The Anonymous Widower

How Long Will A Class 345 Train Take To Go Between Two Stations Ten Kilometres Apart?

A Class 345 train has the following characteristics.

  • Maximum speed of 145 kph.
  • Acceleration of 1 m per second²

Using Omni’s Acceleration Calculator, I can calculate that, the train can accelerate up to full speed in 40 seconds.

Using the formula v²=u²+2as, this means that the train takes around 811 metres to get to 145 kph.

With regenerative braking, I suspect that a deceleration of the same order can be assumed.

So will it take 811 metres to stop from speed? I’ll use this figure until someone corrects me.

If the train is doing a start-stop over ten kilometres, then it will travel 8.4 kilometres at maximum speed, which will take about 3.5 minutes.

This means that the start-stop time will be 4.7 minutes.

Now I’ll look at a real example using a similar Greater Anglia Class 720 train.

These are 160 kph trains and typically work on the Great Eastern and West Anglia Main Lines with a similar operating speed.

The train will take 44.4 seconds to accelerate to operating speed and this will take 985.7 metres.

The distance between Tottenham Hale and Cheshunt stations is 12894.8 metres.

So the full speed distance could be 10923.4 metres. This will take 4.09 minutes at 160 kph.

So the start-stop time will be 5.5 minutes.

Currently, the fastest train on this route I can find takes 10 minutes.

I suspect that somewhere in this, the time at the station will complicate matters, but I do think that the fast acceleration and deceleration of the new trains will contribute to faster schedules.

And it’s not just Aventras that have this fast acceleration!

This is an extract for the Wikipedia entry for a Stadler Flirt.

Acceleration also varies between 0.8 and 1.2 m/s2 (2.6 and 3.9 ft/s2)

If you’re worried about the G forces, this is taken from the Wikipedia entry for London Underground’s 2009 Stock for the Victoria Line.

 They have a higher top speed of 80 km/h (50 mph), a faster maximum acceleration of 1.3 m/s2(4.3 ft/s2), a normal service deceleration of 1.14 m/s2 (3.7 ft/s2), and an emergency brake deceleration of 1.4 m/s2 (4.6 ft/s2).

These accelerate even faster and are used for over 200.000 million journeys a year.

To put in an example from motoring, a Mini Cooper S has a 0-60 mph time of 7.4 seconds, which is an acceleration of 3.62 m/s2

Conclusions

Possibly the most important thing to reduce journey times on a rail journey, is to make sure that the operating speed is as high as possible and trains running on the route must be capable of running at that speed.

Obviously, trains do the short journey in three sections.

  • They accelerate as fast as they can to the operating speed.
  • They cruise at the line speed.
  • They decelerate and brake, so they stop in the right place in the next station.

Dear Old Vicky has been doing this under computer control since, the line opened in the 1960s.

I gave an example from Merseyrail in Slow Trains Outside The South-East.

I said this.

The new Stadler Flirt trains are promised to save nine minutes between Southport and Hunts Cross stations, because they are better designed for passenger entrance and exit with faster speed and better braking and acceleration.

There is a corollary to all this.

So long as you have the energy on a train for fast acceleration, whether it is battery, diesel, electrification or hydrogen, it doesn’t matter for a faster service.

So alternatives to electrification are just as good!

 

August 23, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , , , | 1 Comment

Tri-Mode Stadler Flirts

I would expect that these trains are very similar to the bi-mode Stadler Flirt DEMUs, but that the power-pack would also contain a battery.

As an Electrical and Control Engineer, I wouldn’t be surprised that the power-pack, which accepts up to four Deutz diesel engines, can replace one or two of these with battery modules. This could make conversion between the two types of Flirt, just a matter of swapping a diesel module for a battery one or vice-versa.

Note that the three-car Class 755 trains for Greater Anglia have two diesel engines and the four-car trains have four engines.

This document on the KeolisAmey web site details their plans for the new Wales and Borders Franchise.

It gives a few extra details about the Tri-Mode Stadler Flirts

The KeolisAmey document gives extra a few extra details.

I assume the following.

  • That 100% electric operation includes battery operation.
  • Batteries will certainly be used in the mile-long Caerphilly tunnel.
  • Batteries will be charged when running on electrified lines or by capturing regenerative breaking energy whilst descending to Cardiff.
  • The diesel engine will be used for primary power on the Vale of Glamorgan Line, which is without electrification and nearly twenty miles long?

There will be a lot of commonality between the two types of Flirts and I suspect driver and other staff training for the two variant will be the same.

How Big Will The Batteries Need To Be?

Consider a three-car Tri-Mode Stadler Flirt

  • I reckon, that the weight of the train will be around 130 tonnes.
  • Rhymney has an altitude of 287 metres.
  • I will assume 150 passengers at 80 Kg. each, which gives a weight of 12 tonnes.

This means that the train has a potential energy of 111 kWh at Rhymney station.

On the way down the hill from Rhymney the regenerative braking will convert this potential energy into electricity, which will be stored in the battery.

But also consider.

  • There will be losses in energy conversion in the regenerative braking process.
  • Energy will be used running the train’s systems.
  • Energy will be used stopping and starting the train at each station.
  • Energy will be used bringing the train through some sections without electrification.
  • Energy will be used keeping the crew and passengers comfortable.
  • Energy can be burned off using braking resistors on the roof of the train.

When you consider that the battery on a London New Routemaster bus, has a capacity of 75 kWh, I think it is highly likely, that Stadler can design a battery module to fit one of the two spare engine positions in the power-pack.

Now, consider a four-car Tri-Mode Stadler Flirt

  • I reckon, that the weight of the train will be around 150 tonnes.
  • Rhymney has an altitude of 287 metres.
  • I will assume 200 passengers at 80 Kg. each, which gives a weight of 16 tonnes.

This means that the train has a potential energy of 130 kWh at Rhymney station.

Looking at the weight of Bombardier’s 50 kWh batteries, I suspect that it would be possible to design a battery module with the following characeristics.

  • 100 kWh capacity
  • A weight less than that of the Deutz engine, which is around 1.3 tonnes.
  • Plug compatibility with the diesel engine.

Doing this calculation with real data, is the sort of mathematics that I relished doing in my twenties.

How Far Would A Full 100 kWh Battery Take A Three-Car Flirt?

In an article in the October 2017 Edition of Modern Railways, which is entitled Celling England By The Pound, Ian Walmsley says this in relation to trains running on the Uckfield Branch, which probably has a terrain not much different to the lines to the South and West of Cardiff.

A modern EMU needs between 3 and 5 kWh per vehicle mile for this sort of service.

This would mean that a 100 kWh battery would take a three-car train between six and ten miles. It might even take the train from Cardiff to Barry Island or Penarth and back..

Conclusion

It looks a very interesting concept.

  • Most of the energy is provided by the electrification, which would power the train up the hill.
  • Coming down the hill, the batteries would be recharged using the regenerative braking.
  • Battery power would used to take the train on routes without electrification to the West and South of Cardiff.
  • When the battery power was low, the diesel engines would cut in.

Energy efficiency would be high.

 

 

June 8, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , , | 9 Comments

Stadler Flirt DEMUs

Over a thousand Stadler Flirts have been sold to operators around the world. Most have been or will be built in Switzerland.

Greater Anglia

The first fleet in the UK, comprise fourteen three-car and twenty-four four-car Class 755 trains for Greater Anglia.

This visualisation shows a Class 755 train in Greater Anglia livery, running through the typical flat lands of East Anglia.

These trains will enter service next year.

  • They are 100 mph trains.
  • They can run on 25 KVAC overhead electrification.
  • They have a diesel power-pack, which can have up to four Deutz diesel engines, for running on lines without electrification.
  • The three-car trains have two diesel engines and the four-car trains have four engines.
  • They can change power source at line speed.
  • Length is easily changed, by adding or removing cars.
  • Three-car Flirts have 166 seats and four-car Flirts have 224 seats.
  • They are designed to handle two-hour plus journeys, like Lowestoft to London for Greater Anglia.

I suspect they are fairly powerful trains and I wrote about this in Greater Anglia’s Class 755 Trains Seem To Have Bags Of Grunt.

Comparing the trains with a Class 170 train, I said this.

But the four-car Class 755/4 trains have fifty percent more power per car, than the Class 170 train, so these will be no sedate rural trundlers.

I’m certain, that their performance, will allow them to mix it on the Great Eastern Main Line with the London-Ipswich-Norwich expresses.

KeolisAmey Wales

From the pictures, the trains, that will be delivered to KeolisAmey Wales, look very much like the trains, that have been ordered by Greater Anglia.

The trains will operate services between Cardiff and Ebbw Vale, Maesteg and extending to Severn Tunnel Junction and beyond.

I would assume that the trains will use diesel, where there is no electrification. One current service goes between Maesteg and Cheltenham Spa stations. On the South Wales Main Line between Cardiff and Seven Tunnel Junction, the trains would use the 25 KVAC  overhead wires, but at both ends of the route, they would use diesel.

One great advantage of bi-mode trains like these Flirts, is that as more electrification is added, they can take advantage.

I’m certain, that their performance, will allow them to mix it on the South Wales Main Line with the London-Newport-Cardiff-Swansea expresses.

Aosta Valley

A European version of the train will start to operate soon in the Aosta Valley in Italy, so when the trains for Wales are delivered, there will be lots of operational experience. Especially with climbing steep hills!

Norway

This article on the Railway Gazette is entitled Bi-Modes In Norway’s Next Flirt Order.

The bi-modes will be used around Trondheim, on routes without elewctrification.

What does Norway have a lot of? Mountains!

June 8, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , , , , | 2 Comments

The Greening Of The Valleys

This document on the KeolisAmey web site details their plans for the new Wales and Borders Franchise.

The documents gives these two definitions.

  • South Wales Metro – Includes the full set of local services around South East Wales. This includes what is currently known as the ‘Valley Lines’, plus services between Cardiff and Ebbw Vale, Maesteg and extending to Severn Tunnel Junction and beyond.
  • Central Metro -Refers to the sub-set of the South Wales Metro train services which run from Treherbert, Aberdare, Merthyr Tydfil, Radyr, Rhymney and Coryton, through Queen Street to Cardiff Bay, Cardiff Central, Penarth, Barry Island and Bridgend.

For these services around Cardiff and on the Cardiff Valley Lines, KeolisAmey Wales intend to acquire the following fleet.

  • 11 x four-car Stadler Flirt DEMU
  • 7 x three-car Stadler Flirt Tri-mode MU
  • 17 x four-car Stadler Flirt Tri-mode MU
  • 36 x three-car Stadler Citylink Metro Vehicles

This diagram from the document shows the routes and the frequencies.

They also say the following surrounding the map in the document.

  • Maintains all existing connections to Cardiff Queen Street and Cardiff Central stations.
  • Service pattern easy to understand
  • Most frequencies even in the hour ‘clockface’ (e.g. 00-15-30-45 past)
  • Vale of Glamorgan, Barry, Penarth and City Lines integrated into Central Metro solution.
  • 2tph from Pontypridd station ‘divert’ via City Line but don’t terminate at Central i.e. Aberdare – City Line – Central – Merthyr

Note that Aberdare, Merthyr Tydfil, Rhymney and Treherbert stations all get a total of four trains per hour (tph)

The Trains In More Detail

Stadler Rail are building the three fleets of rail vehicles.

Stadler Flirt DEMUs

Over a thousand Stadler Flirts have been sold to operators around the world. Most have been or will be built in Switzerland.

From the pictures, the trains, that will be delivered to Wales, look very much like the Class 755 trains, that have been ordered by Greater Anglia. These trains will enter service next year.

Stadler Flirt DEMUs gives more details of these trains and the closely-related fleets.

The trains will operate services between Cardiff and Ebbw Vale, Maesteg and extending to Severn Tunnel Junction and beyond.

Tri-Mode Stadler Flirts

I would expect that these trains are very similar to the bi-mode Flirt DEMUs, but that the power-pack would also contain a battery.

Tri-Mode Stadler Flirts gives more details of these trains and how I think they will operate.

The Tri-Mode Stadler Flirts are intended for Rhymney/Coryton <> Penarth/Barry Island/Bridgend via the Vale of Glamorgan Line.

There will be a lot of commonality between the two types of Flirts and I suspect driver and other staff training for the two variants will be the same.

Stadler Citylink Metro Vehicles

The Stadler Citylink Metro Vehicles in the KeolisAmey document. look very similar to Sheffield Supertram‘s Class 399 tram-trains, that are providing a tram service in Sheffield and will soon be running on the heavy rail network to Rotherham.

Stadler Citylink Metro Vehicles gives more details of these trains and how I think they will operate.

From Cardiff Queen Street To The Flourish

It looks like the Metro vehicles will use the batteries for power on the extension to the new terminal station at The Flourish.

I describe the proposal for the extension to the Flourish in The Flourish Station Is The Focus Of The South Wales Metro.

Electrically-Efficient Operation Of The Metro

I have a feeling that Stadler are bringing some of their mountaineering experience from Switzerland to the valleys of South Wales.

It is interesting that both the Tri-mode Stadler Flirts and the Stadler Citylink Metro Vehicles will have batteries.

Climbing The Hills

The main purpose of the batteries is to make the climb and descent to the terminals at the heads of the valleys as energy efficient as possible.

Efficient climbing of the hills will need all uphill tracks to be electrified.

The KeolisAmey document states this about the electrification.

Discontinuous overhead line electrification to 25 KVAC with permanently earthed sections around restricted structures, saving 55 interventions e.g. rebuilding bridges/no need for wire in Caerphilly tunnel.

Battery power would be invaluable for jumping the gaps in the electrification.

Coming down, I believe that the trains and tram-trains will use the batteries to handle the energy generated by regenerative braking.

This means.

  • The electrification can be simpler.
  • There might be no need to electrify the downhill track in double-track sections.
  • Trains can use the battery power  to cross sections without wires or restarting from stations, when going downhill.
  • Tram-trains going to The Flourish will arrive at Cardiff Queen Street station with enough energy in the batteries for the return trip to The Flourish.
  • The Cardiff Bay Line doesn’t need to be electrified, which saves money and possibly increases safety and reduces visual intrusion.

It is not only energy efficient, but it saves construction costs and time.

Why Aren’t Citylink Metro Vehicles  Used On The Rhymney Line?

There are several possible reasons.

  • Calculations have shown, that the battery capacity of the smaller Citylink vehicle might not be enough to go uphill through the Caerrphilly tunnel.
  • The route may need more powerful vehicles.
  • More capacity may be needed on this line, so the larger Tri-mode Stadler Flirts will be used.
  • The Flirts could use their diesel engines to rescue a train stuck in the tunnel.

But whatever the reason, I’m sure it’s a good one!

Could Downhill Tracks Not Be Electrified?

I think this may be possible, as vehicles coming down the hills could use gravity and small amounts of battery power.

Regenerative braking would also be continuously charging the batteries.

It would certainly be simpler, than having to constantly swap between overhead and battery power on the descent, where the electrification was discontinuous.

As the lines are going to have a more intensive service, there will be additions of a second track in places to allow trains to pass.

Any electrification that could be removed from the project would be beneficial in terms of building and operational costs.

How Would Discountinuous Electrification Be Handled?

I discus this in How Can Discontinuous Electrification Be Handled?

The Lines In More Detail

Click these links to find out more about the individual lines.

Rhymney Line

Conclusion

The two types of compatible vehicles, allows the plans for the South Wales Metro to be a cost-effective and very green solution for Cardiff’s transport needs.

It is a model, that can be used elsewhere.

Will railway engineers in future talk of the Cardiff Model, just as they talk of the Karlsruhe Model?

June 6, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , , , , , , , | 1 Comment

A Reason Why The UK Is Fertile Territory For Tram Trains

The UK has several modern tram systems. If you look at the cross section of trams you get the following figures.

I wonder why Nottingham is twenty-five centimetres narrower!

If you look at the Class 399 tram-train, it has a width of 2.65 metres and a height of 3.67 metres.

So no wonder, there has been no problems with Class 399 tram-trains running on the Sheffield Supertram as trams!

Various trains that run local rail networks include.

  • Class 142 – Width 2..8 metres – Height 3.86 metres
  • Class 150 – Width 2.8 metres – Height 3.8 metres
  • Class 222 – Width 2.73 metres
  • Class 319 – Width 2.82 metres – Height – 3.58 metres
  • Class 345 – Width 2.78 metres – Height N/A
  • Class 378 – Width 2.80 metres – Height 3.78 metres
  • Class 700 – Width 2.80 metres – Height N/A
  • Class 769 – Width 2.82 metres – Height 3.58 metres
  • Mark 4 Coach – Width 2.73 metres – Height 2.79 metres

These are some figures from German trains.

  • DBAG 641 – Width 2.90 metres – Height 3.7 metres
  • BD Class 420 – With 3.08 metres
  • ICE 3 – Width 2.95 metres – Height 3.89 metres

I’ll look at various issues.

Tram And Train Height

I think this is not a big issue.

If a tram or electric train can run on a particular track, then there should be no height problems running a tram-train over the route, providing overhead wires can be erected.

UK Tram And Train Width

It would appear that the maximum width of UK trains is 2.82 metres. In some stations, where there is only one class of train, level access is possible.

The picture shows a Class 378 train on the London Overground.

This is not one of the best I’ve seen, but there is no reason, why someone in a wheelchair shouldn’t be able to wheel themselves into every train at every station.

This is in the train operating company’s interest, as one of the things that delays trains, is getting someone in a wheelchair on and off the train with a portable ramp.

If we take the UK train width of 2.82 metres and compare that to the width of a Class 399 tram-train, which is 2.65 metres, that means that there is seventeen  centimetres difference or eight and a half centimetres on each side of the train.

If the platform can be arranged to be level, that is not a large gap. It’s probably about the same size as this gap in this picture.

Shown is a Class 399 tram-train at a tram stop on the Sheffield Supertram.

Continental Tram And Train Width

But on the Continent, where the trains are wider and the loading gauge is bigger, the gap will be larger.

Trains on the Continent also often have a significant step up as this picture shows.

Shown is an Italian High Speed train.

If the EU wanted to improve train travel for the disabled, those in wheelchairs, those with buggies and the elderly, they should make it compulsory for all trains to have level access from the platform.

It’s very rare to find level access on the Continent and not that easy in parts of the UK.

Gap Fillers

But things are getting better, as this picture shows.

Shown is a Stadler Flirt with a rather nifty automatic gap filler.

Merseyrail’s New Class 777 Trains

Gap fillers will be fitted to Merseyrail‘s new Class 777 trains, which are being built by Stadler.

The Class 777 trains and the current Class 507 trains have the same width of 2.82 metres, but the new Stadler trains have an eighteen centimetre lower floor.

The picture shows a Class 507 train at one of Liverpool’s underground stations.

Eighteen centimetres wouldn’t be far away from the height of the step in the picture.

The design must also allow both classes of trains to be in service at the same time, to ease introduction of the new Class 777 trains.

Talk about Swiss precision!

South Wales Metro

This document on the KeolisAmey web site details their plans for the new Wales and Borders Franchise.

For services around Cardiff and on the Cardiff Valley Lines, KeolisAmey Wales intend to acquire the following fleet.

  • 11 – four-car Stadler Flirt DEMU
  • 7 – three-car Stadler Flirt Tri-mode MU
  • 17 – four-car Stadler Flirt Tri-mode MU
  • 36 – three-car Stadler Citylink Metro Vehicles

Note.

  1. The Stadler Flirts look very similar to Greater Anglia‘s Class 755 trains, that by the time of delivery of these trains for Wales, will have proven themselves on the mountains of East Anglia.
  2. The tri-mode multiple units will be able to run on electric, diesel or battery power.
  3. The Stadler Citylink Metro Vehicles look very similar to Sheffield Supertram‘s Class 399 tram-trains, that are providing a tram service in Sheffield and will soon be running on the rail network to Rotherham.
  4. It is an all-Stadler fleet.

This is a clip from the KeolisAmey document.

This looks like a visualisation of one of the Flirts, as the Citylink tram-trains have flat sides.

I will be very surprised if Stadler don’t provide the Cardiff area, with one of the best step-free networks in the world.

Conclusion

The UK’s standard tram width of 2.65 metres and our small loading gauge must make it easier to design tram-train systems for the UK.

 

 

 

 

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June 6, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment

More Information From The International Railway Journal About The New Wales And Borders Franchise

In Every Pair Of Pictures Tell A Story, I said I needed more information on what was happening with the new Wales and Borders franchise.

This article on the International Railway Journal is entitled £800m fleet renewal plan for new Welsh franchise, gives a lot more serious information.

These two paragraphs outline the plans.

According to the Welsh government, around £800m will be invested in rolling stock to ensure that by 2023, 95% of journeys will be made on a new fleet of 148 trains. The average age of the fleet will drop from 25 years to seven years by 2024.

More than half of the new trains will be assembled in Wales, indicating a major order will be placed with CAF, which is currently building a new assembly plant near Newport.

The article then goes on to make specific points.

Class 769 Trains

Class 769 trains will be used as a stop-gap measure until the arrival of new bi-mode trains.

Five of these trains are on order for delivery in the next eighteen months.

Class 230 Trains

Class 230 trains will join the fleet.

Perhaps they will be used on the Conwy Valley Line.

The line is rather isolated from depots at Cardiff, Chester and Machynlleth, which would find the Class 230 trains remote servicing capabilities useful.

The Wikipedia entry for KeolisAmey Wales states that the Class 230 trains will work the Borderlands Line, which will have a two trains per hour (tph) frequency.

As the journey takes an hour each way with a round trip possible in two hours, I suspect that a two tph frequency will need four trains, with perhaps a fifth one ready to step into service.

Again the remote servicing capability of the Class 230 train will come into play, as will the train’s affordability.

Class 170 Trains

Several Class 170 trains will join the fleet.

These could be coming from Greater Anglia, who currently have twelve of the trains, that will be replaced by Class 755 trains.

This page on the Welsh Government web site, contains this sentence.

On the Heart of Wales line, introduce refurbished Class 170 two-car units by 2022.

If you want to find out more about train services in Mid and South-West Wales, the page is well-worth a read.

Mark 4 Carriages

Mark 4 Carriages released from the East Coast Main Line will replace the current Mark 3 Carriages.

Phasing Out Of Diesel Multiple Units

The article makes these two points.

The only ones worth keeping could be the Class 158 trains, most of which if fitted with wi-fi would be acceptable on many routes.

New Diesel Multiple Units For Long Distance Services

The article says that new diesel multiple units will be introduced on these routes.

  • North Wales Coast and Cambrian lines in 2022
  • Milford Haven – Manchester route by 2023

This page on the Welsh Government web site, also says a new Swansea to Manchester service will be introduced from 2024.

In Every Pair Of Pictures Tell A Story, I suggested that Class 755 trains could be used on these routes.

  • They have similar performance to the Class 175 trains.
  • Length and power can be tailored for each route. Greater Anglia have ordered two sizes.
  • As they are bi-modes, they could take advantage of the electrification East of Cardiff and around Birmingham and Manchester.

But the biggest thing in favour of Class 755 trains, is that the thirty-eight units for Greater Anglia are scheduled to be completed by the end of 2019. So if the Welsh trains are virtually identical to those for Greater Anglia, there would not be any serious certification problems.

The Wikipedia entry for KeolisAmey Wales indicates that these trains could be diesel versions of the CAF Civity.

The South Wales Metro

The IRJ article says that £738 million will be invested in this project.

The Wikipedia entry for KeolisAmey Wales gives a few more details of train frequencies.

This is an increase in frequency.

It appears there will be two distinct sections of this network, which I’ll discuss in the next two sub-sections.

An Electric Network On The Cardiff Valley Lines

The IRJ article says this.

A new fleet of low-floor vehicles offering level boarding will be introduced on the network by December 2022.

I think we can assume this about the vehicles.

  • They will be tram-trains.
  • They will have batteries.
  • They will be able to use 750 VDC and 25 KVAC electrification.
  • There will be a proportion of street running in Cardiff.

It would also be highly likely, that these vehicles will be built by CAF, in their new Newport factory. Wikipedia mentions a tram-train version of their Urbos trams, which are used in Edinburgh and the Midlands, which is called an Urbos TT.

A Complimentary Tri-Mode Network

The article says this.

A new fleet of Stadler “tri-mode” (electric/diesel/battery) multiple units will maintain links from Penarth, Barry and Bridgend to stations north of Cardiff Central. These trains will enter service from December 2023.

It looks from the pictures that these will be a version of the Class 755 trains.

In From Novara To Aosta, I described the route, where similar Stadler trains will be used on the Chivasso-Ivrea-Aosta railway to reach the town of Aosta. I would suspect that the Italian route could be more challenging, than anything South Wales has to offer.

The Heads Of The Valleys Stations Will Be Served By CAF’s Tram-Trains And Stadler Tri-Modes

It would appear from Wikipedia, that the stations at the heads of the valleys will have the following frequencies.

These frequencies and some single-platform terminal stations, will mean that careful design must be applied, so that all vehicles have level access from platform to vehicle.

This picture shows the access to a Stadler Flirt in Italy.

Note the gap filler, which automatically moves into place.

I’m sure engineers and designers working for KeolisAmey, CAF and Stadler can come up with a very good solution.

Will The Valley Lines Be Electrified With 25 KVAC?

I think it is highly likely that CAF’s vehicles for the tram section of the South Wales Metro will be tram-trains with a dual 750 VDC/25 KVAC capability and batteries.

Imagine one of these vehicles climbing to say Aberdare using the Merthyr Line, which is a mixture of single and double-track to Cardiff.

Going up to Aberdare, due to the gradients, the vehicles will need access to electrical power, so electrification is necessary, unless each vehicle has a massive diesel generator or ultra-large battery, which are respectively not very environmentally friendly or practical.

But I doubt it will matter if the electrification is 750 VDC or 25 KVAC.

Going down the valley to Cardiff, I believe that CAF’s vehicles will use Newtons friend; gravity and regenerative braking to control the speed. The energy generated by the braking would be stored in an onboard battery.

CAF have all the technology and it would be extremely energy efficient.

The Stadler tri-modes would have to use diesel on the way up, but given they have batteries, I suspect they’d come down in a similar way to the CAF tram-trains.

So what voltage should be used?

  • The CAF tram-trains will probably be able to use either voltage.
  • If batteries are used to handle regenerative braking, this works with all voltages.
  • The Stadler tri-modes will probably need 25 KVAC.
  • Electrifying with 25 KVAC would allow the Stadler tri-modes to avoid a lot of running on diesel.
  • Any electric locomotives hauling freight would need 25 KVAC.

I wouldn’t be surprised to see the valley lines electrified with 25 KVAC.

Will Only The Uphill Tracks Be Electrified?

I believe that if trains coming down the valleys use batteries for regenerative braking and restarting at stations, it may be possible to only electrify a single-track, that is always used for uphill trains.

But only the tracks for uphill trains were electrified, this would make the works easier and reduce costs and disruption to passengers.

Conclusion

It looks like KeolisAmey have got a well thought-out plan!

 

June 5, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , , , , | Leave a comment

Where Are The New Trains For The Aosta Valley?

One of the reasons I went to Northern Italy this week was to get a glimpse and a possible ride in the new Stadler Flirt trains for the Aosta Valley.

This article in the Railway Gazette is entitled Electro-Diesel Flirt Unveiled.

This is the first two paragraphs.

The first electro-diesel version of the Flirt multiple-unit family was unveiled at Stadler’s Bussnang plant in Switzerland on June 15, two years after the Valle d’Aosta region awarded a €43m contract for the supply of five units and the provision of five years of maintenance.

The Flirt3 units are scheduled to enter service on the Aosta – Torino route in May 2018. Bimode operation will remove the need for passengers to change trains at Ivrea to reach Torino Porta Susa station, where diesel operation is not permitted.

I didn’t see any sign of the trains, as I rode between Turin, Ivrea, Novara and Aosta, which were supposed to start services last month!

Perhaps, the trains have software problems?

 

June 1, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , | 2 Comments

TiLo

Treni Regionali Ticino Lombardia or TiLo is a train company. which is described like this in Wikipedia.

TILO (Regional Trains Ticino Lombardia) is a limited company established in 2004 as a joint venture between Italian railway company Trenord and Swiss Federal Railways (SBB CFF FFS), both companies participate in the equity of TILO SA with participation of 50%.

The company’s goal is to develop the regional cross-border traffic between the Canton of Ticino and the Region of Lombardy.

I came across one of their thirty Stadler FLIRT trains at Milan Centrale station.

Note how Stadler have solved the step problem, as compared to the train I took to Navara.

Stadler are producing three fleets of trains for the UK.

The trains are reported to have gap fillers, like the FLIRT in the pictures.

May 29, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , , , , , | Leave a comment

The Intelligent Bi-Mode Train

In the June 2019 Edition of Modern Railways, there is an article, which is entitled Stadler Bi-Modes Taking Shape.

It gives a deep insight into the philosophy of how the trains was designed and how they operates.

Abbreviations Used

Low-Floor Design

This is said.

Both the BMUs and EMUs will have a low-floor design enabling level boarding at every passenger door, with retractable steps bridging the gap between the train and the platform edge.

How simple is that?

This picture show’s a Flirt in Italy.

Surely, every train should have level boarding!

Passive Provision For Digital Signalling

The cabling is already installed and rack space has been left.

Sensible!

But I suspect there will be a new train fleet delivered, in the next couple of years, where the trains are not future-proofed.

Drivers Helped Design The Cabs

Consultation was about both hardware and software.

Lots Of Cameras

This is said.

Extensive video surveillance and bodyside cameras will allow drivers to control the opening and closing of doors.

Surely, more cameras means better safety and security, so why are the RMT against these new trains?

Perhaps, RMT members didn’t get free trips to Switzerland?

Twelve-Car Trains Are Possible

This is said.

Up to three BMU sets can operate in multiple, allowing a 12-car formation to run should this ever be required.

Why would Greater Anglia need a twelve-car BMU?

Problems do occur and suppose one of the London-Norwich EMUs had a serious problem, that meant it would be in the workshop for several weeks.

During this time, three four-car BMUs could be run as a twelve-car formation to cover for the missing EMU.

  • Performance would be the same.
  • Both trains carry around 700 passengers.
  • The BMUs would be on electric power all the way.

The only disadvantage would be that the BMUs have no buffet and First Class seats.

In my regular travelling on the Great Eastern Main Line in the last thirty years, I have been involved in two incidents where all trains stopped because of weather or a derailment. If the track, electrification and trains are the best, then there will still be the occasional closure.

But a twelve-car BMU would still be able to use the alternative route via Cambridge!

Do Greater Anglia see the BMUs as a means of getting passengers to their destimation, in circumstances, which interrupt normal service?

They’ve obviously done their sums and is it cheaper to have a couple of BMUs spare to cover for problems, than have passengers wait until everything is fixed?

I think, t is more likely that eight-car trains will be used.

Could for instance two four-car trains start from Lowestoft and Bury St. Edmunds in the morning and then join at Ipswich for a fast run to London for commuters?

Or would eight-car trains be used on Cambridge-Ipswich and Cambridge-Norwich, when there are important football matches?

The BMU train lengths of three and four cars, would also allow train capacity to be geared to the route.

Will we see other train companies buying this type of flexible capacity?

Flexible Power Source

This is said.

Stadler says the bi-mode Flirts are EMUs with a power pack in between just to generate power, adding that the power pack can be removed later to create an EMU or the equipment in the power module exchanged for batteries or other power sources.

Stadler says this flexibility will be important in the train’s lifespan of between 30 to 35 years.

All End Cars Are The Same

Both the BMUs and EMUs have the same end cars.

Except for a switch box to change power source in the BMU.

The four-car BMUs have two extra cars, both of which have a pantograph, whereas the three-car BMUs have just a single extra car.

It has been said, that three-car trains can be converted to four-cars, by just adding another car.

This picture, clipped from Wikipedia, shows the layouts of both trains.

What does a design like this save in manufacture, operation, driver training and maintenance?

Environmentally-Friendly

It goes without saying that the trains comply with the latest emission and noise regulations.

Changing Power Source

This is said.

Drivers of BMUs will be able to switch between electric and diesel modes whilst on the move if agreement is reached with Network Rail.

As a Control Engineer by training, I would feel that if a BMU can’t switch between modes on the move, then it is a very poor design of BMU.

Regenerative Braking

Regenerative braking is fitted and it works in diesel mode as well as electric, but it is not stored on the train in a battery and is just burned off in a brake-resistor, if it can’t be returned through the overhead line.

I would expect, that at some point in the future batteries will be added to the power module to capture and resuse this energy, which is now wasted.

Intelligent Engine Management

This is said.

When the output of all the engines is not required one or more can be shut down to save fuel, with the engine management system ensuring this is shared across all engines over a period of time to balance maintenance schedules.

Sensible.

But, I worked for ICI in the 1970s and some of the early computerised chemical plants used optimisations like this to improve efficiency!

Bicycle Spaces

East Anglian trains, especially those starting or finishing in Cambridge, carry a lot of bicycles.

All the BMUs have provision for six bicycles! Is that enough?

Conclusion

The Class 745 and Class 755 trains are an interesting dual-solution to the problem of East Anglia’s railways, which have a dual electric spine from London to Norwich and Cambridge and a plethora of connecting routes without wires.

Other franchises must be looking seriously at a similar solution.

It should also be noted that Stadler have delivered Flirt EMUs with a 125 mph operating speed to Norway and Sweden.

So could we see 125 mph BMUs operating on lines, like the Midland Main and West Coast Main Line?

It could be that the weight of the power module means that the 100 mph of Greater Anglia’s Class 755 trains is the maximum possible speed on diesel.

In which case could we see a Flirt with 125 mph on electric power and 100 mph on diesel?

 

May 28, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , , | Leave a comment

Greater Anglia’s Class 755 Trains Seem To Have Bags Of Grunt

This article on Rail Magazine, is entitled IN PICTURES: Greater Anglia Unveils First New Stadler Bi-Mode Train In Switzerland.

The text with the excellent and numerous pictures is informative, with other details of the Class 755 trains.

Dynamic Testing

This starts in July and involves.

  • Sixteen trains.
  • Eight teams.
  • Seven locations across Europe including the Czech Republic, Germany, Poland, Romania and Switzerland.

No-one can say that Stadler are not being thorough.

Entry Into Service

The bi-modes will enter service in Summer 2019, when Greater Anglia hope to have twenty trains in service.

The first Class 755 train will be delivered to Norwich Crown Point depot in October.

Articulated Trains

The trains are articulated and the article has a good image of two carriages showing the join.

Power Car And Car Lengths

The article says that the engines will be located in a power car. There is also an image looking through the power car.

I’m still unsure, whether the length of the train, includes the power car!

There are two versions.

  • Three-car Class 755/3 trains.
  • Four-car Class 755/4 trains.

This clipped image from Wikipedia shows the train formats.

It looks like the four-car Class 755/4 trains, a three-car train with an extra passenger car.

The Class 755/4 train would appear to consist of the following

  • Two full-length drive cars, with passenger accommodation.
  • A half-length power car.
  • Two  full-length passenger car.

The three-car Class 755/3 car train would not have the extra full-length passenger car.

So in terms of full-length passenger cars, train lengths could be as follows

  • Class 755/3 trains – 3 cars
  • Class 755/4 trains – 4 cars

Wikipedia says that each train has the following number of seats

  • Class 755/3 trains – 166 seats
  • Class 755/4 trains – 224 seats

Calculating the seats per car, gives the following.

  • Class 755/3 trains – 55.3 seats/car.
  • Class 755/4 trains – 56 seats/car.

This suggests to me, that the interior of a passenger car is very similar to that of a driver car, which must mean manufacturing cost savings.

Diesel Engines

Both trains are fitted with  16 litre V8 engines supplied by Deutz which produce 478 kW.

The power cars have the following numbers of engines

  • Class 755/3 trains – 2 engines – 956 kW – 319 kW per car
  • Class 755/4 trains – 4 engines – 1912 kW – 478 kW per car.

I suspect that a fifth car could be added to a Class 755 train. This would have 1912 kW and 382 kW per car.

Add a sixth car and this would have 1912 kW and 319 kW per car.

Comparison With A Class 170 Train

Compare these figures with a diesel Class 170 train, which has 315 kW per car.

Both trains are 100 mph trains, built from aluminium, so I suspect that the performance of three-car Class 755/3 and Class 170 trains are roughly the same.

But the four-car Class 755/4 trains have fifty percent more power per car, than the Class 170 train, so these will be no sedate rural trundlers.

Looking at the power figures for five-car and six-car units, they would still have at least as much power per car as a Class 170 train.

Other Possible Routes For Class 755 Trains

Could Class 755 trains be a replacement for routes like the following?

  •  Aberystwyth to Shrewsbury
  • Basingstoke to Exeter – Stadler are doing third-rail in Liverpool
  • Birmingham to Stansted Airport
  • Cardiff to Holyhead
  • Cardiff to Shrewsbury
  • Holyhead to Liverpool via Halton Curve
  • Holyhead to Manchester Piccadilly
  • Liverpool to Norwich
  • Milford Haven to Manchester Piccadilly
  • Swansea to Shrewsbury

Trains could be any suitable length from three to six cars.

Note that electric FLIRTs can attain 125 mph, so could we see a train with the following characteristics?

  • 125 mph on electrified lines, where operating speeds allow.
  • 100 mph on lines with no electrification.

This performance is not far off Hitachi’s Class 802 train.

The other major competition could be Bombardier’s proposed 125 mph bi-mode Aventra, that I wrote about in Bombardier Bi-Mode Aventra To Feature Battery Power.

The winners will be the train operating companies and their passengers.

A Video

Greater Anglia have put a video on YouTube.

Conclusion

The Class 755 trains certainly seem to have bags of grunt!

May 4, 2018 Posted by | Travel | , , , , , | 4 Comments