The Anonymous Widower

Plan To Build £150m Green Hydrogen Plant At Felixstowe Port

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article in The Times.

These two paragraphs introduce the project.

A £150 million green hydrogen plant is to be built at the UK’s busiest container port according to proposals by ScottishPower, it emerged yesterday.

The energy company has devised plans for a 100MW plant at the Port of Felixstowe which will provide fuel to power trains, trucks and ships.

There’s a lot more to this project than it would appear at first.

Where Will The Electrolyser Be Sited?

The Times article says this.

The site will be around the size of a football pitch, on brownfield land within the port.

I have flown my virtual helicopter over the port and there could be a couple of suitable football pitch-sized plots.

Where Will The Electricity Come From?

The East Anglia Array is a proposed massive series of offshore wind farms, which will be about thirty miles off the Suffolk coast.

Wikipedia says this about the size.

Up to six individual projects could be set up in the area with a maximum capacity of up to 7.2 GW.

But the main thing about the East Anglian Array is that it is being developed by a partnership of ScottishPower and Vattenfall.

Negotiations shouldn’t be difficult.

This Google Map shows the town of Felixstowe.

Note.

  1. The Ports of Felixstowe and Harwich are opposite each other on the two banks of the River Orwell.
  2. The power cable to the East Anglia Array comes ashore at Bawdsey in the North-East corner of the map.
  3. The Port of Felixstowe has two rail links, which are not electrified.

I suspect that the electric power to the electrolyser might well be routed underwater to the Port of Felixstowe either from Bawdsey or possibly direct from the wind farm.

A Meeting With A Crane Driver

I used to regularly go to Ipswich Town away matches and at one match, I met a senior crane operator from the Port of Felixstowe. We got talking about electrifying the rail link to the port and decarbonisation of the port in general.

He was adamant that electrification of the rail lines in the port, wouldn’t be a good idea as containers occasionally get dropped or crane drivers aren’t as accurate as they should be.

Hydrogen-Powered Freight Locomotives

When, I told him about the possibilities of hydrogen rail locomotives, he felt this was the way to go, as no rail electrification would be needed in the port.

Hydrogen-electric hybrid locomotives would also be able to take containers cross-country to the main electrified routes to the North and West, where they would raise their pantographs and use electric power.

How many trucks would be removed from the A14, A1 and M6?

Will Greater Anglia Convert Their Class 755 Trains to Hydrogen?

Class 755 trains have a short PowerPack in the middle and are designed for conversion to hydrogen-electric operation.

Note the PowerPack has four slots for diesel engines, batteries or hydrogen fuel-cells.

A Better Working Environment

But my fellow supporter felt the biggest gain in the port, would come with replacement or updating of all the vehicles and handling equipment, as if all these machines were hydrogen-powered, this would greatly improve the working conditions for the dock workers.

ScottishPower’s Vision

This press release on ScottishPower’s web site is entitled ScottishPower Vision For Green Hydrogen Fuels Hub At Port Of Felixstowe.

Conclusion

The Port of Felixstowe is doing the planning for this in the right way, as ensuring the hydrogen supply in the port first, is the logical way to transition to hydrogen power.

But then, I’ve watched the Port of Felixstowe grow since the 1960s and they usually get their decisions right.

The press release starts with these bullet points.

  • ScottishPower explores green hydrogen at Port of Felixstowe to help decarbonise the UK’s busiest port.
  • The project could help kick-start the low carbon transformation of the UK’s heavy transport sector.
  • 100MW facility could deliver up to 40 tonnes of green hydrogen per day – enough to power 1300 hydrogen trucks.
  • International export also being explored.

And these two paragraphs.

ScottishPower, with Hutchison Ports, is exploring the opportunity to develop, build and operate a multi-hundred MW green hydrogen production facility at the Port of Felixstowe – with the potential to decarbonise industry and transportation in the region.
Both companies have set out their vision to help create a greener port, which could provide clean fuel for customers at Britain’s busiest container port.

Plans are being developed to use green hydrogen for onshore purposes, such as road, rail and industrial use, with the potential to create liquid forms, such as green ammonia or e-methanol. This could, in turn, provide clean fuels for shipping and aviation, and create opportunities for cost-effective export to international markets. The project aims to continue engineering and site development works to align with customer demand from 2025 onwards.

It is certainly a very extremely ambitious vision!

But then the county of my conception, has a tremendous determination to succeed. And often against all conventional logic!

 

August 9, 2022 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Anglesey Hydrogen Can Bridge UK’s Energy Gap Says Economics Expert

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on the University of Bangor web site.

This is the sub title.

Anglesey can become a UK leader in hydrogen energy technology, cleaning up the transport sector and creating high quality jobs across North Wales, according to a leading Welsh economic expert.

The University of Bangor is a respected university, that goes back to the nineteenth century.

But for Liverpool giving me an unconditional offer, as Bangor was one of the universities on my UCCA form, I could have studied in the North-West corner of Wales.

After a resume of where we are with hydrogen in the world, Dr. Edward Jones of Bangor University outlines how North West Wales can be turned into a hydrogen hub, to join similar hubs at Deeside in Flintshire and at Milford Haven in Pembrokeshire.

This is a paragraph of the article.

Dr Jones believes hydrogen could also hold the key to powering transport in future through a Welsh invention from the 19th century (the hydrogen fuel cell was developed in Swansea by William Grove in 1842).

William Grove was an interesting lawyer and scientist.

Dr. Jones would appear to be very much in favour of using hydrogen to take Wales forward to being zero-carbon in 2050.

I have written a few posts about the transformation of Anglesey and North West Wales, as Wales moves towards this goal. I also have some other thoughts of my own.

Holyhead Hydrogen Hub

This is happening and I wrote about it in Holyhead Hydrogen Hub Planned For Wales.

High Speed Two To Holyhead

I believe this could be a way to create a zero-carbon route between London and Dublin in under five hours and I wrote about it in Could High Speed Two Serve Holyhead?.

  • London and Holyhead in a battery-equipped High Speed Two Classic-Compatible train should be under three hours.
  • A single High Speed Two Classic-Compatible train would run between London and Holyhead, with a passenger capacity of around five hundred. It would probably split and join with another service at Crewe.
  • Discontinuous electrification would be provided along the North Wales Coast Line.
  • The trains could call at Old Oak Common, Birmingham Interchange, Chester, Crewe, Llandudno Junction and Bangor.

A High Speed catamaran would speed passengers between Holyhead and Dublin in under two hours.

Hydrogen-Powered Catamarans From Holyhead

The dynamics of a diesel-powered high speed catamaran are well-proven, with some large craft transporting passengers and vehicles on sea crossings all over the world.

Type “hydrogen-powered high speed catamaran” into Google and you get several hits to research and development projects, but no-one appears to have taken a large high speed craft and converted it to hydrogen.

But I do believe that someone somewhere is developing a hydrogen-powered catamaran with something like the following specification.

  • 200 passengers
  • 100-mile range
  • 60 knot operating speed.

The HSC Francisco is a high speed craft that plies between Buenos Aires and Montevideo carrying over a thousand passengers and a hundred cars at 58 knots. It is powered by gas-turbine engines running on liquified natural gas.

I believe I’m not asking for the impossible.

Anglesey Airport As A Zero-Carbon Airport

Anglesey Airport uses part of RAF Valley and has hosted services to Cardiff.

This Google Map shows the runways of RAF Valley.

Note.

  1. The longest runway 14/32 is over two thousand metres long.
  2. Rhosneigr station in the South East corner of the map.
  3. The facilities of Anglesey Airport to the North-East of the runways.

The railway forms the border of the airport, as this second Google map shows.

The railway is straight as it passes the Airport and there would be space for a two-hundred metre bi-directional step-free platform for passengers for the Airport.

Airbus are proposing a hydrogen-powered ZEROe Turbofan.

If you think it looks familiar, I believe that Airbus are proposing to develop the aircraft out of the current Airbus A320neo.

  • The capacity will be up to 200 passengers.
  • The range will be up to 2000 miles.
  • Dublin and Anglesey Airports are just 71.5 miles apart.
  • The cruising speed of Mach 0.78 would be irrelevant on this route, as it would probably fly a route to minimise noise.

The plane would probably be able to do several trips between Anglesey and Dublin without refuelling.

As the Port of Holyhead is developing a hydrogen infrastructure, I suspect that to provide hydrogen refuelling at Anglesey Airport would be possible.

I believe that by combining hydrogen-powered aircraft with battery-electric trains, some difficult sea crossings can be made carbon-free.

I believe that Anglesey Airport could be key to a zero-carbon London and Ireland service.

  • Airbus are also proposing a 100-seat ZEROe Turboprop.
  • Belfast, Cork, Derry and Shannon would also be in range.

Flights could also continue to and from Cardiff.

Reopening The Anglesey Central Railway

This has been proposed as a Beeching Reversal project.

I wrote about it in Reopening The Anglesey Central Railway.

It could be reopened as a zero-carbon railway.

Conclusion

There is a lot of scope to use hydrogen in North West Wales and Anglesey.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 7, 2021 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The First North American Commercial Hydrogen Ferry Is In The Works

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Hydrogen Fuel News.

The 84-passenger ferry will be called Sea Change and will operate in the San Francisco Bay Area.

What is interesting about this project are some of the companies and organisations involved, who include BAe Systems, Cummins and the California Air Resources Board, who are chipping in with a $3 million grant.

I’ve said before that Cummins are making investments in hydrogen and modern, reliable and eco-friendly ferries across iconic rivers and estuaries wouldn’t harm the companies involved in their creation.

This page on the Switch Maritime gives more details of the Sea Change.

Ferries Across The Mersey

The current Mersey Ferries in Liverpool entered service in the 1960s.

These pictures shows Snowdrop, when she had been given a razzle-dazzle paint scheme by Sir Peter Blake.

Note.

  1. There is more about this colour scheme in the Wikipedia entry for Dazzle Ship (14-18 NOW).
  2. Snowdrop is much larger than the Californian ferry
  3. Mersey Ferries are different and the current pair will need to be replaced soon.

To me, hydrogen is the obvious choice for propulsion for a new ferry.

Freeport East

Freeport East is a new freeport to be built around the ports of Harwich and Felixstowe.

It will also be a hydrogen hub, as this infographic shows.

I would expect that the ferry between the two ports will be upgraded to a hydrogen one.

Conclusion

Ferries will be one of the first application of hydrogen power to ships.

 

June 5, 2021 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , , , , , | 3 Comments

Green Hydrogen Searches For Industrial Outlets

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on E & T Magazine.

It is a detailed look at the uses for green hydrogen.

A few points from the article.

  • Like fossil fuel hydrogen can store energy for months.
  • Less that 10 % of green hydrogen will be used for energy storage.
  • Hydrogen has a poor round trip efficiency, if you create it with an electrolyser and then convert it back to electricity using appropriate technology.
  • Heavy transport may account for 25 % of the use of hydrogen.
  • Industrial and home heating applications could account for the use of another third.
  • One of the biggest uses today of hydrogen is in oil-refining to make low sulphur fuels.
  • Steelmaking could be a big user, but there are many different methods and some have problems.
  • Cement making could be a good use of green hydrogen.

The article is a must-read and it makes you think.

April 20, 2021 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel, World | , , , , | 4 Comments

Holyhead Hydrogen Hub Planned For Wales

The title of this post is the same as that of this article on H2 View.

This is the introductory paragraph.

Plans for a new hydrogen production plant, refuelling and distribution hub have been unveiled for Holyhead, North Wales.

Some other points from the article.

  • Unsurprisingly, it will be called the Holyhead Hydrogen Hub.
  • Holyhead is the second largest roll-on, roll-off port in the UK.
  • There is plenty of potential for renewable energy in the area.
  • It will support the port and large scale movements of HGVs.
  • There is plenty of potential for renewable energy in the area.
  • The hydrogen in future could support trains, ships, public transport and other uses.

In the last year, I’ve read about hydrogen hubs in ports, including Portsmouth and Antwerp, so Holyhead is just following a trend.

February 18, 2021 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , | 5 Comments

Hydrogen Ambitions For The Port Of Hamburg

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on Seatrade Maritime News.

This is the introductory paragraph.

In January Hamburg announced that Vattenfall, Shell, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI) and municipal heat supplier Warme Hamburg had signed a Letter of Intent to develop a 100MW electrolyser to produce green hydrogen in the port area.

A few points from the article.

  • Hamburg believes that ships will be running on green hydrogen.
  • Buses and trucks will need the hydrogen.
  • They may build a terminal to import green hydrogen, as the Japanese are doing at Kobe.
  • The green hydrogen might be produced in places like Africa and Morocco.

100 MW strikes me as a large electrolyser.

February 4, 2021 Posted by | Hydrogen | , , | Leave a comment

Scotland To Trial World’s First Hydrogen-Powered Ferry In Orkney

The title of this post, is the same as that of this article on The Herald.

This is the introductory paragraph.

The world’s first hydrogen-fuelled ferry is set to undergo testing as Scotland powers forward in the green energy race.

I wonder how many of these there are in the world?

This paragraph lists those behind the project.

The HyDIME project is made up of a consortium of partners being led by Ferguson Marine. Partners include ULEMCo, Lloyd’s Register, HSSMI and Orkney Islands Council.

I suspect ULEMCo will provide the motive power, as their speciality is converting vehicles to run on hydrogen or dual-fuel of hydrogen and diesel.

There is also a HyDIME web site.

This is the project description from the web site.

  • HyDIME (Hydrogen Diesel Injection in a Marine Environment) is a 12 month, Innovate UK funded project that will use an environmentally friendly form of hydrogen as a fuel for a commercial ferry operating between Shapinsay and Kirkwall in Orkney.
  • HyDIME aims to make waves in the marine industry by proving the safe integration and use of hydrogen on vessels. One of HyDIME’s goals is the design and physical integration of a hydrogen injection system on a commercial passenger and vehicle ferry which will be the first of its kind worldwide.
  • The hydrogen used in the HyDIME project will be cleanly produced from renewable energy. Excess energy generated from Orkney’s abundance of wind and tidal power will be used to produce hydrogen via electrolysis, resulting in carbon free, ’green’ hydrogen.
  • Looking to the future beyond the project, HyDIME will conduct a scale-up analysis, addressing key questions such as, “How much hydrogen and renewable energy would be required to fuel the Shapinsay ferry PLUS a fleet of hydrogen vehicles in Orkney?” and “Can this project be replicated in other areas of Scotland and the rest of the UK?”.
  • The HyDIME project will provide a stepping stone to accelerate and de-risk future hydrogen marine projects and will contribute towards growing the hydrogen economy in the UK.

This looks to be a very professional project, as they seem to be trying to answer all the questions, anyone will ask.

 

October 13, 2020 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , | 2 Comments

The Mathematics Of A Hydrogen-Powered Freight Locomotive

If we are going to decarbonise the railways in the UK and in many countries of the world, there is a need to replace diesel locomotives with a zero-carbon alternative.

In looking at Airbus’s proposal for hydrogen powered aircraft in ZEROe – Towards The World’s First Zero-Emission Commercial Aircraft, it opened my eyes to the possibilities of powering freight locomotives using gas-turbine engines running on liquid hydrogen.

A Hydrogen-Powered Equivalent Of A Class 68 Locomotive

The Class 68 Locomotive is a modern diesel locomotive used on UK railways.

This is a brief specification

  • It can pull both passenger and freight trains.
  • It has an operating speed of 100 mph.
  • The diesel engine is rated at 2.8 MW
  • It has an electric transmission.
  • It has a 5,000 litre diesel tank.
  • It weighs 85 tonnes.
  • It is 20.5 metres long.

There are thirty-four of these locomotives in service, where some haul passenger trains for Chiltern Railways and TransPennine Express.

Rolls-Royce’s Staggering Development

Staggering is not my word, but that of Paul Stein, who is Rolls-Royce’s Chief Technology Officer.

He used the word in a press release, which I discuss in Our Sustainability Journey.

To electrify aviation, Rolls-Royce has developed a 2.5 MW generator, based on a small gas-turbine engine, which Paul Stein describes like this.

Amongst the many great achievements from E-Fan X has been the generator – about the same size as a beer keg – but producing a staggering 2.5 MW. That’s enough power to supply 2,500 homes and fully represents the pioneering spirit on this project.

This generator is designed for flight and the data sheet for the gas-turbine engine is available on the Internet.

  • It has a weight of under a couple of tonnes compared to the thirteen tonnes of the diesel engine and generator in a Class 68 locomotive.
  • It is almost as powerful as the diesel.
  • It looks to be as frugal, if not more so!
  • Rolls-Royce haven’t said if this gas-turbine can run on aviation biofuel, but as many of Rolls-Royce’s large engines can, I would be very surprised if it couldn’t!

Rolls-Royce’s German subsidiary; MTU is a large producer of rail and maritime diesel engines, so the company has the expertise to customise the generator for rail applications.

Could this generator be modified to run on liquid hydrogen and used to power a Class 68-sized locomotive?

  • The size of the generator must be an advantage.
  • Most gas-turbine engines can be modified to run on natural gas and hydrogen.
  • Its power output is electricity.
  • There’s probably space to fit two engines in a Class 68 locomotive.

In addition, a battery could be added to the transmission to enable regenerative braking to battery, which would increase the efficiency of the locomotive.

Storing Enough Hydrogen

I believe that the hydrogen-powered locomotive should carry as much energy as a Class 68 locomotive.

  • A Class 68 locomotive has a capacity of 5,000 litres of diesel fuel.
  • This will have a mass of 4.19 tonnes.
  • Each kilogram of diesel can produce 47 Mega Joules of energy.
  • This means that full fuel tanks contain 196,695 Mega Joules of energy.
  • Each litre of liquid hydrogen can produce 10.273 Mega Joules of energy

This means that to carry the same amount of energy will need 19,147 litres or 19.15 cubic metres of liquid hydrogen.

  • This could be contained in a cylindrical tank with a diameter of 2 metres and a length of 6 metres.
  • It would also weigh 1.38 tonnes.

The E-Fan-X aircraft project must have worked out how to store, similar amounts of liquid hydrogen.

Note that I used this Energy And Fuel Data Sheet from Birmingham University.

Running On Electrification

As the locomotive would have an electric transmission, there is no reason, why it could not run using both 25 KVAC overhead and 750 VDC third-rail electrification.

This would enable the locomotive to haul trains efficiently on partially electrified routes like between Felixstowe and Leeds.

Hydrogen-Powered Reciprocating Engines

When it comes to diesel engines to power railway locomotives and big trucks, there are few companies bigger than Cummins, which in 2018, turned over nearly 24 billion dollars.

  • A large proportion of this revenue could be at risk, if governments around the world, get serious about decarbonisation.
  • Cummins have not let the worst just happen and in 2019, they acquired Hydrogenics, who are a hydrogen power company, that they now own in an 81/19 partnership with Air Liquide.
  • Could all this expertise and Cummins research combine to produce powerful hydrogen-powered reciprocating engines?
  • Other companies, like ABC and ULEMCo are going this route, to modify existing diesel engines to run on hydrogen or a mixture of hydrogen and diesel.

I believe it is very likely, that Cummins or another company comes up with a solution to decarbonise rail locomotives, based on a conversion of an existing diesel engine.

Refuelling Hydrogen-Powered Rail Locomotives

One of problems with hydrogen-powered trucks and cars, is that there is no nationwide refuelling network providing hydrogen. But railway locomotives and trains usually return to depots at the end of the day for servicing and can be fuelled there.

Conclusion

I feel that there are several routes to a hydrogen-powered railway locomotive and all the components could be fitted into the body of a diesel locomotive the size of a Class 68 locomotive.

Consider.

  • Decarbonising railway locomotives and ships could be a large market.
  • It offers the opportunities of substantial carbon reductions.
  • The small size of the Rolls-Royce 2.5 MW generator must offer advantages.
  • Some current diesel-electric locomotives might be convertible to hydrogen power.

I very much feel that companies like Rolls-Royce and Cummins (and Caterpillar!), will move in and attempt to claim this lucrative worldwide market.

September 25, 2020 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , , , , , , , , | 11 Comments

Transition Your Ships To Zero-Emissions With Ballard’s New FCwave

The title of this post, is the same as that of this post on the Ballard blog.

This is the introductory paragraph.

Today, the maritime sector accounts for approximately 2.5% of global carbon emissions, equivalent to 940 megatonnes each year . But the industry is now moving into a new era of mobility, where sustainability and climate change issues are top of mind.

And this paragraph introduces Ballard’s solution.

At Ballard, we’re here to support ship operators and marine propulsion integrators in this transition. Today, we’ll introduce you to our new FCwave™ fuel cell module—the world’s first commercial fuel cell solution for marine vessels.

There is a link to a brochure.

The blog also has two videos and a picture of a Caledonian MacBrayne ferry, which is labelled Ballard Fuel Cell Powered HySeas Consortium Ferry, so is a hydrogen-powered ferry coming to an island near you or where you like to go?

This article on the Liverpool Echo is entitled Plans For A New Ferry To Cross The Mersey.

As the current two ferries, were in service when I was a student at Liverpool University in the 1960s, replacement of one of the most iconic, if not the most iconic ferries in the world with hydrogen power would be a smart move, by both Liverpool and Ballard.

Especially, as the Liverpool area is not short of hydrogen.

September 15, 2020 Posted by | Hydrogen, Transport/Travel | , , , | Leave a comment