Peterborough – 4 tph – At least!
  • Cambridge and Peterborough – 2 tph – Up from 1 tph
  • Stansted Airport and Peterbough – 1 tph – As now!
  • Cambridge and Leicester – 2 tph = Up from 1 tph.

This pattern or something like it would be much better for all.

If the Ely-Peterborough section of the were to be electrified then it would enable the following.

  • A reduced journey time for electric or bi-mode trains.
  • If required Greater Anglia could run an extra electric service using Class 720 trains between Stansted Airport and Peterbough.

I said earlier that the Werrington Grade Separation will make it easier to run services between Peterborough and Lincoln.

So why not add an hourly service between Cambridge and Lincoln?

I can envisage, when the West Anglia Main Line is four-tracked at the southern end, that there might be enough capacity for a Liverpool Street to Lincoln service via Cambridge, Cambridge North, Ely, Peterborough, Spalding and Sleaford.

But whatever happens Greater Anglia’s choice of bi-mode Class 755 trains, seems to give them the flexibility to match services to passengers needs.

Electro-Diesel and Battery-Electric Freight Locomotives

The Class 88 locomotive is an electro-diesel freight locomotive, that can use either power from overhead electrification or an pnboard diesel engine.

I believe that locomotives like this will become more common and that eventually, we’ll see a battery-electric heavy freight locomotive.

I wrote about the latter in Thoughts On A Battery/Electric Replacement For A Class 66 Locomotive.

The Peterborough-Ely Line will see increasing numbers of trains hauled by these powerful electric locomotives, with either diesel or battery power to propel them over the gaps in the electrification.

Electrifying the line would speed these hybrid trains through and increase the capacity of the route.

Conclusion

Network Rail have annoyed the train operators with their planning and timing of the upgrade at Kings Cross station.

It looks to me, that the part of the problem, is that there is no viable electrified secondary route to London.

Bi-mode trains can use the Peterborough-Ely Line to go to Liverpool Street via Cambridge.

This line is one of those routes that sits in a sea of electrification, which carries a lot of traffic, that would bring several benefits if it were to be electrified.

  • Direct electric trains between Cambridge and Peterborough, would greatly improve the spasmodic service between the two cities, with large economic benefits to the county.
  • An electric diversion route would be created from Peterborough to Liverpool Street via Ely and Cambridge.
  • It would allow Greater Anglia to develop routes West of Cambridge to places like Lincoln and Leicester using their future fleet of Class 755 trains.
  • It would also make it easier for battery-electric freight locomotives to cover the busy freight route between Felixstowe and Peterborough.

I also feel that it wouldn’t be the most difficult route to electrify.

The Fens are flat.

There is no history of mining.

The track is fairly straight and simple.

I suspect that it could become a high-quality 90-100 mph, electrified line.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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December 8, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Are Greater Anglia Buying So Many Class 755 Trains, So They Can Run A Better Service During Constant Works On The Great Eastern?

Yet again, they were rebuilding the Great Eastern Main Line, so I didn’t get to football at Ipswich yesterday.

It’s not that I mind the buses, but it means two things.

  • I have to leave so early, that I can’t do my weekly shop before I go.
  • I also get back so late that I will miss Strictly on the television.

There is also the problem, that Ipswich is one of the worst places to find a gluten-free meal, unless you go to Pizza Express.

I often have my lunch before I travel or take it on the train from Leon or M & S.

For some time now, I’ve suspected that Greater Anglia have ordered a lot more Class 755 trains, than they need, based on a train-for-train replacement basis

It now becomes obvious why!

At weekends, they will link four-car trains together and run four trains per hour on the following routes.

  • Norwich to Cambridge
  • Ipswich to Cambridge

One train in four will continue to and from London after Cambridge.

On the other hand, it could be a plot by Norwich fans in Greater Anglia’s headquarters in Norwich to annoy Ipswich fans!

 

 

September 23, 2018 Posted by | Sport, Transport | , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Where Will Greater Anglia Deploy The First Class 745 Trains?

This article on Railway Gazette is entitled ‘Gorgeous Beast’ Will Change Perception Of Rail Travel.

This is unusual language, when you’re talking about modern diesel and electric trains, especially when it comes from the CEO of a financial company investing in trains, as a safe long-term investment for money like pension funds.

But if the Class 755 trains cause Mark Swindell to use such language, they must have something about them.

Perhaps, it’s the fact that they follow the layout of the legendary and much-loved by some, Class 442 train, which also had a power-car in the middle. It is informative to compare the Class 442 train with a four-car Class 755/4 train.

  • The 442’s power-car is electric, whilst the 755/4’s is diesel/electric and can be diesel/electric/battery.
  • The 442 has seats for 346 in two classes, whilst the 755/4 has 229 in a single class.
  • The 442 has 1200 kW of power, whilst the 755/4 has 2600 kW on electric power and 1920 kW on diesel-electric power
  • Both are 100 mph trains, although the 442 holds the World Record for a third-rail train at 108 mph.

I am drawn to the following conclusions about the Class 755 train.

Passenger Comfort

Passengers will have plenty of space, in addition to the customer comforts, which appear to be of a high standard.

Some passengers might miss First Class, but will the extra space compensate.

Power

The power figures quoted in the Railway Gazette show the following.

  • In electric mode, the train will have more than double of the power of the 442.
  • In diesel-electric mode, the train has sixty percent more power, than the 442.

This will mean that the train should have superb acceleration.

Top Speed

With all this power, the planned operating speed of 100 mph will be determined more by the track, signalling and other trains, rather than any limitations of the trains.

There are three improvements in Network Rail’s Improvement Pipeline, that will allow faster running by Class 755 trains.

  • Trowse Swingbridge
  • Haughley Junction doubling
  • Ely Area service improvements

The improvement will help these services by Class 755 trains.

  • Norwich to Stansted Airport via Ely, Cambridge North and Cambridge.
  • Peterborough to Colchester via Ely, Bury St. Edmunds and Ipswich
  • Cambridge to Ipswich

I could also see the operating speed on the Breckland Line raised.

Routes

How will the routes be affected by trains with a better performance?

Norwich To Stansted

Currently, the two legs take.

  • Norwich to Cambridge – 1:24
  • Cambridge to Stansted – 0:39

Which adds up to a convenient 2:03.

With the faster trains and eight stops, it looks like this route could be done several minutes under two hours, with a round trip of four hours, which would need four trains for a one train per hour (tph)service.

Ipswich to Cambridge

Currently, this route takes 1:16 with eight stops.

This is not very convenient and the time savings needed to get the route under an hour will not be easy.

Colchester to Peterborough

Currently, the two legs take.

  • Colchester to Ipswich – 0:19
  • Ipswich to Peterborough – 1.41

Which adds up to a convenient 2:00.

With the faster trains, it looks like this route could be done several minutes under two hours, with a round trip of four hours, which would need four trains for a one tph service.

Ipswich to Lowestoft

Currently, this route takes 1:26 with nine stops.

With the faster trains, it looks like this route could be done several minutes under one-and-a-half hours, with a round trip of three hours, which would need three trains for a one tph service.

It also looks like up to three trains per day will run from London to Lowestoft.

So Which Route Will Get The New Trains First?

Greater Anglia will obviously deploy them, where there is the greatest need for extra capacity or there is the greatest return to be made!

I think, we’ll see them on the Lowestoft route or between Cambride and Norwich first.

They’ll certainly be worth waiting for, if Mark Swindell is right.

September 22, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , | Leave a comment

Will Greater Anglia Fit Batteries To Their Class 755 Trains?

Greater Anglia have ordered the following Class 755 trains.

  • 14 x three-car trains with two diesel engines in the power-pack
  • 24 x four-car trains with four diesel engines in the power-pack

The power-pack would appear to have four slots, each of which could take.

  • A V8 16-litre Deutz diesel that can produce 478 kW and weighs 1.3 tonnes.
  • A battery of about 120 kWh, which would probably weigh about 1.2 tonnes.

I estimated the battery size , by using typical battery energy densities for a battery of similar weight to the diesel engine.

The KeolisAmey Wales Tri-Mode Flirts

The Tri-Mode Flirts ordered by KeolisAmey Wales can use either electric, diesel or battery power.

From the pictures it appears that these trains have the same basic structure as the Class 755 trains.

In the July 2018 Edition of Modern Railways, there is an article entitled KeolisAmey Wins Welsh Franchise.

This is said about the Stadler Tri-Mode Flirts on the South Wales Metro.

The units will be able to run for 40 miles between charging, thanks to their three large batteries.

So does this mean that these Flirts have just one Deutz diesel engine of 478 kW and three batteries in the four slots of the power-pack?

These trains will run between Penarth and Rhymney stations.

  • I estimate about half the route will be electrified.
  • Penarth to the electrification at Cardiff is under ten miles.
  • The trains will work on battery power from Ystrad Mynach to Rhymney, which is ten miles up the hill.
  • Coming down from Rhymney, Newton’s friend will give assistance.

This seems a challenging task, but it must be possible, even after an important rugby match in Cardiff.

I think it is true to say, that these Tri-Mode Flirts are no wimps.

Greater Anglia’s Flirts And Batteries

Four-Car Flirts

The four-car Class 755 trains don’t have a spare slot, as they have four engines.

I also suspect the four-car trains will tend to serve the longer routes or those with more passengers.

  • Colchester and Peterborough
  • Stansted Airport and Norwich
  • Ipswich and Cambridge
  • Lowestoft and London via Ipswich
  • Norwich and Lowestoft
  • Norwich and Great Yarmouth

Consider.

  • These routes are partially-electrified.
  • These routes don’t have challenging terrain.
  • Except for Lowestoft and Great Yarmouth, all end stations are electrified.
  • A short length of electrification could be installed at Lowestoft and Great Yarmouth stations.

I wonder if one of the diesel engines were to be replaced with a battery, by capturing and reusing the regenerative braking energy, this could improve the economics of running the services.

In Tri-Mode Stadler Flirts, I estimated the following.

  • A four-car Tri-Mode Flirt will weigh around 150 tonnes.
  • I will assume 250 passengers at 90 Kg. each with all their baggage, which gives a weight of 22.5 tonnes.
  • This gives a total rain weight  of 172.5 tonnes.
  • The train is running at 100 mph.

This gives a kinetic energy of 48 kWh.

This would mean that a single 120 kWh battery could easily handle the regenerative braking and use the energy for the following purposes.

  • Hotel power, which includes the power to run passenger and train systems.
  • Traction power on sections, where low noise is important.
  • Traction power, if there is overhead electrification failure.
  • Short movements in depots and sidings.

I think that once Stadler have got their Tri-Mode Flirts working, that replacing one diesel with a battery in four-car Class 755 trains may be a sensible decision.

Lowestoft And London Via Ipswich

When the Class 755 trains are running services, there will be four direct trains per day from Lowestoft to London via Ipswich.

I will assume the following.

  • There will also be four trains in both directions.
  • An hourly service operates between Lowestoft and Ipswich
  • Lowestoft to Ipswich will take the current 90 minutes.
  • Greater Anglia will meet their promise of Ipswich to London in 60 minutes.
  • The first train currently leaves Lowestoft just after five in the morning.
  • The last train currently arrives at Lowestoft just before midnight.

For one train to do four round trips between five in the morning and midnight would need a round trip of around four hours and thirty minutes, which would mean that a time of around seventy minutes is needed between Ipswich and Lowestoft.

That is extraordinarily challenging.

But I think that could be Greater Anglia’s ultimate aim.

  • There must be savings of a minute or two at each of the nine stations between Ipswich and Lowestoft.
  • Some trains could be limited stop.
  • The current maximum speed on the East Suffolk Line is just 55 mph and could probably be increased in places.
  • The 100 mph Class 755 trains are quicker and probably accelerate and stop faster, than the current 75 mph Class 150 trains.
  • Trains turn at Liverpool Street in under five minutes.

If it can be done, then the four trains per day between Lowestoft and London can be run with just one train.

Would batteries help the achievement of this aim?

They might do! But they would certainly improve the electrical efficiency and cut the amount of running of the diesel engines.

Three-Car Flirts

The three-car Class 755 trains have two spare slots, as they have two engines.

I would expect that the three-car trains would be used on the shorter routes and those with less passengers.

  • Colchester Town and Sudbury
  • Ipswich and Felixstowe
  • Norwich and Sheringham via Cromer

To my mind the first two routes stand out for battery operation.

Ipswich and Felixstowe

Consider the following about the service between Ipswich and Felixstowe stations.

  • The Felixstowe Branch is just over twelve miles long.
  • There is one train per hour (tph) each way.
  • It takes the current trains abut 26-29 minutes to do the journey.
  • Currently, one train can provide the service.

In The New Trimley Freight Loop And Trimley Station, I talk about how a 1.4 km loop is being built to allow more freight trains to use the branch.

I also feel that there could be a second path in each hour for passenger trains, which would help reliability

But it also might make it possible to run a two tph service with two trains.

I also think, that if it was felt worthwhile, that this route could be run on battery power, charging at Ipswich and possibly with a short length of electrification in Felixstowe.

The advantages would be

  • Diesel-free running.
  • Less noise.
  • The environmentally friendly trains may attract new passengers.

As with the trains on the South Wales Metro, they’d probably have one diesel engine and three large batteries.

Knowing the bicycle-friendly contours of the centre of Ipswich and Felixstowe as I do, the trains would probably need adequate capacity for bikes.

Colchester Town And Sudbury

I am sure that this new route between Colchester Town and Sudbury stations has been designed for a battery train.

Consider.

  • A direct run between Colchester Town and Sudbury would probably take 45 minutes.
  • Over half the route would be electrified.
  • The Gainsborough Line is just eleven miles long.
  • A silent battery train would be ideal for the rural route.

A Class 755 train could leave the Great Eastern Main Line at Marks Tey with full batteries, go both ways on the branch and then return to Colchester Town using the electrification.

Norwich And Sheringham Via Cromer

At thirty miles, the Bittern Line is probably too long for running totally on batteries.

But one battery handling regenerative braking would make the train more environmentally friendly.

Conclusion

Batteries would make the Class 755 trains more economical and environmentally-friendly to run, but with the exception of the Felixstowe and Sudbury branches, I suspect that the routes are too long for pure battery power.

I do believe that Greater Anglia knew about Stadler’s concept for fitting batteries on Class 755 trains before they ordered the trains.

As this opens up possibilities for the future and the ability to be more environmentally-friendly and fiscally efficient, I suspect it was a factor in their decision to buy the trains.

 

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July 18, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Battery Trains Are Coming

Every month seems to bring more information about trains where batteries are an important part of the propulsion system of the train.

So what are the various manufacturers offering?

Alstom

Alstom’s Coradia iLint train is hydrogen powered and as this video shows, batteries are an important part of the design of the train, which can probably be considered a hydrogen/battery hybrid train.

As I wrote in Germany Approves Alstom’s Hydrogen Train For Passenger Service, these trains will be entering service in late summer in Germany.

In the UK, Alstom are to convert some of the hundred-plus fleet of Class 321 trains, to running on hydrogen power.

I set out my thoughts on this in Thoughts On A Hydrogen-Powered Class 321 Train.

These were my conclusions.

  • The Class 321 train will make a good hydrogen-powered train.
  • Alstom would not have looked at converting a thirty-year-old train to hydrogen power, if they thought it would be less than good.
  • British Rail’s design of a 750 VDC bus makes a lot of the engineering easier and enables the train to be tailored for world-wide markets, with different electrification systems and voltages.
  • Having two different hydrogen-powered trains will give Alstom a better place in an emerging market.

I suspect in a few years time, if these two hydrogen projects are successful, Alstom will design and manufacture, a whole family of hydrogen-powered trains, with different gauges, capacities and operating speeds.

Bombardier

Unlike Alstom, who seem to be telling the world what they are doing with hybrid hydrogen/battery trains, Bombardier are playing their cards close to their chest.

In early 2015, I rode on Bombardier’s Class 379 Battery-Electric Multiple Unit demonstrator between Manningtree and Harwich.

It destroyed my scepticism about battery-electric trains.

Since then, the following has happened.

Class 345 Trains Have Entered Service

Class 345 trains have entered service on Crossrail routes to the East and West of London.

Until denied by Bombardier, I believe that these trains from Bombardier’s new   Aventra family use batteries for the following purposes.

  • Storing and reuseing the energy generated by regenerative braking.
  • Providing an emergency power source, should the main electricity supply fail.
  • Allowing depots and stabling sidings without electrification.

The trains should also make Crossrail and the other routes on which they run, more electrically efficient.

Five More Fleets Of Aventras

Bombardier have sold five more fleets of Aventras.

Could electrical efficiency because of clever use of batteries be a reason?

A 125 Mph Bi-Mode Aventra With Batteries Has Been Launched

This article in Rail Magazine is entitled Bombardier Bi-Mode Aventra Could Feature Battery Power.

A few points from the article.

  • Development has already started.
  • Battery power could be used for Last-Mile applications.
  • The bi-mode would have a maximum speed of 125 mph under both electric and diesel power.
  • The trains will be built at Derby.
  • Bombardier’s spokesman said that the ambience will be better, than other bi-modes.
  • Export of trains is a possibility.

In Mathematics Of A Bi-Mode Aventra With Batteries, I analyse the train in detail.

This was my conclusion.

I am rapidly coming to the conclusion, that a 125 mph bi-mode train is a practical proposition.

  • It would need a controllable hydrogen or diesel power-pack, that could deliver up to 200 kW
  • Only one power-pack would be needed for a five-car train.
  • For a five-car train, a battery capacity of 300 kWh would probably be sufficient.

From my past professional experience, I know that a computer model can be built, that would show the best onboard generator and battery sizes, and possibly a better operating strategy, for both individual routes and train operating companies.

Obviously, Bombardier have better data and more sophisticated calculations than I do.

My calculation might be wrong, but it’s in the right area.

Voyager Battery Upgrade

This use of batteries by Bombardier was a total surprise.

In the July 2018 Edition of Modern Railways, there is an article entitled Bi-Mode Aventra Details Revealed.

A lot of the article takes the form of reporting an interview with Des McKeon, who is Bombardier’s Commercial |Director and Global Head of Regional and Intercity.

This is a paragraph.

He also confirmed Bombardier is examining the option of fitting batteries to Voyager DEMUs for use in stations.

I discuss what Bombardier might be doing in Have Bombardier Got A Cunning Plan For Voyagers?.

I feel the simplest use for batteries on these trains would be to store the energy generated by regenerative braking in batteries, from where it would be used for the train’s hotel power!

This would reduce the need for the engines to be running in stations.

Conclusion

I think Bombardier have been thinking very hard about how you design a train with batteries.

CAF

CAF have fitted several of their trams with batteries and this system will be used on the Midland Metro, to create new routes without catenary.

But they only seem to have an on-off order for trains fitted with batteries for Auckland.in New Zealand.

The order seems to be on hold.

Given that CAF, have a reputation for research and development and they have used batteries in trams, I can’t believe that they are not looking seriously at how to use batteries in their train designs.

Hitachi

On page 79 of the January 2018 Edition of Modern Railways, Nick Hughes, who is the Sales Director of Hitachi Rail Europe outlines how the manufacturer is embracing the development of battery technology.

He is remarkably open.

I wrote Hitachi’s Thoughts On Battery Trains, after reading what he said.

Hitachi certainly have working battery trains in Japan and use batteries on Class 800 trains to capture the energy generated by regenerative braking. On these trains, it appears to be used for hotel power.

Siemens

Siemens have now merged with Alstom and they are also developing a hydrogen-powered train.

I wrote about this train in Siemens Joins The Hydrogen-Powered Train Club.

As with Alstom, I suspect this train will be using batteries.

Siemens have also won the order for the New Tube For London.

I wrote about this in Thoughts On The New Tube For London.

In the Future Upgrades section of the Wikipedia entry for the Piccadilly Line, this is said.

Siemens publicised an outline design featuring air-conditioning and battery power to enable the train to run on to the next station if third and fourth rail power were lost. It would have a lower floor and 11% higher passenger capacity than the present tube stock. There would be a weight saving of 30 tonnes, and the trains would be 17% more energy-efficient with air-conditioning included, or 30% more energy-efficient without it

I would suspect, the batteries are also used to handle the energy from regenerative braking

Stadler

Stadler have developed a bi-mode Flirt, which has been ordered by Greater Anglia as the Class 755 train.

They have now sold a diesel/electric/battery tri-mode to KeolisAmey Wales, which from the visualisations look like the trains are closely related to the Class 755 trains.

Stadler are also delivering Class 777 trains to Merseyrail. Wikipedia says this.

In May 2018, it was announced the sixth Class 777 unit to be delivered will be fitted with batteries for a trial.

So it looks like two major fleets of trains for the UK from Stadler will have batteries.

There is also the Stadler Wink, which has been sold to Arriva Nederland.

Wikipedia says this about the design.

It has an aluminium carbody that can be customized in length by the customer, and can be powered by either diesel or electric powertrains with supplemental on board batteries. Arriva units will be delivered with Deutz diesel engines and batteries charged by regenerative braking; the engines are planned to be replaced by additional batteries once electrification is installed over part of their route.

Stadler seem to be putting a lot of effort into batteries.

Vivarail

Vivarail’s Class 230 train started as a diesel-electric and they have now sold a battery version to KeolisAmey Wales, which should be in service in May 2019.

Conclusion

All train manufacturers seem to be applying battery technology to their trains.

The main purpose seems to be to recycle the energy generated by regenerative braking.

Some trains like Alstom’s hydrogen trains, Bombardier’s Aventras and Stadler’s tri-mode Flirt, use the energy for traction, whilst others like Hitachi’s Class 800 trins, use the energy for hotel power.

If a researcher or company comes up with a better battery, they will certainly get a return for their efforts in the rail industry.

 

July 17, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , | 4 Comments

Is Platform 1 At Ipswich Station Big Enough?

For some years, trains for Felixstowe and Lowestoft have usually shared Platform 1 at Ipswich station.

But with the new longer Class 755 trains replacing the current Class 150 or Class 153 trains, I suspect this will no longer be possible.

I was going to Felixstowe and my train left and returned to Platform 2B, which in the fourth picture is occupied by the back end of Norwich to London Express.

It looks like when all the new trains are in service, Platform 2 will be used by the following trains.

  • Three trains per hour (tph) from Norwich to London.
  • One tph From Peterborough to Colchester
  • One tph to and from Felixstowe

In addition four Lowestoft services per day will go to and from London.

It strikes me, trains will have to keep very much to time or there is a need for an extra platform.

July 9, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , | Leave a comment

Stadler Flirt And Bombardier Aventra Tri-Modes Compared

In this post, I will assume that a tri-mode train is capable of the following.

  • Running using 25 KVAC overhead and/or 750 VDC third-rail  electrification.
  • Running using an on-board power source, such as diesel, hydrogen or Aunt Esme’s extra-strong knicker elastic.
  • Running using stored energy for a reasonable distance.

I would suggest that a reasonable distance for battery power would include routes such as.

  • Northallerton – Middlesbrough
  • Ashford – Hastings
  • Lancaster – Barrow
  • Preston – Burnley

Preferably, the trains should be able to go out and back.

The Stadler Flirt Tri-Mode

What we know about the Stadler Flirt Tri-Mode has been pieced together from various sources.

The tri-mode trains for South Wales and the Class 755 trains for East Anglia use the same picture as I pointed out in Every Pair Of Pictures Tell A Story.

This leads me to surmise that the two trains are based on the same basic train.

  1. Three or four passenger cars.
  2. A power-pack in the middle with up to four Deutz 16 litre V8 diesel engines.
  3. 25 KVAC overhead electrification capability.
  4. 100 mph operating speed.

This is a visualisation of the formation of the trains clipped from Wikipedia.

One of the routes, on which Greater Anglia will be using the trains will be between Lowestoft and Liverpool Street, which shows the versatility of these trains.

They will be equally at home on the rural East Suffolk Line with its numerous stops and 55 mph operating speed, as on the Great Eastern Main Line with its 100 mph operating speed.

South of Ipswich, the diesel engines will be passengers, except for when the catenary gets damaged.

In Tri-Mode Stadler Flirts, I said this.

I would expect that these trains are very similar to the bi-mode Stadler Flirt DEMUs, but that the power-pack would also contain a battery.

As an Electrical and Control Engineer, I wouldn’t be surprised that the power-pack, which accepts up to four Deutz diesel engines, can replace one or two of these with battery modules. This could make conversion between the two types of Flirt, just a matter of swapping a diesel module for a battery one or vice-versa.

Note that the three-car Class 755 trains for Greater Anglia have two diesel engines and the four-car trains have four engines.

In the July 2018 Edition of Modern Railways, there is an article entitled KeolisAmey Wins Welsh Franchise.

This is said about the Stadler Tri-Mode Flirts on the South Wales Metro.

The units will be able to run for 40 miles between charging, thanks to their three large batteries.

So could it be that the tri-mode Stadler Flirts have three batteries and just one diesel engine in the four slots in the power-pack in the middle of the train?

The Bombardier High Speed Bi-Mode Aventra

In the July 2018 Edition of Modern Railways, there is an article entitled Bi-Mode Aventra Details Revealed.

As is typical with Bombardier interviews, they give their objectives, rather than how they aim to achieve them.

In Bombardier Bi-Mode Aventra To Feature Battery Power, I said this.

The title of this post is the same as this article in Rail Magazine.

A few points from the article.

  • Development has already started.
  • Battery power could be used for Last-Mile applications.
  • The bi-mode would have a maximum speed of 125 mph under both electric and diesel power.
  • The trains will be built at Derby.
  • Bombardier’s spokesman said that the ambience will be better, than other bi-modes.
  • Export of trains is a possibility.

Bombardier’s spokesman also said, that they have offered the train to three new franchises. East Midlands, West Coast Partnership and CrossCountry.

Very little more can be gleaned from the later Modern Railways article.

Good Customer Feedback

Would they say anything else?

But Bombardier have claimed in several articles, that the Aventra has been designed in response to what operators and passengers want.

Performance

The Modern Railways article gives this quote from Des McKeon of Bombardier.

From the start we wanted to create a bi-mode which would tick all the boxes for the Department of Transport and bidders.

That means a true 125 mph top speed and acceleration which is equally good in both electric and diesel modes. We have come up with a cracking design which meets these criteria.

I also think it is reasonable to assume that the performance of the proposed trains is very similar or better to that of Bombardier’s Class 222 train, which currently run on the Midland Main Line.

After all, you won’t want times between London and the East Midlands to be longer.

Distributed Power

Distributed power is confirmed in the Modern Railways article, by this statwment from Des McKeon of Bombardier.

The concept involves underfloor diesel engines using distributed power.

But distributed power is inherent in the Aventra design with the Class 345 trains.

I found this snippet on the Internet which gives the formation of the nine-car trains.

When operating as nine-car trains, the Class 345 trains will have two Driving Motor Standard Opens (DMSO), two Pantograph Motor Standard Opens (PMSO), four Motor Standard Opens (MSO) and one Trailer Standard Open (TSO). They will be formed as DMSO+PMSO+MSO+MSO+TSO+MSO+MSO+PMSO+DMSO.

Eight cars are motored and only one is a trailer.

The snippet has a date of August 13th, 2016, so it could be out of date.

It would also appear that the Class 720 trains for Greater Anglia, which are built to cruise at 100 mph, do not have any trailer cars.

It will be interesting to observe the formation of the Class 710 trains, when they start running in the autumn.

Surely to have all these traction motors in each car must be expensive, but it must give advantages.

Perhaps, each motored car has a battery to handle the regenerative braking. This would minimise the power passed between cars, which must be energy efficient for a start.

Consider the following.

  • An MS1 car for a Class 345 train weighs 36.47 tonnes.
  • A typical car can accommodate a total of about 175 seated and standing passengers.
  • With bags, buggies and other things passengers bring on, let’s assume an average passenger weight of 90 kg, this gives an extra 15.75 tonnes.
  • Suppose the battery were to weigh a tonne
  • So I will assume that an in service MS1 car weighs 53.2 tonnes.

Calculating the kinetic energy of the car for various speeds gives.

  • 75 mph – 8.3 kWh
  • 90 mph – 12 kWh
  • 100 mph – 14.8 kWh
  • 125 mph – 23 kWh

Considering that the  Bombardier Primove 50 kWh battery, which is built to power trams and trains, has the following characteristics.

  • A weight of under a tonne.
  • Dimensions of under two x one x half metres.
  • The height is the smallest dimension, which must help installation under the train floor or on the roof.

I don’t think Bombardier would have trouble finding a battery to handle the regenerative braking for each car and fit it somewhere convenient in the car.

Underneath would be my position, as it is closest to the traction motors.

So just as traction is distributed, could the batteries and diesel power be distributed along the train.

Underfloor Diesel Engines

The full statement about what Des McKeon said, that I used earlier is as follows.

The concept involves underfloor diesel engines using distributed power, but that designing from scratch enabled Bombardier to fit these without having to substantially raise the saloon floor height on any of the vehicles.

When asked about which diesel engines would be used, Mr. McKeon also confirmed that there were at least two potential suppliers, and that the diesel engines fitted would comply with the latest and highest emissions standards.

Conversion to pure electric operation is also a key design feature, with the ability to remove the diesel engines and fuel tanks at a later date, if they were no longer required.

One of my customers fror data analysis software, was Cummins, who have supplied Bombardier with diesel engines in the past. One thing that impressed me, was that they have an ability to reposition all the ancillaries on a diesel engine, so that, if required for a particular application, it could be fitted into a confined space.

I believe from what I saw, that Cummins or one of the other diesel engine manufacturers could supply a low-height diesel engine with an adequate power level to fit under the car floor without raising it by an unacceptable amount.

If you travel on one of London’s New Routemaster buses and sit in the back seat downstairs, at times you can just about hear the diesel engine, which is placed under and halfway-up the stairs, as it starts and stops. But generally, the engine isn’t audible.

A typical Volvo double-decker bus like a B5TL, is powered by a 5.1 litre D5K-240 engine, which is rated at 240 bhp/177 kW.

By contrast, the New Routemaster is powered by a Cummins ISBe engine with a capacity of 4.5 litres and a rating of 185 bhp/138 kW. One of the major uses of a larger 5.9 litre version of this engine is in a Dodge Ram pickup.

The two buses do a similar job, but the New Routemaster uses twenty percent less power.

The saving is probably explained because the New Routemaster is effectively a battery bus with regenerative braking and a diesel engine to charge the battery.

I am led to the conclusion, that Bombardier plan to fit an appropriately sized diesel engine under the floor of each car in the train.

Bombardier built the 125 mph Class 222 train, which have a 19-litre Cummins QSK19 engine rated at 750 bhp/560 kW, in each car of the train. I can’t find the weight of a car of a Class 222 train, but that for a similar 220 train is around 46.4 tonne, of which 1.9 tonnes is the diesel engine.

Applying the same logic, I can calculate the energy for a single-car of a Class 222 train.

  • A typical car weighs 46.4 tonnes.
  • A typical car can accommodate a total of about 75 seated and standing passengers.
  • With bags, buggies and other things passengers bring on, let’s assume an average passenger weight of 90 kg, this gives an extra 6.75 tonnes.
  • So I will assume that an in service car weighs 53.2 tonnes.

Remarkably, the weight of the two cars is the same. But then the Aventra has more passengers and a heavy battery and the Class 22 train has a heavy diesel engine.

As both trains have the same FLexx-Eco bogies, perhaps the car weight is determined by the optimum weight the bogies can carry.

Calculating the kinetic energy of the car for various speeds gives, these figures for a single car of a Class 222 train.

  • 75 mph – 8.3 kWh
  • 90 mph – 12 kWh
  • 100 mph – 14.8 kWh
  • 125 mph – 23 kWh

I will also adjust the figures for the proposed high speed bi-mode Aventra, by adding an extra tonne to the weight for the diesel engine and fuel tank.

This gives the following figures for a tri-mode 125 mph Aeventra.

  • 75 mph – 8.5 kWh
  • 90 mph – 12.1 kWh
  • 100 mph – 15 kWh
  • 125 mph – 23.5 kWh

Note that increase in speed is much more significant, than any increase in weight of the car, in determining the car energy.

I will now look at how the high speed bi-mode Aventra and a Class 222 train, running at 125 mph call at a station and then accelerate back to this speed after completing the stop.

The high speed bi-mode Aventra will convert the 23.5 kWh to electrical energy and store it in the battery.

After the stop, probably eighty percent of this braking energy could be used to accelerate the train. I m assuming the eighty percent figure, as regenerative braking never recovers all the braking energy.

This would mean that to get back to 125 mph, another 5.1 kWh would need to be supplied by the diesel engine.

In contrast the diesel engine in the car of the Class 222 train would need to supply the whole 23 kWh.

As the time to accelerate both trains to 125 mph will be the same, if Bombardier are to meet their probable objective of similar performance between the following.

  • Bi-mode Aventra in electric mode
  • Bi-mode Aventra in diesel mode.
  • Class 222 train.

This means that the size of diesel engine required in the bi-mode Aventra’s diesel in each car is given by.

560 * 5.1/23 = 124 kW or 166 bhp.

The quiet Cummins ISBe engine with a capacity of 4.5 litres and a rating of 185 bhp/138 kW from a New Routemaster bus, would probably fit the bill

Could we really be seeing a 125 mph bi-mode train powered by a posse of Amrican pick-up truck engines?

The mathematics say it is possible.

If you think, I’m wrong feel free to check my calculations!

Last Mile Operation

The Modern Railways article, also says this about last mile operation.

The option for last-mile operation or for using this technology through short sections, such as stations will also be available, although Mr. McKeon said this is not in the core design.

I think there is more to this than than in the words.

The South Wales Metro is making extensive use of discontinuous electrification to avoid the need to raise bridges and other structures. I said more in More On Discontinuous Electrification In South Wales.

The ability to run on a few hundred metres of overhead rail or wire, without any power would be very useful and allow electrification to be simplified.

Imagine too a section of line through a Listed station or historic landscape, where electrification would be difficult for heritage reasons.

The train might glide silently through on battery power, after lowering the pantograph automatically. It would raise automatically, when the electrification was reached on the other side.

And then there’s all the depot and stabling advantages, of using batterry power to cut the amount of electrification and improve safety.

Future Fuels

The Modern Railways article, also says this about future fuels.

Mr McKeon said his view was that the diesel engines will be required for many years, as other power sources do not yet have the required power or efficiency to support inter-city operation at high speeds.

Running at high speeds in itself is not the problem, as a train with good aerodynamics and running gear will run easily without too many losses due to friction.

The biggest use of traction energy will be accelerating the train up to operating speed after each stop.

It is too early yet to judge whether fuels like hydrogen will be successful, but other areas will improve and make trains more efficient.

  • Improved aerodynamics.
  • Better traction motors.
  • Better batteries with a higher energy storage per kilogram of battery weight.
  • More efficient, quieter and less polluting diesel engines.
  • More intelligent control systems for the train and to inform and assist the driver.

I also think there is scope for electrifying sections of track, where energy use is high.

Interior And Passenger Comfort

The Modern Railways article finishes with this paragraph.

In terms of the interior, Mr. Mckeon said the aim was to offer passenger comfort to match that on an EMU. The key elements of this are to have less vibration, less noise and an even floor throughout the passenger interior.

I believe my calculations have shown that using batteries to handle regenerative braking, substantially reduces the size of the diesel engines required, to about that of those in a serial hybrid bus, like a New Routemaster.

These smaller engines are much quieter, with much less noise and vibration.Their smaller size will also make  designing a train with a uniform even floor a lot easier.

Comparing The Two Trains

Operating Speed

The maximum operating speed of the two trains is as follows.

  • Tri-Mode Stadler Flirt – 100 mph
  • High Speed Bi-Mode Aventra – 125 mph

This would appear to be a point to Bombardier. But could the speed of the tri-mode Stadler Flirt be increased?

125 mph Flirt EMUs do exist, but these don’t have the power pack in the middle, which may have the capability to introduce unwelcome dynamics into the train.

On the other hand, the high speed bi-mode Aventra, is dynamically at least, very much a conventional non-tilting high speed train., even if the way the train is powered is unconventional.

UK high speed trains have generally been capable of greater than 125 mph.

  • The InterCity 125 set the world record for a diesel train at 148 mph, on the first of November 1987.
  • The InterCity 225 was designed to run at 140 mph (225 kph) with in-cab signalling.  In 1989, one train achieved 161 mph.
  • Class 395 trains regularly run at 140 mph on HS1 and have run at 157 mph.
  • Class 800, Class 801 and Class 802 trains are all designed to run at 140 mph with in-cab signalling.

I can’t help thinking that Bombardier’s engineers know a way of obtaining 140 mph out of their creation.

Calculation shows that the kinetic energy of one car of a high speed bi-mode Aventra travelling at 140 mph is 30 kWh, which is still easy to handle, in a train with a battery and a diesel engine in each car.

Could this train be the ideal classic-compatible train for High Speed 2?

Battery Range

I said earlier that the range of the Tri-Mode Stadler Flirt will be forty miles on batteries.

So how far will Bombardier’s high speed bi-mode Aventra go on full batteries?10 and 17

I speculated that these trains are formed of cars with a 50 kWh battery and a small diesel engine of about 124 kW in each car.

In an article in the October 2017 Edition of Modern Railways, which is entitled Celling England By The Pound, Ian Walmsley says this in relation to trains running on the Uckfield Branch, which is not very challenging.

A modern EMU needs between 3 and 5 kWh per vehicle mile for this sort of service.

So the range could be somewhere between 10 and 17 miles.

But the more efficient the train, the greater the distance.

Reducing energy consumption to 2 kWh per vehicle mile would give a range of 25 miles.

Adding More Cars

Adding more cars to an Aventra appears to be fairly easy, as these trains can certainly be ten-car units.

But doing this to a Tri-Mode Stadler Flirt may be more difficult due to the train’s design. Five or possibly six cars might be the limit.

 

 

 

 

 

 

June 30, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , | 2 Comments