The Anonymous Widower

Around London Road Depot Of The Bakerloo Line

These pictures show the area around the London Road Depot of the Bakerloo Line.

This Google Map shows the depot.

I walked along the road alongside the blue-roofed building from South-West to North-East.

As you can see from the pictures, some of the area has been developed and some is well past its rebuild date.

In TfL Moots Bakerloo Line To Hayes, I asked, whether this site would be worth developing.

After my quick walk around, I suspect that the answer could be in the affirmative.

In

October 29, 2019 Posted by | Transport | , , | Leave a comment

TfL Moots Bakerloo Line To Hayes

The title of this post is the same as that of an article in the November 2019 Edition of Modern Railways.

There are various points in the article.

A More Direct Tunnel Between Lambeth North and Elephant & Castle Stations.

This map from carto.metro.free.fr shows the current routes between these two stations.

It appears that Transport for London (TfL) are proposing the following.

  • A more direct route, between the two stations.
  • A rebuilt  Elephant & Castle station, handling both Underground lines.
  • Step-free access between Bakerloo and Northern Lines.
  • The station would be integrated with the new shopping centre.

Part of the plan appears to be to keep the current Bakerloo Line station open during construction.

Could the plan mean that the London Road depot will be closed?

This Google Map shows the London Road Depot and Lambeth North and Elephant & Castle stations.

Note.

  1. Lsmbeth North station is in the North West corner.
  2. Elephant & Castle station is in the South East corner.
  3. The London Road Depot is North of a point about half-way between the stations.

This second Google Map shows a close-up of the London Road Depot.

It appears to be quite a large site about a hundred metres along a long side.

Consider.

  • It must be a development valuable site.
  • It could be used as the site from which to dig the tunnels.
  • The current Bakerloo Line skirts the site to the North.

So could the London Road Depot be closed and developed as the first part of the scheme, leaving a nice and handy tunnel in the basement?

  • There already is a connection from the depot to Lambeth Noth station.
  • It might even be possible to excavate much of the new tunnel by digging down, rather than by using a tunnel boring machine.
  • Note that recently, the new Southbound tunnel of the Northern Line at Bank station has been dug using traditional methods.
  • Moor House at Moorgate contains a ventilation and access shaft for Crossrail and was built some years rest of Crossrail.

Could this mean that the London Road Depot gets developed early in the project and London gets a lot of much-needed housing in a prime location?

But where do they stable the trains?

A Changed Tunnel Alignment Between Elephant & Castle and Lewisham Stations

The article also says this.

It (TfL) has also updated plans for the alignment of tunnels between Elephant & Castle and Lewisham, with the new direct tunnel alignment removing the need for one of the proposed tunnel shafts. A shaft would be builtbetween New Cross Gate and Lewisham, while plans for a shaft beyond Lewisham at the Wearside Road council depot site have been developed into proposals for train stabling.

This map from carto.metro.free.fr show the railway lines around Lewisham station.

 

Note.

  1. Current plans are for the Bakerloo Line to terminate under the current Lewisham station.
  2. There will be overrun tunnels under the Hayes Line, which runs through Ladywell station.
  3. These tunnels could at a future date be joined to the Hayes Line.

The Wearside Road depot is tucked into the South side of the junction, as this Google Map shows.

 

It looks to me, that TfL could be selling the site at London Road for development and using the Wearside Road depot, to replace the lost stabling.

It surely has advantages.

  • It is further South.
  • It could be easily connected to the overrun tunnel;s under the Hayes Line.
  • It could be connected to the Hayes Line.

Could it be possible to build the new rail depot and put the council’s trucks on a second floor?

The picture shows Westbourne Park bus garage over stabling for Crossrail trains.

Hayes Line Takeover

TfL are now saying that extension to Hayes and Beckenham Junction stations offers the greatest benefit

Consider the following.

Development Of The Wearside Road Depot

Suppose the Wearside Road Depot were to be developed early.

  • It could be developed as a double-deck depot, with trains underneath and the Council depot on top.
  • Lewsisham is developing lots of tower blocks, so these would be an alternative topping.
  • The rail depot could be built initially as a shell connected to the Hayes Line, with space for connections to the overrun tunnels at Lewisham station.
  • It could be used as a transfer point for tunnelling spoil, if some digging towards Lewisham, were to be done from the site. Trains could access the site from Beckenham Junction.

It appears to me, that closing the London Road Depot is important in terms of financing, minimising disruption to passengers and construction, but the only way it can be done, is by providing an alternative depot. And the best way to do that is to connect the line in the first phase to the Hayes Line and use Wearside Road as a replacement depot.

Service Frequency

The current service frequency on the line is according to Wikipedia as follows.

The standard off-peak service is two trains per hour (tph) each way between London Charing Cross and Hayes, non-stop between London Bridge and Ladywell, and two tph between London Cannon Street and Hayes, calling at all stations via Lewisham.

So that is four trains per hour (tph), but only two tph call at Lewisham.

Currently, the Bakerloo Line frequency at Elephant & Castle station is 20-21 tph. As it appears there is no terminal platforms on the extension except for Hayes and Beckenham Junction stations, I would assume that their three platforms will be able to handle the full service.

The single platform at Beckenham Junction can probably handle six tph, which would leave the rest to be handled in the two platforms at Hayes station.

As the Victoria Line handles thirty-six tph with modern signally, I see no reason, why the Bakerloo Line wouldn’t be able to handle 30 tph with ultra-modern signalling.

Development Of An Interchange At Catford

In An Opportunity At Catford, I talked about the possibilities of developing an improved interchange between Catford and Catford Bridge stations, which are no more than a hundred metres apart. |Although, it is rather up and down.

The map from carto.metre.free.fr shows the layout of lines at the two stations.

Note that Catford Bridge station is on the Hayes Line and Catford station is on the Catford Loop Line.

It strikes me that there is scope for some advanced thinking, if an interchange is to be created between the two stations.

Could it be arranged that as part of the conversion of the Hayes Line to the Bakerloo Line, that the tracks be reorganised with the Bakerloo Lines on the outside of a single four-platform station, that would enable cross-platform interchange between the two lines?

Unfortunately, No! But it could have been safeguarded some years ago, but now there’s new housing in the way!

However, I do think there are other ways of making this interchange step-free and reasonably quick.

The Hayes And City Problem

Wikipedia says this about the takeover of the Hayes Line by the Bakerloo Line.

The driving force for this change is that Network Rail would like the train paths freed up for services mainly from the South Eastern Main Line. Transport for London prefer this route due to its being largely self-contained after Lewisham.

Currently, Off Peak services from Hayes station are as follows.

  • Two trains per hour (tph) to Cannon Street
  • Two tph to Charring Cross

These two services mean that there are also.

  • Two tph to Lewisham
  • Four tph to London Bridge
  • Two tph to Waterloo East.;

There are also extra services in the Peak.

Will there be a problem for commuters to get between the Hayes Line and the City of London and Canary Wharf?

There will also be no First Class on the trains.

In practice Canary Wharf could be the easier, as it will just mean using the Docklands Light Railway from Lewisham.

This could also be quickest way to the City!

I think we we shall be hearing from some restless natives!

 

 

 

 

 

The Use Of

October 27, 2019 Posted by | Transport | , , , , | 2 Comments

The Bakerloo Line Connection At Paddington Station

I use the Bakerloo Line to get to and from Paddington station for various reasons, and find myself in the narrow two-way passage  between the Underground station entrance in the middle of the Paddington station and the top of the escalators to the Bakerloo Line.

These pictures show the route towards the Bakerloo Line.

 

It strikes me that a certain amount of reorganisation is needed.

  • In the narrow two-way passage signs tell people to keep left.
  • On the escalators, the escalators are run on a keep right basis.

So everybody has to cross over in the area at the top of the escalators.

I’m sure, it could be better organised.

It should be noted that another pedestrian tunnel is being built to connect the Bakerloo Line to Crossrail.

I wrote about the Paddington Bakerloo Line Link in Paddington Is Operational Again!

August 18, 2019 Posted by | Transport | , , , | 1 Comment

Is There A Need For A Waterloo To Gatwick Service?

Whilst writing Are Network Rail And Heathrow Southern Railway Moving Towards A Joint Project On Western And Southern Access To Heathrow Airport?, I got to thinking about connectivity to London’s two main airports; Heathrow and Gatwick.

If both the Western Approach To Heathrow (WRAtH) and Heathrow Southern Railway (HSR) schemes are completed, Heathrow will have direct connections to the following major stations and areas.

  • Canary Wharf using Crossrail
  • City of London using Crossrail
  • Clapham Junction using HSR
  • HS1 using a future Crossrail to Ebbsfleet
  • HS2 using Crossrail
  • Liverpool Street using Crossrail
  • Reading using WRAtH
  • Waterloo using HSR
  • West End using Crossrail

Many more places will need a single change at Clapham Junction, Farringdon, Reading, Stratford, Waterloo or Woking.

Awkward stations to get to and from Heathrow include Kings Cross, London Bridge, St. Pancras and Victoria.

Admittedly, Kings Cross, London Bridge and St. Pancras can be reached using Crossrail and Thameslink or the Underground, but Victoria is not easy as Crossrail doesn’t have an interchange with the Victoria Line.

Gatwick will have direct connections to the following major stations and areas.

  • City of London using Thameslink
  • HS1 using Thameslink
  • Reading using GWR
  • Victoria using Southern or Gatwick Express
  • West End using Thameslink

Many more places will need a single change at Clapham Junction, Farringdon, Reading, or Victoria.

Awkward stations to and from Gatwick include Canary Wharf, Euston, Liverpool Street, Paddington and Waterloo.

Consider these points about Waterloo station.

Waterloo Has The Connectivity

Waterloo is on four Underground lines.

  • Bakerloo Line for North West London, Paddington, West End,, South East London and North East London in collaboration with Dear Old Vicky!
  • Charing Cross Branch of the Northern Line for North London, Euston and the West End.
  • Jubilee Line for North West London, West End, Canary Wharf and Stratford.
  • Waterloo & City Line for Bank and the City of London.

Waterloo also has its own network of frequent and comprehensive services to South West London and further afield.

Waterloo Could Be Getting Crossrail 2

In Sadiq Khan’s dreams!

The Bakerloo Line Extension and the West London Orbital Railway are much more urgent to be built, but they don’t serve Surrey, where posh commuters live!

Waterloo Is Almost A Tourist Destination

I say almost, as it is just a short walk from Westminster, several important museums and galleries, and the Thames.

Waterloo Station Is A Place To Meet Friends And Business Associates

I regularly meet friends as they pass through Waterloo station, as it has several restaurants, where you can sit, eat, drink and chat.

Waterloo Station Is Going To Be Developed

Plans are being developed to build above Waterloo station.

Could this include more hotels, in addition to offices and housing?

Why Has There Been Talk Of A Service Between Waterloo and Heathrow For Years, But Nothing About A Link To Gatwick?

Heathrow AirTrack was proposed by BAA some years ago and now Heathrow Southern Railway are putting in a privately-funded proposal.

But search for a proposal for a direct service between Waterloo and Gatwick and you find nothing sensible.

  • Could it be that the route is too difficult or there is not enough capacity at Gatwick and/or Waterloo?
  • Is it that a route to Heathrow would be much more profitable, as it is so much bigger?
  • Is it tradition? Waterloo serves the South West and London Bridge and Victoria serves the South.

But time is moving on, a larger Waterloo and Gatwick stations are coming and Network Rail are getting some of their best brains around digital signalling.

A Waterloo And Gatwick Airport Service

As Gatwick expands, I believe that a direct service between Waterloo and Gatwick Airport will become more necessary.

The Route Of The Service

I’m not sure of this, but I believe that there is a route between Waterloo and Streatham Common or East Croydon stations, which could be used for a Waterloo to Gatwick service.

  • It may need to use the flyover at Waterloo, that used to be used by Eurostar.
  • I wrote about using the flyover in Waterloo Upgrade August 2017 – Waterloo To Sevenoaks.
  • Could it use a route like Brixton, Herne Hill, Tulse Hill, West Norwood, Gipsy Hill, Crystal Palace, Norwood Junction and East Croydon?
  • Once on the Brighton Main Line it would be plain sailing.
  • Of the stations on the route I mentioned, only Norwood Junction has a direct service to Gatwick.
  • A rebuilt Brixton station with its Victoria Line connection could be a valuable interchange.
  • Crystal Palace will have a six trains per hour (tph) service on the Overground to Highbury & Islington.
  • The route is fully electrified using third-rail.

I’m sure a practical and useful route can be found.

The Frequency Of The Service

Gatwick, Heathrow and Stansted Express services have a frequency of four tph.

So I wouldn’t think it unreasonable for a service between Waterloo and Gatwick Airport stations to have the same frquency.

Express Or Typical Suburban Service

Airport trains around London fall into two styles.

  • Express – Gatwick Express, Heatrow Express and Stansted Express.
  • Typical Standard Suburban Train – Crossrail and Thameslink.

As I am happy to use Thameslink to Gatwick, I have no particular preference. Except that if getting an early flight out of Gatwick, I take a night bus to Victoria and then use Gatwick Express, as it runs all night.

Passenger demand would decide, the level of service.

Trains For The Service

An appropriate train would be chosen to match the service style.

Both would do a very capable job.

Platforms At Waterloo

If I assume that Heathrow Southern Railway’s four tph service between Waterloo and Heathrow uses a single platform at Waterloo, I would expect it will be one of the higher-numbered platforms.

So could a Gatwick service with the same frequency use the next door platform?

This would surely be very convenient.

Conclusion

I think it is quite likely that a service between Waterloo and Gatwick Airport could be run.

But whether it is worthwhile is another matter.

 

 

 

April 29, 2019 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , | 1 Comment

Are The Bakerloo Line Platforms At Paddington Ready For Step-Free Access And Crossrail?

I took these pictures on the Bakerloo Line platforms at Paddington station.

Note.

  1. The blue hoardings have gone.
  2. The decorations appear finished.
  3. There are a set of locked fire-doors in the centre of the platforms. Where do they lead?
  4. The signs by the doors, have big white spaces, which cry out for graffiti or direction signs.

It all fits with Crossrail opening within a year as I wrote about in Crossrail Service To Reading On Track For December Opening.

Many of the extra passengers will head for the Underground, so complete their journeys. So opening Crossrail to Reading with a step-free connection to the Bakerloo Line makes sense.

April 16, 2019 Posted by | Transport | , , | 2 Comments

Grab Handles On The Bakerloo Line

These pictures show the grab handles for safe entry and exit on the Bakerloo Line.

I do wonder, if the lack of handles, means a few more accidents, especially as there is a serious step-up at some stations.

February 13, 2019 Posted by | Transport | , , | 1 Comment

What Will Be The Operating Speed Of The New Tube for London?

Transport for London have said that the New Tube for London will definitely be deployed on the Piccadilly, Central and Bakerloo Lines.

These three lines have sections at one or both ends, where the lines run through the countryside and the stations are farther apart.

Only the 1992 Stock of the Central Line have their operating speed given in Wikipedia.. It is 62 mph, which is the same as the S Stock for the sub-surface lines.

The 2009 Stock of the Victoria Line, despite being similar to the S Stock have an operating speed of only 50 mph.

Because of the nature of the ends of the Piccadilly, Central and Bakerloo Lines, will 62 mph be the optimum operating speed for these trains.

I’ll look at the factors on these lines separately.

Piccadilly Line

The Piccadilly Line will be self-contained, after the sorting of the shared sections West Rayners Lane and between Ealing Broadway and Acton Town, that I discussed in Thoughts On The Power System For The New Tube for London.

I suspect the operating speed of the New Tubes for London on the Piccadilly Line, will be decided on what is best for that line.

Central Line

The Central Line is also self-contained and the best operating speed for the line will be chosen.

Bakerloo Line

The Bakerloo Line could be a problem, as currently Class 378 trains run on the same trcks. These have an operating speed of 75 mph.

These Class 378 trains will be replaced by Class 710 trains, which could have a faster performance.

Surely for optimum running, the trains should need similar performance.

The Benefit Of Automatic Train Control

On all the lines on which New Tubes for London will operate, there will be Automatic Train Control.

The operating speed will be set by the control system, whereas the maximum operating speed will be set by the trains design.

So I think we could see a maximum operating speed of 75 mph or even higher for the New Tube for London, so that it could run on faster lines and not slow the other faster trains.

More Speed Means More Powerful Trains And Improved Acceleration And braking

To go faster, you probably need more powerful trains, but the motors required would give better acceleration and braking, that would speed up services, by executing station stops in a shorter time.

Conclusion

I would expect from y Control Engineering training, that the New Tube for London could have a maximum operating speed in-line with the Class 710 train. So around 75-90 mph.

Could we even see an Underground train, that is capable of 100 mph?

It would only rarely, if ever, run at that speed on current plans, but it might enable Underground and National Rail services to share tracks in surprising places.

October 7, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , | 4 Comments

Will The Extended Bakerloo Line Be Twenty-Seven Trains Per Hour All The Way?

There are two major projects that will be implemented on the Bakerloo Line in the next decade or two.

I certainly feel, that the two projects will bring the Bakerloo Line into the twenty-first century

The Planned Train Frequency

Under Current And Future Infrastructure, the Wikipedia entry for the Bakerloo Line says this.

Transport for London proposes to upgrade the line eventually, but not until other deep-level lines have been dealt with. This will include new signalling and new trains, enabling a maximum frequency of 27 trains per hour. TfL currently expects these to be in place by 2033.

Twenty-seven trains per hour (tph) seems very much in line with other deep-level Underground Lines.

  • Central Line – 35 tph
  • Jubilee Line – 30 tph
  • Northern Line – 24 tph for each branch
  • Piccadilly Line – 33 tph after upgrade.
  • Victoria Line – 36 tph

Perhaps, it is a bit lower, but the engineers usually manage to squeeze more out of a line.

The Bakerloo Line Extension To Lewisham

The planning is underway to extend the Bakerloo Line to Lewisham station.

The Bakerloo Line Extension looks like it will be a four-station extension, with interchanges at Elephant & Castle, New Cross and Lewisham.

This map from Transport for London, shows the extension.

I think it will be highly likely, that the extension will be built using a similar design and techniques to that of the Northern Line Extension to Battersea.

  • It will be double-track.
  • There are unlikely to be any junctions.
  • The Lewisham station will have two platforms with overrun tunnels.
  • There appears to be no depot planned.

I have come to some conclusions about the design.

Planned Frequency

If the track layout of the extension and particularly at Lewisham follows the layouts of the Victoria Line termini, I can see no reason, why the proposed frequency of twenty-seven tph can’t be achieved.

I also suspect that provision will be made, so that the frequency can be increased.

A higher frequency would also be expected if the Bakerloo line, were to be further extended to two separate branches, as the map indicates.

Number Of Trains

I suspect that for the extension to work in an optimum manner new trains will be needed.

Project Timescale And Cost

The Northern Line Extension to Battersea appears to be taking about six years from sign-off to completion.

This extension is twice as long and has double the number of stations, but is probably not as grand.

I would put my money on a seven year project and a couple of billion.

As it is unlikely, that the required new trains will not be available until 2033, the project probably has a sign-off date of around 2025.

The project could be pulled forward.

  • The trains could be built after those for the Piccadilly Line.
  • An early decision could be made.

Saying go in 2022 would enable a finish in 2029.

The Northern Section Between Queens Park And Watford Junction

North of Queens Park station, the line is double-track all the way to Watford Junction station.

Queens Park Station

At Queens Park station itself, it’s a lot more complicated.

This map from carto.metro.free.fr shows the track layout at Queens Park station.

Note.

  1. The Watford DC Line of the Overground is shown in orange and runs through Kilburn High Road and Queens Park stations.
  2. The Bakerloo Line is shown in brown and runs through Kilburn Park and Queens Park stations.
  3. There are reversing sidings to the West of Queens Park station for the Bakerloo Line.

The following services go through or terminate at Queens Park station.

  • Three tph between Euston and Watford Junction on the London Overground.
  • Six tph between Harrow & Wealdstone and Elephant & Castle on the Bakerloo Line.
  • Three tph between Stonebridge Park and Elephant & Castle on the Bakerloo Line.
  • Eleven tph between Queens Park and Elephant & Castle on the Bakerloo Line.

It is also likely that the Overground service will go to four tph.

So this means that services will be as follows.

  • Four tph on the Watford DC Line run through Kilburn High Road station.
  • Twenty tph on the Bakerloo Line run through Kilburn Park station.
  • Nine tph on the Bakerloo Line run through Queens Park station.
  • Four tph on the Watford DC Line run through Queens Park station.
  • Eleven tph on the Bakerloo Line terminate at Queens Park station.

Thirteen tph will continue to various destinations towards Watford Junction.

What Is The Capacity North Of Queens Park Station?

So how many trains could the double-track line between Queens Park and Wartford Junction stations handle?

Consider.

  • All services on the line are london Overground or London Underground.
  • There are no junctions, where services divide and join.
  • There is a turnback facility at Harrow & Wealdstone station, that can handle six tph.
  • The Overground trains are being replaced with Class 710 trains, which must be able to be made compatible with digital signalling.
  • Watford Junction station has four platforms connected to the Watford DC Line.
  • Good design should be able to make the stations step-free for both Class 710 trains and New Tube for London.
  • The Watford DC Line service, always seems to terminate in platform 9 at Euston.
  • London Underground have run thirty-six tph on the Victoria Line for about a year now.

I suspect that if the trains are digitally signalled, with a degree of Automatic Train Control, that there could be as many as thirty-six tph between Queens Park and Watford Junction stations.

I also think it is significant that the New Tube for London, specifies that the Bakerloo Line will run at twenty-seven tph. Why not more, if the theoretical capacity North of Queens Park is thirty-six tph?

But a single platform at Euston can probably handle six tph, so add 27 and 6 and you get thirty-three tph, which is the proposed core frequency of the Piccadilly Line.

Will The Bakerloo Line Run All The Way To Watford Junction?

Suppose too, that all Bakerloo services ran all the way to Watford Junction, as has been proposed in the past.

  • This would simplify operation and especially at Queens Park, Stonebridge Park and Harrow & Wealdstone stations.
  • Digital signalling would easily handle the frequency.
  • The platform arrangement at Queens Park would be unchanged, with Euston services on the outside and Bakerloo services in the middle.

Watford Junction would have superb thirty-three tph service to two destinations in London.

Will The New Tube for London Run The Euston Service?

I will speculate, that the Watford DC Line service could be run by New Tubes for London..

  • One type of train would be easier to handle for staff and passengers.
  • All platform heights could be the same.
  • All services would be step-free between train and platform.
  • Digital signalling could easily handle thirty-three tph along the shared route.

In Thoughts On The Power System For The New Tube for London, I proposed that the New Tube for London could run on a conventional third-rail system.

This would further mean the following for the Bakerloo Line.

  • New Tubes for London could use the existing track to access Euston, without serious modification.
  • If the Bakerloo Line is extended to Hayes, Beckenham Junction or Bromley North stations, the existing tracks could continue to handle existing third-rail trains to provide other services.
  • Only one type of train would be needed to run all services on the Bakerloo Line to its various destinations.

Use of New Tubes for London on all routes may be possible to create a service on the Northern section of the Bakerloo Line with the following characteristics.

  • Twenty-seven tph between Watford Junction and Elephant & Castle stations.
  • Six tph between Watford Junction and Euston stations.
  • All stations would be step-free between platform and train.
  • All trains would be identical New Tubes for London.
  • All trains would run under Automatic Train Control, as does the Victoria Line.

All passengers on the existing Bakerloo and Watford DC Lines would see a better service.

The Bakerloo Line Extension to Lewisham

Note, that I have said nothing about the Bakerloo Extension to Lewisham.

In my view, that extension does what it says on the tin and creates a new twenty-seven tph service between Elephant & Castle and Lewisham stations, which brings new services to an area of South-East London, where they are much needed.

Effectively, the Bakerloo Line would become two twenty-seven tph lines, that happen to connect back-to-back at Elephant & Castle station to enable cross-London journeys.

Could Bakerloo Line Services Still Be Turned Back At Harrow & Wealdstone?

The following could be argued.

  • Watford Junction doesn’t need twenty-seven tph on the Bakerloo Line and six tph to Euston.
  • Watford needs a cross-Watford service like the in-limbo Croxley Rail Link.

So could a few trains be turned back using the existing facility at Harrow & Wealdston station to create paths to allow an appropriate service between say Watford Junction and Amersham stations?

More Frequent Services

If we look at the Victoria Line, where the frequency has increased over the last few years by the addition of various improvements, I would not be surprised to see the frequency of twenty-seven tph increased.

After all London Underground’s engineers have been squeezing Dear Old Vicky for half a century, so they must know more tricks, than Paul Daniels knew at the peak of his success.

Conclusion

Undoubtedly, the New Tube for London could run at twenty-seven tph all the way between Watford Junction to Lewisham stations.

Whether that frequency is needed all the way is another matter.

 

October 7, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , | Leave a comment

Thoughts On The Power System For The New Tube for London

Obviously, very little has been said about the power system of the New Tube for London.

London Underground Electrification

This description of Lundon Underground electrification comes from Electrification in the Wikipedia entry for London Underground Infrastructure.

The lines are electrified with a four-rail DC system: a conductor rail between the rails is energised at −210 V and a rail outside the running rails at +420 V, giving a potential difference of 630 V. On the sections of line shared with main line trains, such as the District line from East Putney to Wimbledon and Gunnersbury to Richmond, and the Bakerloo line north of Queen’s Park, the centre rail is bonded to the running rails, as the electrical return from National Rail trains is via the wheels. This was first used in the early 20th century, the isolated traction current return allowing a train’s position to be detected using DC track circuits, and reduced any earth leakage currents that could affect service pipes and telephone cables.

This picture shows a typical London Underground track on the Central Line at Bank station.

Note the suicide pit under the rails.

This layout is rather unusual and different to the third rail system used by National Rail services in London and the South East and on Merseyrail.

Battery Power

This article on Rail Engineer is entitled London Underground Deep Tube Upgrade.

This is an extract.

More speculatively, there might be a means to independently power a train to the next station, possibly using the auxiliary battery, in the event of traction power loss.

Batteries in the New Tube for London would have other applications.

  • Handling regenerative braking.
  • Moving trains in sidings and depots with no electrification.

It should be born in mind, that battery capacity for a given weight of battery will increase before the first New Tube for London runs on the Piccadilly line around 2023.

Conversion To A Conventional Third-Rail System

Given, that space in the deep tunnels is limited, I wonder if removing the third rail in the middle and going to a third-rail 630 V DC system will give more space under the train, that could be used for equipment and a lower floor.

The following lines could eventually be converted to the New Tube for London.

So could the shared running be eliminated to make conversion easier.

The Bakerloo Line North of Queens Park Station

The New Tube for London must be able to share the track with the Class 710 trains working the Watford DC Line.

There would be no problem with traction, as both types of trains could use conventional third-rail track.

But there would be a problem with platform height.

Between Rayners Lane and Uxbridge Stations

In Can Between Rayners Lane And Uxbridge Stations Be Step-Free?, I investigated the line between these two stations, including these possibilities.

  •  Unattended Train Operation (UTO) on the Piccadilly Line, which may mean platform edge doors.
  • Terminating The Piccadilly Line At Rayners Lane Station
  • Terminating The Metropolitan Line At Rayners Lane Station
  • A Piccadilly Line Service Be Run Between Uxbridge and Ealing Broadway Stations
  • Extending The Central Line To Uxbridge

I came to this conclusion.

There are a lot of possible improvements that can be done to the train service to Uxbridge.

That is probably a bit of a cop-out, but then there are a lot of possibilities, some of which eliminate the Piccadilly and Metropolitan Lines sharing the track to Uxbridge.

Between Acton Town And Ealing Broadway Stations

This map from carto.metro.free.fr shows the lines Between Acton Town and Ealing Broadway stations.

Note how the Piccadilly and District Lines share tracks from Ealing Common station, which then split with District Line trains going to Ealing Broadway station and Piccadilly Line trains going to Rayners Lane and Uxbridge stations.

Transport for London are suggesting the following.

  • Ealing Broadway is served by the Piccadilly Line, rather than the District Line.
  • District Line trains would terminate at Richmond and Wimbledon stations instead of Ealing Broadway.
  • East of Acton Town, Piccadilly Line trains would call at Turnham Green, Ravenscroft Park and Hammersmith
  • District Line trains would call at a relocated Chiswick Park, Turnham Green, Stamford Brook, , Ravenscroft Park and Hammersmith.
  • East of Hammersmith, both District and Piccadilly Line routes would be unchanged.

Passengers needing to travel between Ealing Broadway and stations between Victoria and Whitechapel, would change at Turnham Geen, Ravenscroft Park or Hammersmith, by walking across the platform.

If this change is implemented, there will be no shared running between the Piccadilly and District Lines.

National Rail Shares Tracks With The Metropolitan And District Lines

There is some shared running on the Metropolitan and District Lines but that would be unaffected.

Conclusions On Conversion To A Conventional Third-Rail System

It looks to me, that it would be possible to convert the deep-level Underground Lines to conventional third-rail, by eliminating sharing with other lines.

But would such a radical change to the electrification of London’s deep-level Underground lines be feasible and economic?

Conversion From Four Rails To Three

I suspect that when the New Tube for London is introduced on a line, the track will be renewed or at the least given a good refurbishment.

Some years ago, I obtained a database of all the faults on the London Underground for a year. Very few of the faults were down to track faults and the only problems in tunnels seemed to be water ingress.

So I think we can assume, that the track foundations are probably in good condition. If they aren’t I suspect London Underground know all about the problems.

My project management knowledge leads me to believe that a well-planned series of track closures should be possible  to convert the track.

Safety

At all stations, the rail in the centre of the track would not be there anymore and the only electrified rail could be placed on the far side from the platform in deep-level stations.

This is another picture from Bank station.

Note.

  1. The +420 VDC power rail sitting on insulators close to the wall
  2. The -210 VDC power rail sitting on insulators on posts in the suicide pit.
  3. How the two running rails neatly fit on ledges on either side of the suicide pit.

Imagine how it would look with the negative power rail removed.

The single rail could also be shielded, by perhaps an insulating board on both sides of the rail.

This picture shows an insulated third rail at Oxted station. The yellow insulator is wood, that has been painted.

I would extrude the insulator using recycled plastic. After all polythene’s first major use was as an insulator in radar during World War II.

I believe that a three-rail track could be designed, that would surely be much safer than the current track, should anybody fall or be pushed off the platform.

There is also the possibility of using battery power in some or even all stations. Power would only be supplied to the trains between stations, where batteries would be charged.

The third rail would stop perhaps forty metres at either side of a station and the gaps would be bridged by battery power.

It might be possible to make stations, with no electrified rails visible or accessible.

Eliminating The Gap

I would imagine that the design of the New Tube for London will make sure that the doors are aligned with the platform, as these doors on a Class 378 train are with the platform on the London Overground.

I would imagine, that  by making certain that the running rails are correctly adjusted, then step-free access between train and platform can be achieved.

I’ve certainly seen passengers in wheel-chairs push themselves in and out of trains at Dalston Junction station.

Electrolytic Corrosion

Mark said this in a comment.

There is a very important reason why the tube uses two power rails. It was quickly discovered that using a ground return on a DC circuit lead to the return current actually coming back via te cast iron tunnel lining rings and electrolysis and electrolytic corrosion of the lining.

Transport for London’s engineers would be very aware of any problems, and I suspect that they have a viable solution.

This article on Rail Engineer is entitled New London Underground Slab Track Cast In-Situ.

It describes how they are using slab track cast in the tunnel to fit problems in short tunnels. They also expect the solution to last a hundred years.

Such a solution would surely work in the cast-iron deep-level tunnels to allow new track to be installed in whatever format was desired.

There Is One Major Problem

The New Tube for London won’t be able to run on the existing track and the current 1973 Stock won’t be able to run on the future track.

So London Underground sensible policy of phasing in the new trains alongside the old ones, as was done on the Victoria Line would not be possible.

The first line to be equipped with New Tube for London trains will be the Piccadilly Line, which has the following characteristics.

  • There are two depots; Cockfosters and Northfields, which are conveniently at each end of the line.
  • There are sidings at Arnos Grove, South Harrow and Uxbridge.
  • Trains can be turned back to the West at Acton Town, Arnos Grove and Wood Green
  • Trains can be turned back to the North at Acton Town, Barons Court, Green Park and Rayner’s Lane.
  • There are crossovers at Hatton Cross, Hounslow Central and Kings Cross St. Pancras.

There are many more sidings, turnbacks and crossovers than most other lines.

These may enable a phased conversion of the line to the new track design, signalling and trains.

Conclusion

I believe it is feasible to convert London’s deep-level Underground lines to a conventional third-rail system, as used in the rest of London, the South East and Merseyrail.

This would give these advantages.

Running On Coventional Third-Rail Tracks

New Tube for London trains could run on the following lines and share with trains like Aventras, Desiro Cities, Electrostars and Networkers equipped for third-rail operation.

Routes where this might be useful include.

  1. Extending the Bakerloo Line along the Watford DC Line, to the North of Queens Park station.
  2. Extending  the Bakerloo Line Extension to the South of Lewisham station to Beckenham Junction, Bromley North and Hayes stations.

Route 2 would release paths into an overcrowded London Bridge station.

Look at this map from carto.metro.free.fr, which shows the new terminus of the Northern Line at Battersea Power Station station.

The under-construction Northern Line Extension is shown dotted.

Could Northern Line services come to the surface, join the surface lines and run to Clapham Junction station and possibly beyond?

Creating More Space And A Level Floor In The New Trains

Removing the centre rail will give more space in the limited tunnels of the deep-level Underground lines and must make it easier to squeeze in all the equipment that has been specified for the new trains.

Increasing Safety

It is my view, that the suicide pit under the train will be wider and will not be guarded by an electric rail.

The main power supply will be right out of the way in stations and could even be eliminated from stations by the use of batteries.

 

 

 

 

October 6, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , | 7 Comments

Capacity Of Cross London Rail Routes

I shall start by looking at the current and future capacity of various rail routes across London.

Bakerloo

The Bakerloo Line has a frequency of twenty trains per hour (tph) between Queen’s Park and Elephant & Castle stations.

The current 1972 Stock trains have a capacity of 700 passengers.

This gives a capacity a 14,000 passengers per hour (pph) in each direction.

In the Wikipedia entry for the New Tube for London, this is said.

Bakerloo line capacity could be increased by 25% with 27 trains per hour at peak times by 2033.

This gives a future capacity of 17,500 pph in each direction.

Central

The Central Line has a frequency of thirty-five tph between White City and Leytonstone stations.

The current 1992 Stock trains have a capacity of 930 passengers.

This gives a capacity a 32,550 pph in each direction.

In the Wikipedia entry for the New Tube for London, this is said.

Central line capacity increased by 25% with 33 trains per hour at peak times by 2030.

This gives a future capacity of 40,687 pph in each direction.

Crossrail

Crossrail is planned at present to have twenty-four tph between Paddington and Whitechapel stations.

Each of Crossrail’s Class 345 trains can hold 1,500 passengers.

This gives a capacity a 36,000 pph in each direction.

It has been said in several places that Crossrail has a future frequency of thirty tph.

If this could be achieved this would increase capacity to 45,000 pph in each direction.

District

The District Line has a combined frequency with the Circle Line of  twenty-four tph between Gloucester Road and Tower Hill stations.

The current S7 Stock trains have a capacity of 865 passengers.

This gives a combined capacity a 20,760 pph in each direction.

The Wikipedia entry for the District Line talks about a future frequency of thirty-two tph.

This could increase the future capacity to 27,680 pph in each direction.

East London

The East London Line has a frequency of sixteen tph between Dalston Junction and Surrey Quays stations.

The current Class 378 trains have a capacity of 840 passengers.

This gives a capacity of 13,440 pph in each direction.

London Overground are planning to increase the frequency to twenty tph in the next couple of years.

This would give an increased capacity if 16,800 pph in each direction.

Gospel Oak To Barking

The Gospel Oak To Barking Line has a frequency of four tph across North London,

The current Class 172 trains have a capacity of 120 seats, with perhaps a total capacity of 300.

This would give a capacity of 1,200 pph in each direction.

The new Class 710 trains have a capacity around 700, according to various reports.

This would give a future capacity if 2,800 pph in each direction.

Hammersmith & City

The Hammersmith & City Line has a combined frequency with the Circle Line of twelve tph between Paddington and Liverpool Street stations.

The current S7 Stock trains have a capacity of 865.

This gives a combined capacity of 10,380 pph in each direction.

Jubilee

The Jubilee Line has a frequency of thirty tph between North Greenwich and Willesden Green stations.

The current 1996 Stock trains have a capacity of 875 passengers.

This gives a capacity of 26,250 pph in each direction.

With Siemens new trains, I suspect that this value could be increased by perhaps fifteen percent to 30,187 pph in each direction.

Metropolitan

The Metropolitan Line has an Off Peak frequency of sixteen tph between Baker Street and Liverpool Street stations.

The current S8 Stock trains have a capacity of 1003.

This gives a combined capacity a 16.048 pph in each direction.

With the Metropolitan Line Upgrade, we can probably see some more capacity.

A not unreasonable twenty percent would raise the future capacity to 19,257 pph in each direction.

Northern

In the Peak both branches of the Northern Line have a frequency of twenty-four tph between Camden Town and Kennington stations.

This is reduced to twenty tph in the Off Peak.

With the addition of the Extension to Battersea, these figures are unlikely to get lower.

The current 1195 Stock trains have a capacity of 662 passengers.

This gives a capacity of 31,776 pph in each direction.

With Siemens new trains, I suspect that this value could be increased by perhaps fifteen percent to 36,542 pph in each direction.

North London

The North London Line has a frequency of eight tph between Willesden Junction and Stratford stations.

The current Class 378 trains have a capacity of 840 passengers.

This gives a capacity a 6,720 pph in each direction.

London Overground are possibly planning to increase the frequency to twelve tph in the next couple of years.

This would give an increased capacity if 10,080 pph in each direction.

Piccadilly

As we don’t know the capacity of the new Siemens trains, this is a best estimate, for when they are in service around 2023-2025.

Currently, the Piccadilly Line is running at a frequency of twenty-four tph between Barons Court and Arnos Grove stations.

The current 1973 Stock trains, each have a capacity of 684 passengers.

This gives a current capacity of 15,416 pph in each direction.

In the Wikipedia entry for the New Tube for London, this is said.

Piccadilly line capacity could be increased by 60% with 33 trains per hour at peak times by 2025.

This gives a 2025 capacity of 24,666 pph in each direction.

Dividing  the 24,666 by 33 gives a train capacity of 750 passengers for a New Tube for London.

Thameslink

Thameslink will have a frequency of twenty-four tph between St. Pancras and Blackfriars stations.

Half of these will be twelve-car Class 700 trains with a capacity of 1754 and the other half will be eight-car trains with a capacity of 1146.

This gives a capacity of 34,800 pph in each direction.

It has been stated that Thameslink will be able to handle thirty tph in the future, which would raise the capacity to 43,500 pph in each direction.

Victoria

The Victoria Line is currently running at a frequency of thirty-six tph.

The current 2009 Stock trains, each have a capacity of 876 passengers.

This gives a capacity of 31,536 pph in each direction.

I think it is reasonable to assume that the Victoria Line is at capacity.

But I wouldn’t be surprised, that with station improvements, which would include a double-ended Walthamstow Central station, engineers on Dear Old Vicky managed to squeeze forty tph out of the old girl.

This would give a capacity of 35,040 pph in each direction.

I also wouldn’t rule out replacing the current trains with the New Tube for London, if the new trains have proved an outstanding success on all the other lines. But that probably wouldn’t be to well into the 2030s.

Current And Future Summary And Total Capacity

The current figures in passengers per hour can be summarised as follows.

  • Bakerloo – 14,000
  • Central – 32,550
  • Crossrail – 36,000
  • District – 20,760
  • East London – 13,440
  • Gospel Oak To Barking – 1,200
  • Hammersmith & City – 10,380
  • Jubilee – 26,250
  • Metropolitan – 16,048
  • Northern – 31,776
  • North London – 6,720
  • Piccadilly – 15,416
  • Thameslink – 34,800
  • Victoria – 31,536

This gives a total current capacity of 290,876

Reasonable projections for future figures can be summarised as follows.

  • Bakerloo – 17,500 (25% Increase) – New Tube for London/New Signalling
  • Central – 40,687 (25% Increase) – New Tube for London/New Signalling
  • Crossrail – 45,000 (25% Increase) – 30 tph from 24 tph
  • District – 27,680 (33% Increase) – New Signalling
  • East London – 16,800 (25% Increase) – 20 tph from 16 tph
  • Gospel Oak To Barking – 2,800 (133% Increase) – New larger trains
  • Hammersmith & City – 10,380
  • Jubilee – 30,187 (15% Increase) – New Tube for London
  • Metropolitan – 19257 (20% Increase) – New Signalling
  • Northern – 36,542 (15% Increase) – New Tube for London
  • North London – 10,080 (50% Increase)
  • Piccadilly – 24666 (60% Increase) – New Tube for London/New Signalling
  • Thameslink – 43,500(25% Increase) – 30 tph from 24 tph
  • Victoria – 31,536

This gives a total future capacity of 356615

Or a capacity increase of around twenty-three percent.

What Do These Figures Show?

My figures are very much rough estimates, based on what is proposed to happen.

New Tube for London

Five of the improvements in capacity require the replacement of the current trains with the New Tube for London. Three of these replacements will need new signalling and only the Piccadilly Line trains have actually been given the go-ahead.

If these train replacements and signalling are done sequentially, they would show these overall capacity improvements.

  • Piccadilly – 3.2%
  • Central – 2.6%
  • Bakerloo – 1.1%
  • Jubilee – 1.3%
  • Northern – 1.5%

Overall, these five projects will increase capacity by 10.2%

Some of these figures may appear small, compared to the Piccadilly and Central, but then with the exception of the Bakerloo, the other lines already have Automatic Train Control and high-frequency services.

The great thing about the effects of the New Tube for London on capacity, is that it is a rolling program and as each line is converted, more capacity will continue to be added, benefiting many parts of London.

Digital Signalling

Increasingly, lines in London are digitally-signalled with a degree of Automatic Train Control.

In a few years time, these lines will be controlled this way in Central London.

  • Central
  • Circle
  • Crossrail
  • District
  • Hamersmith & City
  • Jubilee
  • Metropolitan
  • Northern
  • Piccadilly
  • Thameslink
  • Victoria

All these lines are or will be carriers of high numbers of passengers.

In A North London Line With Digital Signalling, I looked at the benefits of installing digital signalling on the North London Line. This was my conclusion.

It looks to me, that they’ll come a time, when digital signalling to squeeze the required number of trains along the North London Line.

Digital signalling will have to be applied to all the other lines in my list to make the most of the train lines we have in London.

Bakerloo

These lines will be given new signalling

  • Bakerloo – 17,500 (25% Increase)
  • Central – 40,687 (25% Increase)
  • District – 27,680 (33% Increase)
  • Hammersmith & City – 10,380
  • Metropolitan – 19257 (20% Increase)
  • Piccadilly – 24666 (60% Increase)

Of the deep level Underground lines, the Bakerloo Line is well below the capacity in passengers per hour (pph) of the other lines, through Central London.

The easiest way to increase the capacity would be to increase the frequency of the trains, by the application of digital signalling.

Earlier in the section on the Piccadilly Line, I calculated the capacity of each New Tube for London on that line as 750.

So if the Bakerloo Line could handle the thirty-six tph currently running on the Victoria Line, this would give a capacity of 23,333 pph in each direction.

Like the Victoria Line, the Bakerloo is a simple double-track without junctions through Central London.

At the Southern end the line terminates in the two platforms at Elephant & Castle station. If Brixton and Walthamstow Central stations can handle thirty-six tph, then surely with modern trains and digital signalling, this number of trains can be handled at Elephant & Castle station.

But at Queen’s Park station, it’s more difficult.

This map from carto.metro.free.fr shows the track layou at Queens Park station.

Note.

  1. The Watford DC Line of the Overground is shown in orange and runs through Kilburn High Road and Queens Park stations.
  2. The Bakerloo Line is shown in brown and runs through Kilburn Park and Queens Park stations.
  3. There are reversing sidings to the West of Queens Park station for the Bakerloo Line.

The following services go through or terminate at Queens Park station.

  • Three tph between Euston and Watford Junction on the London Overground.
  • Six tph between Harrow & Wealdstone and Elephant & Castle on the Bakerloo Line.
  • Three tph between Stonebridge Park and Elephant & Castle on the Bakerloo Line.
  • Eleven tph between qQueens Park and Elephant & Castle on the Bakerloo Line.

It is also likely that the Overground service will go to four tph.

So this means that services will be as follows.

  • Four tph on the Watford DC Line run through Kilburn High Road station.
  • Twenty tph on the Bakerloo Line run through Kilburn Park station.
  • Nine tph on the Bakerloo Line run through Queens Park station.
  • Four tph on the Watford DC Line run through Queens Park station.
  • Eleven tph on the Bakerloo Line terminate at Queens Park station.

Thirteen tph will continue to various destinations towards Watford.

So how many trains could the double-track line between Queens Park and Wartford Junction stations handle?

Consider.

  • All services on the line are london Overground or London Underground.
  • There are no junctions, where services divide and join.
  • There is a turnback facility at Harrow & Wealdstone station, that can handle six tph.
  • The Overground trains are being replaced with Class 710 trains, which must be able to be made compatible with digital signalling.
  • Watford Junction station has four platforms connected to the Watford DC Line.
  • Good design should be able to make the stations step-free for both Class 710 trains and New Tube for London.
  • The Watford DC Line service, always seems to terminate in platform 9 at Euston.
  • London Underground have run thirty-six tph on the Victoria Line for about a year now.

I suspect that if the trains are digitally signalled, with a degree of Automatic Train Control, that there could be as many as thirty-six tph between Queens Park and Watford Junction stations.

I also think it is significant that the New Tube for London, specifies that the Bakerloo Line will run at twenty-seven tph. Why not more, if the theoretical capacity North of Queens Park is thirty-six tph?

But a single platform at Euston can probably handle six tph, so add 27 and 6 and you get 33 tph, which is the proposed core frequency of the Piccadilly Line.

Suppose too, that all Bakerloo services ran all the way to Watford Junction.

  • This would simplify operation at Queens Park, Stonebridge Park and Harrow & Waldstone.
  • Digital signalling would easily handle the frequency.
  • The platform arrangement at Queens Park would be unchanged, with Euston services on the outside and Bakerloo services in the middle.

Suppose too, that the Watford DC Line service were to be run by New Tube for London trains.

  • All platform heights could be the same.
  • All services would be step-free between train and platform.
  • Digital signalling could easily handle 33 tph along the route.

This last section has very much been speculation on my part, but it shows how it may be possible to create a service on the Bakerloo Line with the following characteristics.

  • Twenty-seven tph between Watford Junction and Elephant & Castle stations.
  • Six tph between Watford Junction and Euston stations.
  • All stations would be step-free between platform and train.
  • All trains would be identical New Tube for London trains.
  • All trains would run under Automatic Train Control, as does the Victoria Line.

Note, that I have said nothing about the Bakerloo Extension to Lewisham.

In my view, that extension does what it says on the tin and creates a new twenty-seven tph service between Elephant & Castle and Lewisham, which brings new services to an area of South-East London, where they are much needed.

Effectively, the Bakerloo Line could become two twenty-seven tph lines, that happen to connect back-to-back at Elephant & Castle station to enable cross-London journeys.

If we look at the Victoria Line, where the frequency has increased over the last few years by the addition of various improvements, I would not be surprised to see the frequency of twenty-seven tph increased.

After all London Underground’s engineers have been squeezing Dear Old Vicky for half a century, so they must know more tricks, than Paul Daniels knew at the peak of his success.

Crossrail

Taking the figures in the current table, Crossrail will add 36,000 pph in both directions across London, to a current capacity of 254,876.

This is a increase of fourteen percent on the current total capacity.

Increasing the frequency from twenty-four to thirty tph, adds another 9,000 pph in each direction, which is an increase of seventeen percent on the current total capacity.

It is very likely, that Crossrail has been designed, so that the train length can be changed as required.

The initial trains have been supplied as seven-car trains and when the line opens nine-car trains will be used.

I have read somewhere that the trains could be extended to ten cars, but eleven might be a bit difficult.

So what would be the effect on capacity of ten-car trains.

I will assume each ten-car train has a capacity of 1500 *10 / 9 = 1667.

This means that Crossrail capacity is increased as follows with ten-car trains.

  • 24 tph gives a capacity of 40,000 pph in each direction. Or sixteen percent on the total current capacity!
  • 30 tph gives a capacity of 50,000 pph in each direction. Or twenty percent on the total current capacity!

It looks like Crossrail might have been built to be expanded.

East London Line

It is my view that the East London Line will eventually be digitally signalled and there could be an increase in frequency from the proposed twenty tph.

It has been stated in the past, that the East London Line will eventually have a service based on six-car trains, running at a frequency of twenty-four tph.

Six-car trains could be a problem, as some of the stations like Canada Water, Shadwell, Wapping and Rotherhithe are a bit short for five-car trains and use selective door opening.

The hopefully high-capacity connection to Crossrail at Whitechapel station will surely drive more passengers to use the East London Line.

So increasing the frequency to twenty-four tph using digital signalling would be an option to increase the capacity.

There are four separate services on the East London Line.

  • Dalston Junction and New Cross
  • Dalston Junction and Clapham Junction
  • Highbury & Islington and Crystal Palace
  • Highbury & Islington and West Croydon

Each currently has a srvice of four tph, but it is planned that six tph will run to Crystal Palace and Clapham Junction before 2020.

Note that all services terminate in a dedicated platform, that is not shared with other services.

With modern signalling and good driving, these platforms should be able to handle six tph.

If all services went to six tph, that would mean twenty-four tph, through the core of the East London Line.

This would mean that the capacity of the line would be 20,160 pph in each direction, which would be a fifty percent increase on current capacity.

There may even be space for more trains through the core, as thirty tph is certainly possible with digital signalling. But where would the trains terminate?

Extra tunnel-capable Class 378 trains to run the extra services shouldn’t be a problem, as new Class 710 trains, will displace the older units from the Watford DC and the North London Lines.

North London Line

It is my view that the North London Line will eventually be digitally signalled to allow a more intensive passenger service than eight tph, amongst all the freight trains.

I have said that twelve tph between Willesden Junction and Stratford will be possible, within a few years.

But this could be the limit for the following reasons.

  • Terminating twelve tph in the two platforms at Stratford is probably possible but difficult.
  • Clapham Junction with one platform can probably handle six tph but no more.

Only Richmond has enough capacity for extra trains.

 

Conclusion

It looks to me that digital signalling and well-designed new trains can improve the capacity across London. Or Liverpool, Newcastle or Berlin to name just three major cities.

 

 

 

October 4, 2018 Posted by | Transport | , , , , , , , , | Leave a comment